Overcoming intrinsic multidrug resistance in melanoma by blocking the mitochondrial respiratory chain of slow-cycling JARID1B(high) cells.
ABSTRACT: Despite success with BRAFV600E inhibitors, therapeutic responses in patients with metastatic melanoma are short-lived because of the acquisition of drug resistance. We identified a mechanism of intrinsic multidrug resistance based on the survival of a tumor cell subpopulation. Treatment with various drugs, including cisplatin and vemurafenib, uniformly leads to enrichment of slow-cycling, long-term tumor-maintaining melanoma cells expressing the H3K4-demethylase JARID1B/KDM5B/PLU-1. Proteome-profiling revealed an upregulation in enzymes of mitochondrial oxidative-ATP-synthesis (oxidative phosphorylation) in this subpopulation. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration blocked the emergence of the JARID1B(high) subpopulation and sensitized melanoma cells to therapy, independent of their genotype. Our findings support a two-tiered approach combining anticancer agents that eliminate rapidly proliferating melanoma cells with inhibitors of the drug-resistant slow-cycling subpopulation.
Project description:Melanomas are highly heterogeneous tumors, but the biological significance of their different subpopulations is not clear. Using the H3K4 demethylase JARID1B (KDM5B/PLU-1/RBP2-H1) as a biomarker, we have characterized a small subpopulation of slow-cycling melanoma cells that cycle with doubling times of >4 weeks within the rapidly proliferating main population. Isolated JARID1B-positive melanoma cells give rise to a highly proliferative progeny. Knockdown of JARID1B leads to an initial acceleration of tumor growth followed by exhaustion which suggests that the JARID1B-positive subpopulation is essential for continuous tumor growth. Expression of JARID1B is dynamically regulated and does not follow a hierarchical cancer stem cell model because JARID1B-negative cells can become positive and even single melanoma cells irrespective of selection are tumorigenic. These results suggest a new understanding of melanoma heterogeneity with tumor maintenance as a dynamic process mediated by a temporarily distinct subpopulation.
Project description:The PLU-1/JARID1B nuclear protein, which is upregulated in breast cancers, belongs to the ARID family of DNA binding proteins and has strong transcriptional repression activity. To identify the target genes regulated by PLU-1/JARID1B, we overexpressed or silenced the human PLU-1/JARID1B gene in human mammary epithelial cells by using adenovirus and RNA interference systems, respectively, and then applied microarray analysis to identify candidate genes. A total of 100 genes showed inversely correlated differential expression in the two systems. Most of the candidate genes were downregulated by the overexpression of PLU-1/JARID1B, including the MT genes, the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1, and genes involved in the regulation of the M phase of the mitotic cell cycle. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that the metallothionein 1H (MT1H), -1F, and -1X genes are direct transcriptional targets of PLU-1/JARID1B in vivo. Furthermore, the level of trimethyl H3K4 of the MT1H promoter was increased following silencing of PLU-1/JARID1B. Both the PLU-1/JARID1B protein and the ARID domain selectively bound CG-rich DNA. The GCACA/C motif, which is abundant in metallothionein promoters, was identified as a consensus binding sequence of the PLU-1/JARID1B ARID domain. As expected from the microarray data, cells overexpressing PLU-1/JARID1B have an impaired G(2)/M checkpoint. Our study provides insight into the molecular function of the breast cancer-associated transcriptional repressor PLU-1/JARID1B.
Project description:Inactivation of the tumor suppressor neurofibromin 1 (NF1) presents a newly characterized melanoma subtype, for which currently no targeted therapies are clinically available. Preclinical studies suggest that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitors are likely to provide benefit, albeit with limited efficacy as a single agent; therefore, there is a need for rationally designed combination therapies. Here, we evaluate the combination of the ERK inhibitor SCH772984 and the biguanide phenformin. A combination of both compounds showed potent synergy in cell viability assays and cooperatively induced apoptosis. Treatment with both drugs was required to fully suppress mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling, a known effector of NF1 loss. Mechanistically, SCH772984 increased the oxygen consumption rate, indicating that these cells relied more on oxidative phosphorylation upon treatment. Consistently, SCH772984 increased expression of the mitochondrial transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1-?. In contrast, cotreatment with phenformin, an inhibitor of complex I of the respiratory chain, decreased the oxygen consumption rate. SCH772984 also promoted the expansion of the H3K4 demethylase KDM5B (also known as JARID1B)-positive subpopulation of melanoma cells, which are slow-cycling and treatment-resistant. Importantly, phenformin suppressed this KDM5B-positive population, which reduced the emergence of SCH772984-resistant clones in long-term cultures. Our results warrant the clinical investigation of this combination therapy in patients with NF1 mutant melanoma.
