Characterization of CpdC, a large-ring lactone-hydrolyzing enzyme from Pseudomonas sp. strain HI-70, and its use as a fusion tag facilitating overproduction of proteins in Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: There are few entries of carbon-carbon bond hydrolases (EC 3.7.1.-) in the ExPASy database. In microbes, these enzymes play an essential role in the metabolism of alicyclic or aromatic compounds as part of the global carbon cycle. CpdC is a ?-pentadecalactone hydrolase derived from the degradation pathway of cyclopentadecanol or cyclopentadecanone by Pseudomonas sp. strain HI-70. CpdC was purified to homogeneity and characterized. It is active as a dimer of 56,000 Da with a subunit molecular mass of 33,349. Although CpdC has the highest activity and reaction rate (kcat) toward ?-pentadecalactone, its catalytic efficiency favors lauryl lactone as a substrate. The melting temperature (Tm) of CpdC was estimated to be 50.9 ± 0.1°C. The half-life of CpdC at 35°C is several days. By virtue of its high level of expression in Escherichia coli, the intact CpdC-encoding gene and progressive 3'-end deletions were employed in the construction of a series of fusion plasmid system. Although we found them in inclusion bodies, proof-of-concept of overproduction of three microbial cutinases of which the genes were otherwise expressed poorly or not at all in E. coli was demonstrated. On the other hand, two antigenic proteins, azurin and MPT63, were readily produced in soluble form.
Project description:A novel BVMO encoding gene was identified from a draft genome sequence of a newly isolated strain of Dietzia. Analysis of the protein sequence revealed that it belongs to a group of BVMOs whose most characterized member is cyclopentadecanone monooxygenase (CPDMO). The gene was PCR amplified, cloned and successfully expressed in E. coli. The expressed recombinant enzyme was purified using metal affinity chromatography. Characterization of the purified enzyme revealed that it has a broad substrate scope and oxidized different compounds including substituted and unsubstituted alicyclic, bicyclic-, aliphatic-ketones, ketones with an aromatic moiety, and sulfides. The highest activities were measured for 2- and 3-methylcyclohexanone, phenylacetone, bicyclo-[3.2.0]-hept-2-en-6-one and menthone. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 7.5 and 35°C, a temperature at which its half-life was about 20 hours. The stability studies have shown that this enzyme is more stable than all other reported BVMOs except the phenylacetone monooxygenase from the thermophilic organism Thermobifida fusca.
Project description:Proteins that are actively secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis generate immune responses in the infected host. This has prompted the characterization of protein components of mycobacterial culture filtrates to develop subunit vaccines and immunodiagnostic reagents. Fractionation of filtrates of M. tuberculosis cultures has yielded an abundant protein called MPT63, which has an apparent molecular mass of 18 kDa. We report the molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the mpt63 gene, purification of recombinant MPT63 antigen from Escherichia coli cells, and serological characterization of MPT63. Nucleotide sequence analysis of mpt63 identified an open reading frame encoding a protein of 159 amino acids (aa) consisting of a 29-aa secretion signal peptide and a 130-aa mature MPT63 protein. Recombinant MPT63 protein, purified from E. coli cells, and native MPT63, purified from M. tuberculosis culture filtrates, were indistinguishable in serological assays. Thus, the recombinant protein constitutes a valuable reagent for immunological studies. MPT63 evoked humoral immune responses in guinea pigs infected with virulent M. tuberculosis by the aerosol route. The mpt63 gene is found only in species of the M. tuberculosis complex, as shown by DNA hybridization experiments. Moreover, polyclonal antibody against MPT63 does not cross-react with proteins of a common environmental mycobacterial species, Mycobacterium avium. The absence of cross-reactive epitopes makes MPT63 an attractive candidate as an M. tuberculosis complex-specific diagnostic reagent. In particular, evaluation of MPT63 as an M. tuberculosis complex-specific reagent for diagnostic skin testing is under way.
Project description:MPT63 is a small, major secreted protein of unknown function from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that has been shown to have immunogenic properties and has been implicated in virulence. A BLAST search identified that MPT63 has homologs only in other mycobacteria, and is therefore mycobacteria specific. As MPT63 is a secreted protein, mycobacteria specific, and implicated in virulence, MPT63 is an attractive drug target against the deadliest infectious disease, tuberculosis (TB). As part of the TB Structural Genomics Consortium, the X-ray crystal structure of MPT63 was determined to 1.5-Angstrom resolution with the hope of yielding functional information about MPT63. The structure of MPT63 is an antiparallel beta-sandwich immunoglobulin-like fold, with the unusual feature of the first beta-strand of the protein forming a parallel addition to the small antiparallel beta-sheet. MPT63 has weak structural similarity to many proteins with immunoglobulin folds, in particular, Homo sapiens beta2-adaptin, bovine arrestin, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin. Although the structure of MPT63 gives no conclusive evidence to its function, structural similarity suggests that MPT63 could be involved in cell-host interactions to facilitate endocytosis/phagocytosis.
