Multiplexed and Switchable Release of Distinct Fluids from Microneedle Platforms via Conducting Polymer Nanoactuators for Potential Drug Delivery.
ABSTRACT: We report on the development of a microneedle-based multiplexed drug delivery actuator that enables the controlled delivery of multiple therapeutic agents. Two individually-addressable channels on a single microneedle array, each paired with its own reservoir and conducting polymer nanoactuator, are used to deliver various permutations of two unique chemical species. Upon application of suitable redox potentials to the selected actuator, the conducting polymer is able to undergo reversible volume changes, thereby serving to release a model chemical agent in a controlled fashion through the corresponding microneedle channels. Time-lapse videos offer direct visualization and characterization of the membrane switching capability and, along with calibration investigations, confirm the ability of the device to alternate the delivery of multiple reagents from individual microneedles of the array with higher precision and temporal resolution than conventional drug delivery actuators. Analytical modeling offers prediction of the volumetric flow rate through a single microneedle and accordingly can be used to assist in the design of subsequent microneedle arrays. The robust solid-state design and lack of mechanical components circumvent reliability issues that challenge fragile conventional microelectromechanical drug delivery devices. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the potential of the drug delivery actuator system to aid in the rapid administration of multiple therapeutic agents and indicates the potential to counteract diverse biomedical conditions.
Project description:This paper demonstrates flexible and stretchable microneedle patches that combine soft and flexible base substrates with hard and sharp stainless steel microneedles. An elastomeric polymer base enables conformal contact between the microneedle patch and the complex topography and texture of the underlying skin, while robust and sharp stainless steel microneedles reliably pierce the outer layers of the skin. The flexible microneedle patches have been realized by magnetically assembling short stainless steel microneedles into a flexible polymer supporting base. In our experimental investigation, the microneedle patches were applied to human skin and an excellent adaptation of the patch to the wrinkles and deformations of the skin was verified, while at the same time the microneedles reliably penetrate the surface of the skin. The unobtrusive flexible and stretchable microneedle patches have great potential for transdermal biointerfacing in a variety of emerging applications such as transdermal drug delivery, bioelectric treatments and wearable bio-electronics for health and fitness monitoring.
Project description:This publication proposes the use of an elasto-capillarity-driven self-assembly for fabricating a microscale merged-tip structure out of a variety of biocompatible UV-curable polymers for use as a microneedle platform. In addition, the novel merged-tip microstructure constitutes a new class of microneedles, which incorporates the convergence of biocompatible polymer micropillars, leading to the formation of a sharp tip and an open cavity capable of both liquid trapping and volume control. When combined with biocompatible photopolymer micropillar arrays fabricated with photolithography, elasto-capillarity-driven self-assembly provides a means for producing a complex microneedle-like structure without the use of micromolding or micromachining. This publication also explores and defines the design rules by which several fabrication aspects, such as micropillar dimensions, shapes, pattern array configurations, and materials, can be manipulated to produce a customizable microneedle array with controllable cavity volumes, fracture points, and merge profiles. In addition, the incorporation of a modular through-hole micropore membrane base was also investigated as a method for constitutive payload delivery and fluid-sampling functionalities. The flexibility and fabrication simplicity of the merged-tip microneedle platform holds promise in transdermal drug delivery applications.
Project description:Microneedle devices for transdermal drug delivery have recently become an attractive method to overcome the diffusion-limiting epidermis and effectively transport therapeutics to the body. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of highly reproducible and completely dissolvable polymer microneedles on flexible water-soluble substrates. These biocompatible microneedles (made by using a soft lithography process known as PRINT) showed efficacy in piercing both murine and human skin samples and delivering a fluorescent drug surrogate to the tissue.
Project description:Drug delivery through the skin by transdermal patches has a long history. Subsequent growth of transdermal science proved prominent utility of transdermal systems meant for passive diffusion of the drug. It was followed by the development of iontophoresis- and sonophoresis-based transdermal delivery systems. Microneedle array has now caught attention of the investigators owing to its immense utility in transdermal delivery of very large molecules with ionic and hydrophilic nature. In this technical note, we present the current scenario, applications, and recent advances in microneedle array-based delivery of the most critical molecules through the skin. The application of microneedle has widely been investigated, and these technologies are being developed for the delivery of bio-therapeutics, bio-macromolecules, insulin, growth hormones, immunobiologicals, proteins, siRNA, and peptides. Potential of microneedles to transform the global transdermal market is highlighted in terms of the success rate of the microneedle technologies in clinical trials reaching to the global market. The arrival of the commercial microneedle-based products in the market is highly anticipated as they have potential to portray remarkable impact on clinical medicine in near future.
