Fibronectin binding modulates CXCL11 activity and facilitates wound healing.
ABSTRACT: Engineered biomatrices offer the potential to recapitulate the regenerative microenvironment, with important implications in tissue repair. In this context, investigation of the molecular interactions occurring between growth factors, cytokines and extracellular matrix (ECM) has gained increasing interest. Here, we sought to investigate the possible interactions between the ECM proteins fibronectin (FN) and fibrinogen (Fg) with the CXCR3 ligands CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11, which are expressed during wound healing. New binding interactions were observed and characterized. Heparin-binding domains within Fg (residues 15-66 of the ? chain, Fg ?15-66) and FN (FNI1-5, but not FNIII12-14) were involved in binding to CXCL10 and CXCL11 but not CXCL9. To investigate a possible influence of FN and Fg interactions with CXCL11 in mediating its role during re-epithelialization, we investigated human keratinocyte migration in vitro and wound healing in vivo in diabetic db/db mice. A synergistic effect on CXCL11-induced keratinocyte migration was observed when cells were treated with CXCL11 in combination with FN in a transmigration assay. Moreover, wound healing was enhanced in full thickness excisional wounds treated with fibrin matrices functionalized with FN and containing CXCL11. These findings highlight the importance of the interactions occurring between cytokines and ECM and point to design concepts to develop functional matrices for regenerative medicine.
Project description:Chemokines-mediated neuroinflammation in the spinal cord plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Chemokine CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 have been identified as a same subfamily chemokine which bind to CXC chemokine receptor 3 to exert functions. Our recent work found that CXCL10 is upregulated in spinal astrocytes after spinal nerve ligation (SNL) and acts on chemokine receptor CXCR3 on neurons to contribute to central sensitization and neuropathic pain, but less is known about CXCL9 and CXCL11 in the maintenance of neuropathic pain. Here, we report that CXCL9 and CXCL11, same as CXCL10, were increased in spinal astrocytes after SNL. Surprisingly, inhibition of CXCL9 or CXCL11 by spinal injection of shRNA lentivirus did not attenuate SNL-induced neuropathic pain. In addition, intrathecal injection of CXCL9 and CXCL11 did not produce hyperalgesia or allodynia behaviors, and neither of them induced ERK activation, a marker of central sensitization. Whole-cell patch clamp recording on spinal neurons showed that CXCL9 and CXCL11 enhanced both excitatory synaptic transmission and inhibitory synaptic transmission, whereas CXCL10 only produced an increase in excitatory synaptic transmission. These results suggest that, although the expression of CXCL9 and CXCL11 are increased after SNL, they may not contribute to the maintenance of neuropathic pain.
Project description:C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) is a G protein-coupled receptor for three ligands which are C-X-C motif chemokine 9 (CXCL9), CXCL10, and CXCL11 . Previously we have reported that CXCL10 promotes pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and forms positive feedback loop , . In the present study, we described mRNA expression of CXCL9 and CXCL11 under CXCL10 stimuli in the presence or absence of CXCR3 antagonist, JN-2 in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and CD4+ T cells. In addition, we examined pro-inflammatory cytokine expression under CXCL9 or CXCL11 stimuli in BMMs and CD4+ T cells.
Project description:Chemokines and their receptors function in the recruitment and activation of cells of the immune system to sites of inflammation. As such, chemokines play an important role in mediating pathophysiological events during microbial infection. In particular, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 and their cognate receptor CXCR3 have been associated with the clinical course of several infectious diseases, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and influenza. While CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 share the same receptor and have overlapping functions, each can also have unique activity in host defense. The lack of a preferred characterized animal model for SARS has brought our attention to ferrets, which have been used for years in influenza studies. The lack of immunological reagents for ferrets prompted us to clone CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11 and CXCR3 and, in the case of CXCL10, to express the gene as a recombinant protein. In this study we demonstrate that endogenous ferret CXCL10 exhibits similar mRNA expression patterns in the lungs of deceased SARS patients and ferrets experimentally infected with SARS coronavirus. This study therefore represents an important step towards development of the ferret as a model for the role of CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11:CXCR3 axis in severe viral infections.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by varying degrees of lung inflammation and/or fibrosis. We investigated biomarkers to infer whether patients with collagen vascular diseases associated ILD (CVD-ILD) and interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) benefit from immunosuppressive therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We retrospectively investigated patients with CVD-ILD, IPAF, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) between June 2013 and May 2017 at our department. First, we assessed differences in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of cytokines between groups. Second, we assessed the associations of patient's clinical variables with serum and BALF levels of those cytokines that were different between groups. Finally, we assessed the associations of diagnosis and response to immunosuppressive therapy with serum levels of those cytokines that were different between groups. RESULTS:We included 102 patients (51 with IPF, 35 with IPAF, and 16 with CVD-ILD). Serum and BALF levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 were significantly elevated in patients with IPAF or CVD-ILD compared with those in patients with IPF. BALF levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 were correlated with the percentages of lymphocytes and macrophages in BALF. Serum levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 were correlated with BALF levels. Serum levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 were correlated C-reactive protein, percent predicted forced vital capacity, alveolar-arterial oxygen difference, and the percentages of lymphocytes and macrophages in BALF. Serum levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 showed moderate accuracy to distinguish patients with CVD-ILD from those with IPAF and IPF. Pre-treatment serum levels of CXCL9 and CXCL11 showed strong positive correlations with the annual forced vital capacity changes in patients with IPAF and CVD-ILD treated with immunosuppressive drugs. CONCLUSIONS:Serum CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 are potential biomarkers for autoimmune inflammation and predictors of the immunosuppressive therapy responses in ILD with background autoimmunity.