Project description:Recently, a number of fentanyl analogs have been implicated in overdose deaths in Europe and in the US. So far, little is known of the molecular behavior of the structurally related subgroup; the alicyclic fentanyls. In this study, reference standards of cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, and 2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl fentanyl (TMCPF) at a final concentration of 5 µM were incubated with cryopreserved human hepatocytes (1?×?106 cells/mL) for 0, 1, 3 and 5 h. The metabolites formed were identified by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The most abundant biotransformation found was N-dealkylation (formation of normetabolites) and oxidation of the alicyclic rings. As ring size increased, the significance of N-dealkylation decreased in favor of alicyclic ring oxidation. An example of this was cyclopropyl fentanyl, with a three-carbon ring, whose normetabolite covered 82% of the total metabolic peak area and no oxidation of the alicyclic ring was observed. In contrast, TMCPF, with a seven-carbon ring structure, rendered as much as 85% of its metabolites oxidized on the alicyclic ring. Other biotransformations found included oxidation of the piperidine ethyl moiety and/or the phenethyl substructure, glucuronidation as well as amide hydrolysis to form metabolites identical to despropionyl fentanyl. Taken together, this study provides a base for understanding the metabolism of a number of structurally related fentanyl analogs formed upon intake.
Project description:MPT63, a major secreted protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has been shown to have immunogenic properties and has been implicated in virulence. MPT63 is a ?-sandwich protein containing 11 ? strands and a very short stretch of 310 helix. The detailed experimental and computational study reported here investigates the equilibrium unfolding transition of MPT63. It is shown that in spite of being a complete ?-sheet protein, MPT63 has a strong propensity toward helix structures in its early intermediates. Far UV-CD and FTIR spectra clearly suggest that the low-pH intermediate of MTP63 has enhanced helical content, while fluorescence correlation spectroscopy suggests a significant contraction. Molecular dynamics simulation complements the experimental results indicating that the unfolded state of MPT63 traverses through intermediate forms with increased helical characteristics. It is found that this early intermediate contains exposed hydrophobic surface, and is aggregation prone. Although MPT63 is a complete ?-sheet protein in its native form, the present findings suggest that the secondary structure preferences of the local interactions in early folding pathway may not always follow the native conformation. Furthermore, the Gly25Ala mutant supports the proposed hypothesis by increasing the non-native helical propensity of the protein structure.
Project description:<i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> (MTB), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), avoids the host immune system through its virulence factors. MPT63 and MPT64 are the virulence factors secreted by MTB which regulate host proteins for the survival and proliferation of MTB in the host. Here, we found that MPT63 bound directly with TBK1 and p47phox, whereas MPT64 interacted with TBK1 and HK2. We constructed a MPT63/64-derived multifunctional recombinant protein (rMPT) that was able to interact with TBK1, p47phox, or HK2. rMPT was shown to regulate IFN-β levels and increase inflammation and concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while targeting macrophages and killing MTB, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the identification of the role of rMPT against MTB was achieved via vaccination in a mouse model. Taken together, we here present rMPT, which, by regulating important immune signaling systems, can be considered an effective vaccine or therapeutic agent against MTB.
Project description:Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17 is capable of utilizing various derivatives of benzene and bicyclics containing both aromatic and alicyclic moieties as sole carbon and energy sources. Here, we present the 9,107,362-bp draft genome sequence of DK17 and its genomic analysis in comparison with other members of the genus Rhodococcus.