Project description:Despite recent success in melanoma therapy, most patients with metastatic disease still undergo deadly progression. We have identified a novel mechanism of multidrug resistance allowing a small subpopulation of slow-cycling melanoma cells to survive based on elevated oxidative bioenergy metabolism. In this study, we asked whether such slow-cycling cells could be eliminated by co-treatment with the copper-chelator elesclomol. Elesclomol-copper complexes can cause oxidative stress by disruption of the mitochondrial respiration chain or by indirect non-mitochondrial induction of reactive oxygen species. We have found that elesclomol effectively kills the slow-cycling subpopulation and prevents the selective enrichment for slow-cycling cells, which usually results after monotreatment. We hypothesize that elesclomol could overcome the multidrug resistance of slow-cycling melanoma cells and prevent tumor repopulation in melanoma patients in future.
Project description:The full length human histone 3 lysine 4 demethylase KDM5B (PLU-1/Jarid1B) has been studied using Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, homology modelling, sequence analysis, small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy. This first structure on an intact multi-domain Jumonji histone demethylase reveal that the so-called PLU region, in the central region of KDM5B, has a curved ?-helical three-dimensional structure, that acts as a rigid linker between the catalytic core and a region comprising four ?-helices, a loop comprising the PHD2 domain, two large intrinsically disordered loops and the PHD3 domain in close proximity. The dumbbell shaped and curved KDM5B architecture observed by electron microscopy is complementary to the nucleosome surface and has a striking overall similarity to that of the functionally related KDM1A/CoREST complex. This could suggest that there are similarities between the demethylation mechanisms employed by the two histone 3 lysine 4 demethylases at the molecular level.
Project description:H3K4 methylation is associated with active transcription and in combination with H3K27me3 thought to keep genes regulating development in a poised state. The contribution of enzymes regulating trimethylation of lysine 4 at histone 3 (H3K4me3) levels to embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal and differentiation is just starting to emerge. Here, we show that the H3K4me2/3 histone demethylase Jarid1b (Kdm5b/Plu1) is dispensable for ESC self-renewal, but essential for ESC differentiation along the neural lineage. By genome-wide location analysis, we demonstrate that Jarid1b localizes predominantly to transcription start sites of genes encoding developmental regulators, of which more than half are also bound by Polycomb group proteins. Virtually all Jarid1b target genes are associated with H3K4me3 and depletion of Jarid1b in ESCs leads to a global increase of H3K4me3 levels. During neural differentiation, Jarid1b-depleted ESCs fail to efficiently silence lineage-inappropriate genes, specifically stem and germ cell genes. Our results delineate an essential role for Jarid1b-mediated transcriptional control during ESC differentiation.
Project description:Embryonic development is tightly regulated by transcription factors and chromatin-associated proteins. H3K4me3 is associated with active transcription and H3K27me3 with gene repression, while the combination of both keeps genes required for development in a plastic state. Here we show that deletion of the H3K4me2/3 histone demethylase Jarid1b (Kdm5b/Plu1) results in major neonatal lethality due to respiratory failure. Jarid1b knockout embryos have several neural defects including disorganized cranial nerves, defects in eye development, and increased incidences of exencephaly. Moreover, in line with an overlap of Jarid1b and Polycomb target genes, Jarid1b knockout embryos display homeotic skeletal transformations typical for Polycomb mutants, supporting a functional interplay between Polycomb proteins and Jarid1b. To understand how Jarid1b regulates mouse development, we performed a genome-wide analysis of histone modifications, which demonstrated that normally inactive genes encoding developmental regulators acquire aberrant H3K4me3 during early embryogenesis in Jarid1b knockout embryos. H3K4me3 accumulates as embryonic development proceeds, leading to increased expression of neural master regulators like Pax6 and Otx2 in Jarid1b knockout brains. Taken together, these results suggest that Jarid1b regulates mouse development by protecting developmental genes from inappropriate acquisition of active histone modifications.