Project description:The Th1-associated chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 coordinate migration of CXCR3(+) Th1 cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the innate immune system in stimulating chemokine expression in an experimental model of dry eye and bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immunity. Desiccating stress (DS) induced very early (6 h) expression and production of Th1-associated chemokines in cornea and conjunctiva of C57BL/6 and RAG1 knockout (KO) mice, demonstrating that chemokine expression does not require innate T cells. We then demonstrated that activating the innate immune system prior to adoptive transfer of T cells to RAG1KO mice increased disease severity. Interestingly, lack of induction of chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 in IFN-?KO mice provided evidence that their expression requires IFN-? for induction. Treatment of RAG1KO mice with anti-NK1.1 prevented the increase of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 in response to DS, compared with isotype controls. Additionally, DS increased the expression of NKG2D in the conjunctiva. The expression of the NKG2D ligand, retinoic acid early inducible gene 1, also increased at the ocular surface at both the protein and gene levels. Neutralization of NKG2D at the ocular surface decreased the expression of CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and IFN-?. In summary, upregulation of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 expression in experimental dry eye is T cell-independent, requiring IFN-?-producing NKG2D(+) NK cells that are activated in response to DS-induced stress signals. This study provides insight into the events that trigger the initial immune response in dry eye pathology.
Project description:CXCL9-11 polymorphisms are related to various infectious diseases, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this study, we analyzed the association between CXCL9-11 polymorphisms and liver fibrosis in HCV-infected patients.We performed a cross-sectional study in 389 patients who were genotyped for CXCL9-11 polymorphisms (CXCL9 rs10336, CXCL10 rs3921, and CXCL11 rs4619915) using the Sequenom's MassARRAY platform. The primary outcome variable was the liver stiffness measurement (LSM). We established three cut-offs of LSM: LSM ≥ 7.1 kPa (F ≥ 2-significant fibrosis), LSM ≥ 9.5 kPa (F ≥ 3-advanced fibrosis), and LSM ≥ 12.5 kPa (F4-cirrhosis).Recessive, overdominant and codominant models of inheritance showed significant values, but the overdominant model was the best fitting our data. In this case, CXCL9 rs10336 AG, CXCL10 rs3921 CG and CXCL11 rs4619915 AG were mainly associated with lower values of LSM [(adjusted GMR (aGMR) = 0.85 (p = 0.005), aGMR = 0.84 (p = 0.003), and aGMR = 0.84 (p = 0.003), respectively]. Patients with CXCL9 rs10336 AG genotype had lower odds of significant fibrosis (LSM ≥ 7.1 kPa) [adjusted OR (aOR) = 0.59 (p = 0.016)], advanced fibrosis (LSM ≥ 9.5 kPa) [aOR = 0.54 (p = 0.010)], and cirrhosis (LSM ≥ 12.5 kPa) [aOR = 0.56 (p = 0.043)]. Patients with CXCL10 rs3921 CG or CXCL11 rs4619915 AG genotypes had lower odds of significant fibrosis (LSM ≥ 7.1 kPa) [adjusted OR (aOR) = 0.56 (p = 0.008)], advanced fibrosis (LSM ≥ 9.5 kPa) [aOR = 0.55 (p = 0.013)], and cirrhosis (LSM ≥ 12.5 kPa) [aOR = 0.57 (p = 0.051)]. Additionally, CXCL9-11 polymorphisms were related to lower liver stiffness under a codominant model of inheritance, being the heterozygous genotypes also protective against hepatic fibrosis. In the recessive inheritance model, the CXCL9 rs10336 AA, CXCL10 rs3921 CC and CXCL11 rs4619915 AA were associated with higher LSM values [(adjusted GMR (aGMR) = 1.19 (p = 0.030), aGMR = 1.21 (p = 0.023), and aGMR = 1.21 (p = 0.023), respectively]. Moreover, patients with CXCL9 rs10336 AA genotype had higher odds of significant fibrosis (LSM ≥ 7.1 kPa) [adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.83 (p = 0.044)] and advanced fibrosis (LSM ≥ 9.5 kPa) [aOR = 1.85 (p = 0.045)]. Furthermore, patients with CXCL10 rs3921 CC or CXCL11 rs4619915 AA genotypes had higher odds of advanced fibrosis (LSM ≥ 9.5 kPa) [aOR = 1.89 (p = 0.038)].CXCL9-11 polymorphisms were related to likelihood of having liver fibrosis in HCV-infected patients. Our data suggest that CXCL9-11 polymorphisms may play a significant role against the progression of CHC and could help prioritize antiviral therapy.