Project description:Cutinases are esterases that release fatty acids from the apoplastic layer in plants. As they accept bulky and hydrophobic substrates, cutinases could be used in many applications, ranging from valorization of bark-rich side streams to plastic recycling. Advancement of these applications with cutinases as biocatalysts, however, requires deeper knowledge of the enzymes' biodiversity and structure-function relationships. Here, we mined over 3000 members from Carbohydrate Esterase family 5 (CE5) for putative cutinases and condensed it to 151 genes from known or putative lignocellulose-targeting organisms. The 151 genes were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis. While cutinases with available crystal structures were phylogenetically closely related, we selected nine phylogenic diverse cutinases for characterization. The nine selected cutinases were recombinantly produced and their kinetic activity was characterized against para-nitrophenol substrates esterified with consecutively longer alkyl chains (pNP-C<sub>2</sub> to C<sub>16</sub>). The investigated cutinases each had a unique activity fingerprint against tested pNP-substrates. The five enzymes with the highest activity on pNP-C<sub>12</sub> and C<sub>16</sub>, indicative of activity on bulky hydrophobic compounds, were selected for in-depth kinetic and structure-function analysis. All five enzymes showed a decrease in k<sub>cat</sub> values with increasing substrate chain length, while K<sub>M</sub> values and binding energies (calculated from in silico docking analysis) improved. Two cutinases from Fusarium solani and Cryptococcus sp. exhibited outstandingly low K<sub>M</sub> values, resulting in high catalytic efficiencies towards pNP-C<sub>16</sub>. Docking analysis suggested that different clades of the phylogenetic tree may harbor enzymes with different modes of substrate interaction, involving a solvent-exposed catalytic triad, a lipase-like lid, or a clamshell-like active site possibly formed by flexible loops.
Project description:Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is one of the most abundantly produced synthetic polymers and is accumulating in the environment at a staggering rate as discarded packaging and textiles. The properties that make PET so useful also endow it with an alarming resistance to biodegradation, likely lasting centuries in the environment. Our collective reliance on PET and other plastics means that this buildup will continue unless solutions are found. Recently, a newly discovered bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, was shown to exhibit the rare ability to grow on PET as a major carbon and energy source. Central to its PET biodegradation capability is a secreted PETase (PET-digesting enzyme). Here, we present a 0.92 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of PETase, which reveals features common to both cutinases and lipases. PETase retains the ancestral ?/?-hydrolase fold but exhibits a more open active-site cleft than homologous cutinases. By narrowing the binding cleft via mutation of two active-site residues to conserved amino acids in cutinases, we surprisingly observe improved PET degradation, suggesting that PETase is not fully optimized for crystalline PET degradation, despite presumably evolving in a PET-rich environment. Additionally, we show that PETase degrades another semiaromatic polyester, polyethylene-2,5-furandicarboxylate (PEF), which is an emerging, bioderived PET replacement with improved barrier properties. In contrast, PETase does not degrade aliphatic polyesters, suggesting that it is generally an aromatic polyesterase. These findings suggest that additional protein engineering to increase PETase performance is realistic and highlight the need for further developments of structure/activity relationships for biodegradation of synthetic polyesters.
Project description:The absorption coefficient of butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from Megasphaera elsdenii at 450 nm is determined as 14.4 mM-1 X cm-1 in the CoA-free form and 14.2 mM-1 X cm-1 in the CoA-liganded form (both yellow). The latter value is considerably higher than the earlier published estimate. Phenazine ethosulphate offers great advantages over phenazine methosulphate as a coupling dye in the catalytic assay despite giving lower Vmax. values (506 min-1 as compared with 1250 min-1 under the conditions used). The phenazine ethosulphate assay is used to establish a pH optimum of 8.05 for oxidation of 100 microM-butyryl-CoA. The rates of oxidation of a range of straight-chain, branched-chain and alicyclic acyl thioesters are used to provide the following information. Only straight-chain acyl groups containing 4-6 carbon atoms are easily accommodated by the postulated hydrophobic pocket of the enzyme. C-3-substituted acyl-CoA thioesters are not oxidized at a significant rate, suggesting that the C-3 pro-S-hydrogen atom of straight-chain substrates is partially exposed to the solvent. Acyl-CoA thioesters with substitutions at C-2 are oxidized, though at a lower rate than their straight-chain counterparts. This implies that the C-2 pro-S-hydrogen atom of straight-chain substrates is partially exposed to the solvent. Saturated alicyclic carboxylic acyl-CoA thioesters with 4-7 carbon atoms in the ring are oxidized, with maximal activity for the cyclohexane derivative. This implies that optimal oxidation requires a true trans orientation of the two departing hydrogen atoms. The strain imposed by bound unsaturated alicyclic acyl thioesters strikingly perturbs the flavin visible-absorption spectrum, with the exception of the cyclohex-2-ene derivative, which forms a complex with similar spectral properties to those of the crotonyl-CoA complex. In the thiol moiety of thioester substrates the amide bond of N-acetylcysteamine is essential for both binding and catalysis. The adenosine structure contributes substantially to strong binding, but is less important in determining the catalytic rate.