Personalized cytomic assessment of vascular health: Evaluation of the vascular health profile in diabetes mellitus.
ABSTRACT: An inexpensive and accurate blood test does not currently exist that can evaluate the cardiovascular health of a patient. This study evaluated a novel high dimensional flow cytometry approach in combination with cytometric fingerprinting (CF), to comprehensively enumerate differentially expressed subsets of pro-angiogenic circulating progenitor cells (CPCs), involved in the repair of vasculature, and microparticles (MPs), frequently involved in inflammation and thrombosis. CF enabled discovery of a unique pattern, involving both MPs and CPCs and generated a personalized signature of vascular health, the vascular health profile (VHP).Levels of CPCs and MPs were measured with a broad panel of cell surface markers in a population with atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and age-similar Healthy controls (HC) using an unbiased computational approach, termed CF.Circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (CHSPCAng) levels were detected at significantly lower concentrations in DM (P < 0.001), whereas levels of seven phenotypically distinct MPs were present at significantly higher concentrations in DM patients and one MP subset was present at significantly lower concentration in DM patients. Collectively, the combination of CHSPC(Ang) and MP levels was more informative than any one measure alone.This work provides the basis for a personalized cytomic vascular health profile that may be useful for a variety of applications including drug development, clinical risk assessment and companion diagnostics.
Project description:Vascular function is suggested to be associated with ovarian reserve, but the relationship with microvascular function has never been studied. In this cross-sectional pilot study, the relationship of microvascular damage markers with AMH was studied in premenopausal women. Twenty-two regularly cycling women with type 1 diabetes (DM-1) and a reference group of 20 healthy regularly cycling women were included, from whom blood was drawn in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. The main outcome was the correlation between circulating progenitor cells (CPCs), markers for early vascular damage, and AMH, a marker for ovarian reserve. Secondary endpoints for early vascular impairment were circulating angiogenic cells and additional biomarkers. Median AMH levels were 2.2?µg/L [1.2-3.5] in the DM-1 group and 2.1?µg/L [0.85-3.8] in the reference group. CPCs were significantly decreased in women with DM-1; 1204 ± 537 CD34+/CD45dim cells were counted in the DM-1 group, compared to 2264 ± 1124 in the reference group. CPCs and other markers of early vascular damage were not correlated with AMH levels in a multivariable analysis. These results underscore previous findings of early vascular damage in DM-1 and suggest that there may not be a relationship between vascular function and ovarian reserve. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01665716.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Treatment of vascular complications of diabetes remains inadequate. We reported that muscle pericytes (MPs) from limb muscles of vascular patients with diabetes mellitus display elevated levels of oxidative stress causing a dysfunctional phenotype. Here, we investigated whether treatment with dimethyl-2-oxoglutarate (DM-2OG), a tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolite with antioxidant properties, can restore a healthy metabolic and functional phenotype. METHODS:MPs were isolated from limb muscles of diabetes patients with vascular disease (D-MPs) and from non-diabetic control participants (ND-MPs). Metabolic status was assessed in untreated and DM-2OG-treated (1 mmol/l) cells using an extracellular flux analyser and anion-exchange chromatography-mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS). Redox status was measured using commercial kits and IC-MS/MS, with antioxidant and metabolic enzyme expression assessed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. Myogenic differentiation and proliferation and pericyte-endothelial interaction were assessed as functional readouts. RESULTS:D-MPs showed mitochondrial dysfunction, suppressed glycolytic activity and reduced reactive oxygen species-buffering capacity, but no suppression of antioxidant systems when compared with ND-MP controls. DM-2OG supplementation improved redox balance and mitochondrial function, without affecting glycolysis or antioxidant systems. Nonetheless, this was not enough for treated D-MPs to regain the level of proliferation and myogenic differentiation of ND-MPs. Interestingly, DM-2OG exerted a positive effect on pericyte-endothelial cell interaction in the co-culture angiogenesis assay, independent of the diabetic status. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:These novel findings support the concept of using DM-2OG supplementation to improve pericyte redox balance and mitochondrial function, while concurrently allowing for enhanced pericyte-endothelial crosstalk. Such effects may help to prevent or slow down vasculopathy in skeletal muscles of people with diabetes. Graphical abstract.
Project description:Microparticles (MPs) are released constitutively and from activated cells. MPs play significant roles in vascular homeostasis, injury, and as biomarkers. The unique glycocalyx on the membrane of cells has frequently been exploited to identify specific cell types, however the glycocalyx of the MPs has yet to be defined. Thus, we sought to determine whether MPs, released both constitutively and during injury, from vascular cells have a glycocalyx matching those of the parental cell type to provide information on MP origin. For these studies we used rat pulmonary microvascular and artery endothelium, pulmonary smooth muscle, and aortic endothelial cells. MPs were collected from healthy or cigarette smoke injured cells and analyzed with a panel of lectins for specific glycocalyx linkages. Intriguingly, we determined that the MPs released either constitutively or stimulated by CSE injury did not express the same glycocalyx of the parent cells. Further, the glycocalyx was not unique to any of the specific cell types studied. These data suggest that MPs from both normal and healthy vascular cells do not share the parental cell glycocalyx makeup.