Project description:In dissolving microneedle (DMN)-mediated therapy, complete and rapid delivery of DMNs is critical for the desired efficacy. Traditional patch-based DMN delivery, however, may fail due to incomplete delivery from insufficient skin insertion or rapid separation of microneedles due to their strong bond to the backing film. Here, we introduce the Troy microneedle, which was created by cyclic contact and drying on the pillar (CCDP), and which enabled simultaneous complete and rapid delivery of DMN. This CCDP process could be flexibly repeated to achieve a specific desired drug dose in a DMN. We evaluated DMN separation using agarose gel, and the Troy microneedle achieved more complete and rapid separation than other, more deeply dipped DMN, primarily because of the Troy's minimal junction between the DMN and pillar. When Troy microneedles were applied to pig cadaver skin, it took only 15 s for over 90% of encapsulated rhodamine B to be delivered, compared to 2 h with application of a traditional DMN patch. In vivo skin penetration studies demonstrated rapid DMN-separation of Troy microneedles still in solid form before dissolution. The Troy microneedle overcomes critical issues associated with the low penetration efficiency of flat patch-based DMN and provides an innovative route for DMN-mediated therapy, combining patient convenience with the desire drug efficacy.
Project description:Microneedle-based microfluidic systems have a great potential to become well-accepted medical devices for simple, accurate, and painless drug delivery and lab-on-a-chip diagnostics. In this work, we report on a novel hybrid approach combining femtosecond direct laser written microneedles with femtosecond laser generated microfluidic channels providing an important step towards versatile medical point-of-care systems. Hollow microneedle arrays are fabricated by a laser system designed for two-photon polymerization applications. Compression tests of two different types of truncated cone-shaped microneedle arrays prepared from OrmoComp® give information about the microneedle mechanical strength, and the results are compared to skin insertion forces. Three-dimensional microchannels are directly created inside PMMA bulk material by an ultrashort pulse laser system with vertical channels having adjustable cross-sectional areas, which allow attaching of microneedles to the microfluidic system. A comprehensive parameter study varying pulse duration and repetition rate is performed on two-photon polymerization to identify an optimal laser power range for fabricating microneedles using the same pulse duration and repetition rate as for microchannels. This addresses the advantage of a single laser system process that overcomes complex fabrication methods. A proof of concept flow test with a rhodamine B dye solution in distilled water demonstrates that the combination of microneedles and microchannels qualifies for microfluidic injection and extraction applications.
Project description:Biodegradable chitosan-magnetic graphene quantum dot (MGQD) nanocomposites were prepared and investigated for the release of small and large molecular weight (MWt) therapeutics from detachable and non-detachable biodegradable microneedle arrays. The presence of MGQDs in chitosan increased the electrical conductivity and biodegradation rate of chitosan while maintaining its mechanical properties. The detachable microneedle arrays were created by including a water-soluble ring of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at the base of the microneedle, which enabled the rapid detachment of the microneedle shaft from the base. The PEG ring did not impede the microneedle array performance, with mechanical properties and a drug release profile of low MWt lidocaine hydrochloride similar to microneedle arrays without the ring. Without the PEG ring, the chitosan-MGQD microneedles were electrically conductive and allowed for electrically stimulated release of large MWt therapeutics which was challenging without the stimulation. These results demonstrate that chitosan nanocomposites containing MGQDs with intrinsic photoluminescent and supermagnetic properties are promising materials for developing multifunctional microneedles for targeted and tracked transdermal drug delivery.
Project description:Microneedle delivery of nucleic acids, in particular plasmid DNA (pDNA), to the skin represents a potential new approach for the clinical management of genetic skin diseases and cutaneous cancers, and for intracutaneous genetic immunisation. In this study excised human skin explants were used to investigate and optimise key parameters that will determine stable and effective microneedle-facilitated pDNA delivery. These include (i) high dose-loading of pDNA onto microneedle surfaces, (ii) stability and functionality of the coated pDNA, (iii) skin penetration capability of pDNA-coated microneedles, and (iv) efficient gene expression in human skin. Optimisation of a dip-coating method enabled significant increases in the loading capacity, up to 100?g of pDNA per 5-microneedle array. Coated microneedles were able to reproducibly perforate human skin at low (<1N) insertion forces. The physical stability of the coated pDNA was partially compromised on storage, although this was improved through the addition of saccharide excipients without detriment to the biological functionality of pDNA. The pDNA-coated microneedles facilitated reporter gene expression in viable human skin. The efficiency of gene expression from coated microneedles will depend upon suitable DNA loading, efficient and reproducible skin puncture and rapid in situ dissolution of the plasmid at the site of delivery.
Project description:A wearable adhesive skin patch for transdermal drug delivery is developed with bendable microneedles, dry adhesive and triboelectric energy harvester (TEH). The bendable microneedle array can overcome the needle breakage issue. The dry adhesive can realize a conformal attachment. The TEH can generate power when attached on flat skin or joint to power active components to be integrated in the future.
Project description:Influenza prophylaxis would benefit from a vaccination method enabling simplified logistics and improved immunogenicity without the dangers posed by hypodermic needles. Here we introduce dissolving microneedle patches for influenza vaccination using a simple patch-based system that targets delivery to skin's antigen-presenting cells. Microneedles were fabricated using a biocompatible polymer encapsulating inactivated influenza virus vaccine for insertion and dissolution in the skin within minutes. Microneedle vaccination generated robust antibody and cellular immune responses in mice that provided complete protection against lethal challenge. Compared to conventional intramuscular injection, microneedle vaccination resulted in more efficient lung virus clearance and enhanced cellular recall responses after challenge. These results suggest that dissolving microneedle patches can provide a new technology for simpler and safer vaccination with improved immunogenicity that could facilitate increased vaccination coverage.