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Membrane targeting by APPL1 and APPL2: dynamic scaffolds that oligomerize and bind phosphoinositides.

ABSTRACT: Human adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 1 (APPL1) and adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 2 (APPL2) are homologous effectors of the small guanosine triphosphatase RAB5 that interact with a diverse set of receptors and signaling proteins and are proposed to function in endosome-mediated signaling. Herein, we investigated the membrane-targeting properties of the APPL1 and APPL2 Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR), pleckstrin homology (PH) and phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains. Coimmunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid studies demonstrated that full-length APPL proteins formed homooligomers and heterooligomers and that the APPL minimal BAR domains were necessary and sufficient for mediating APPL-APPL interactions. When fused to a fluorescent protein and overexpressed, all three domains (minimal BAR, PH and PTB) were targeted to cell membranes. Furthermore, full-length APPL proteins bound to phosphoinositides, and the APPL isolated PH or PTB domains were sufficient for in vitro phosphoinositide binding. Live cell imaging showed that full-length APPL-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusion proteins associated with cytosolic membrane structures that underwent movement, fusion and fission events. Overexpression of full-length APPL-YFP fusion proteins was sufficient to recruit endogenous RAB5 to enlarged APPL-associated membrane structures, although APPL1 was not necessary for RAB5 membrane targeting. Taken together, our findings suggest a role for APPL proteins as dynamic scaffolds that modulate RAB5-associated signaling endosomal membranes by their ability to undergo domain-mediated oligomerization, membrane targeting and phosphoinositide binding.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC3810297 | BioStudies | 2008-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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