Project description:Despite the crucial role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in directing cell fate in healthy and diseased tissues--particularly in development, wound healing, tissue regeneration and cancer--the mechanisms that direct the assembly and regulate hierarchical architectures of ECM are poorly understood. Collagen I matrix assembly in vivo requires active fibronectin (Fn) fibrillogenesis by cells. Here we exploit Fn-FRET probes as mechanical strain sensors and demonstrate that collagen I fibres preferentially co-localize with more-relaxed Fn fibrils in the ECM of fibroblasts in cell culture. Fibre stretch-assay studies reveal that collagen I's Fn-binding domain is responsible for the mechano-regulated interaction. Furthermore, we show that Fn-collagen interactions are reciprocal: relaxed Fn fibrils act as multivalent templates for collagen assembly, but once assembled, collagen fibres shield Fn fibres from being stretched by cellular traction forces. Thus, in addition to the well-recognized, force-regulated, cell-matrix interactions, forces also tune the interactions between different structural ECM components.
Project description:The chemokines CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10, and CXCL11/I-TAC regulate lymphocyte chemotaxis, mediate vascular pericyte proliferation, and act as angiostatic agents, thus inhibiting tumor growth. These multiple activities are apparently mediated by a unique G protein-coupled receptor, termed CXCR3. The chemokine CXCL4/PF4 shares several activities with CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, including a powerful angiostatic effect, but its specific receptor is still unknown. Here, we describe a distinct, previously unrecognized receptor named CXCR3-B, derived from an alternative splicing of the CXCR3 gene that mediates the angiostatic activity of CXCR3 ligands and also acts as functional receptor for CXCL4. Human microvascular endothelial cell line-1 (HMEC-1), transfected with either the known CXCR3 (renamed CXCR3-A) or CXCR3-B, bound CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, whereas CXCL4 showed high affinity only for CXCR3-B. Overexpression of CXCR3-A induced an increase of survival, whereas overexpression of CXCR3-B dramatically reduced DNA synthesis and up-regulated apoptotic HMEC-1 death through activation of distinct signal transduction pathways. Remarkably, primary cultures of human microvascular endothelial cells, whose growth is inhibited by CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL4, expressed CXCR3-B, but not CXCR3-A. Finally, monoclonal antibodies raised to selectively recognize CXCR3-B reacted with endothelial cells from neoplastic tissues, providing evidence that CXCR3-B is also expressed in vivo and may account for the angiostatic effects of CXC chemokines.
Project description:Chemokines play important roles in homeostasis and inflammatory processes. While their roles in leukocyte recruitment are well-appreciated, chemokines play additional roles in the body, including mediating or regulating angiogenesis, tumor metastasis and wound healing. In this opinion article, we focus on the role of CXCR3 and its ligands in fibrotic processes. We emphasize differences of the effects of each ligand, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11, on fibroblasts in different tissues of the body. We include discussions of differences in signaling pathways that may account for protective or pro-fibrotic effects of each ligand in different experimental models and ex vivo analysis of human tissues. Our goal is to highlight potential reasons why there are disparate findings in different models, and to suggest ways in which this chemokine axis could be manipulated for the treatment of fibrosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: CXC chemokines are induced by inflammatory stimuli in epithelial cells and some, like MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10 and I-TAC/CXCL11, are antibacterial for Streptococcus pyogenes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SpeB from S. pyogenes degrades a wide range of chemokines (i.e. IP10/CXCL10, I-TAC/CXCL11, PF4/CXCL4, GROalpha/CXCL1, GRObeta/CXCL2, GROgamma/CXCL3, ENA78/CXCL5, GCP-2/CXCL6, NAP-2/CXCL7, SDF-1/CXCL12, BCA-1/CXCL13, BRAK/CXCL14, SRPSOX/CXCL16, MIP-3alpha/CCL20, Lymphotactin/XCL1, and Fractalkine/CX3CL1), has no activity on IL-8/CXCL8 and RANTES/CCL5, partly degrades SRPSOX/CXCL16 and MIP-3alpha/CCL20, and releases a 6 kDa CXCL9 fragment. CXCL10 and CXCL11 loose receptor activating and antibacterial activities, while the CXCL9 fragment does not activate the receptor CXCR3 but retains its antibacterial activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SpeB destroys most of the signaling and antibacterial properties of chemokines expressed by an inflamed epithelium. The exception is CXCL9 that preserves its antibacterial activity after hydrolysis, emphasizing its role as a major antimicrobial on inflamed epithelium.