Project description:Background & aims:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has high potential for recurrence, even in curative operative cases. Although several molecular-targeting drugs have been applied to recurrent HCC, their effectiveness has been limited. This study therefore aims to develop novel cancer drugs through protein methylation. Methods:We investigated the role of KDM5B/JARID1B, a member of JmjC histone demethylase, in HCC. Expression profiles of KDM5B were examined by immunohistochemical analysis in 105 HCC clinical tissue samples. To examine functional effects of KDM5B using HCC cell lines, we performed loss-of-function analysis treated with KDM5B-specific small interfering RNAs (siKDM5B). Results:All HCC cases were divided into KDM5B-positive expression group (n=54) and negative expression group (n=51). In five-year overall survival, KDM5B-positive group had poorer prognosis than KDM5B-negative (61% vs 77%, p=0.047). KDM5B-positive group had much poorer prognosis than that of the negative group, especially in HCC derived from persistent infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (54% vs 78%, p=0.015). Multivariate analysis indicated that KDM5B was the strongest risk factor for poor prognosis, especially in HCC derived from HBV/HCV. Inhibition of KDM5B could significantly suppress HCC cell proliferation through no promotion from G1 to S phase. Real-time PCR and Western blotting demonstrated that E2F1/E2F2 were downstream genes of KDM5B. Conclusions:Overexpression of KDM5B results in poor prognosis in HCC that especially derived from HBV/HCV. KDM5B appears to be an ideal target for the development of anti-cancer drugs.
Project description:Histone demethylase JARID1B plays several context dependent roles in epigenetic regulation of cellular differentiation in normal development and is highly expressed in multiple human cancers. The protein is a strong transcriptional repressor capable of downregulating numerous genes. There are three splicing isoforms of JARID1B, however the links between the protein structure and function are not clear. The expression pattern of JARID1B in human melanoma seems to be different from observed in other cancers. Moreover, up to now no data on the impact of JARID1B expression in cutaneous melanoma on the patients' prognosis have been reported.We investigated immunohistochemically the association of intratumoral expression of total JARID1B protein and its RBP2-H1 isoform in primary and metastatic melanomas with prognosis for the patients.Expression of both total JARID1B protein and its RBP2-H1 variant was found in all the melanomas investigated. Our results indicate, however, that only high (above 90% of the cells) intratumoral expression of RBP2-H1 can be considered prognostic factor associated with worse overall survival of the patients.Such results if considered together with data demonstrating a switch to enhanced expression of RBP2-H1 at early stages of malignant transformation of melanocytes are in agreement with hypothetical crucial role of JARID1B in the course of melanoma development and progression and suggest that altered splicing of JARID1B may be important factor increasing melanoma aggressiveness.
Project description:The JmjC domain-containing H3K4 histone demethylase jumonji AT-rich interactive domain 1B (JARID1B) (also known as KDM5B and PLU1) is overexpressed in breast cancer and is a potential target for breast cancer treatment. To investigate the in vivo function of JARID1B, we developed Jarid1b(-/-) mice and characterized their phenotypes in detail. Unlike previously reported Jarid1b(-/-) strains, the majority of these Jarid1b(-/-) mice were viable beyond embryonic and neonatal stages. This allowed us to further examine phenotypes associated with the loss of JARID1B in pubertal development and pregnancy. These Jarid1b(-/-) mice exhibited decreased body weight, premature mortality, decreased female fertility, and delayed mammary gland development. Related to these phenotypes, JARID1B loss decreased serum estrogen level and reduced mammary epithelial cell proliferation in early puberty. In mammary epithelial cells, JARID1B loss diminished the expression of key regulators for mammary morphogenesis and luminal lineage specification, including FOXA1 and estrogen receptor ?. Mechanistically, JARID1B was required for GATA3 recruitment to the Foxa1 promoter to activate Foxa1 expression. These results indicate that JARID1B positively regulates mammary ductal development through both extrinsic and cell-autonomous mechanisms.