Project description:Microparticles (MPs) are small membrane fragments shed from normal as well as activated, apoptotic or injured cells. Emerging evidence implicates MPs as a causal and/or contributing factor in altering normal vascular cell phenotype through initiation of proinflammatory signal transduction events and paracrine delivery of proteins, mRNA and miRNA. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which MPs influence these events. Caveolae are important membrane microdomains that function as centers of signal transduction and endocytosis. Here, we tested the concept that the MP-induced pro-inflammatory phenotype shift in endothelial cells (ECs) depends on caveolae. Consistent with previous reports, MP challenge activated ECs as evidenced by upregulation of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. ICAM-1 upregulation was mediated by activation of NF-?B, Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This response was absent in ECs lacking caveolin-1/caveolae. To test whether caveolae-mediated endocytosis, a dynamin-2 dependent process, is a feature of the proinflammatory response, EC's were pretreated with the dynamin-2 inhibitor dynasore. Similar to observations in cells lacking caveolin-1, inhibition of endocytosis significantly attenuated MPs effects including, EGFR phosphorylation, activation of NF-?B and upregulation of ICAM-1 expression. Thus, our results indicate that caveolae play a role in mediating the pro-inflammatory signaling pathways which lead to EC activation in response to MPs.
Project description:Microparticles (MPs) are extracellular vesicles (0.1-1.0 ?m in size), released in response to cell activation or apoptosis. Endothelial microparticles (EC-MP), vascular smooth muscle cell microparticles (VSMC-MP), and macrophage microparticles (MØ-MP) are key hallmarks of atherosclerosis progression. In our current study, we investigated the potent antioxidant activity of baicalin to ameliorate MP-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction and endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, as well as the production of inflammatory mediators in macrophage (RAW264.7). In our study, baicalin suppressed the apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, NO production, foam cell formation, protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in MØ-MP-induced RAW264.7. In addition, VSMC migration induced by VSMC-MP was dose-dependently inhibited by baicalin. Likewise, baicalin inhibits metalloproteinase-9 expression and suppresses VSMC-MP-induced VSMC proliferation by down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein expressions. Baicalin also inhibited ROS production and apoptosis in VSMC. In EC, the marker of endothelial dysfunction (endothelial senescence, upregulation of ICAM, and ROS production) induced by EC-MP was halted by baicalin. Our results suggested that baicalin exerts potent biological activity to restore the function of EC and VSMC altered by their corresponding microparticles and inhibits the release of inflammation markers from activated macrophages.
Project description:Microparticles (MPs) are membrane-bound vesicles derived from vascular and intravascular cells such as endothelial cells (EMPs) and platelets (PMPs). We investigated EMP and PMP numbers across a spectrum of autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AIRDs) with the aim of comparing the levels of, and relationship between, EMPs and PMPs.Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) (n = 24), Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) (n = 24), Primary Raynauds Phenomenon (RP) (n = 17) and "other CTD" (n = 15) (Primary Sjogrens Syndrome, UCTD or MCTD) as well as 15 healthy controls were recruited. EMPs and PMPs were quantified using flow cytometry. Associations between MP levels and objective functional vascular assessments were evaluated.SLE patients had significantly higher EMPs compared with healthy controls and SSc patients. Higher PMP levels were noted in SSc and primary RP when compared to healthy controls and 'other CTD' patients. A modest correlation was noted between EMP and PMP levels in healthy controls (Spearman r = 0.6, p = 0.017). This relationship appeared stronger in SLE (r = 0.72, p < 0.0001) and other CTD patients (r = 0.75, p < 0.0001). The association between EMPs and PMPs was notably less strong in SSc (r = 0.45, p = 0.014) and RP (r = 0.37, p = 0.15). A significantly lower EMP/PMP ratio was detected in SSc/RP patients in comparison to both healthy controls and SLE/other CTD patients. Higher EMP and PMP levels were associated with higher digital perfusion following cold challenge in SSc. In contrast, higher PMP (but not EMP) levels were associated with lower digital perfusion at both baseline and following cold challenge in primary RP. Higher PMP levels were associated with greater endothelial-independent dilation in patients with SLE.MP populations differ across the spectrum of AIRDS, possibly reflecting differences in vascular cell injury and activation. MP levels are associated with functional assessments of vascular function and might have a role as novel vascular biomarkers in AIRDs.Levels of circulating endothelial and platelet microparticles differ between SSc/primary RP compared with SLE and other CTDs (UCTD, MCTD and Primary Sjogrens). MP release may occur within different vascular sites across these disease groups (macrovascular and microvascular). The association between circulating MP levels and objective assessment of macro- and microvascular dysfunction within these disease areas suggests that MPs might have a useful role as novel circulating biomarkers of vascular disease within the CTDs.
Project description:The ability of vascular-targeted drug carriers (VTCs) to localize and bind to a targeted, diseased endothelium determines their overall clinical utility. Here, we investigate how particle modulus and size determine adhesion of VTCs to the vascular wall under physiological blood flow conditions. In general, deformable microparticles (MPs) outperformed nanoparticles (NPs) in all experimental conditions tested. Our results indicate that MP modulus enhances particle adhesion in a shear-dependent manner. In low shear human blood flow profiles in vitro, low modulus particles showed favorable adhesion, while at high shear, rigid particles showed superior adhesion. This was confirmed in vivo by studying particle adhesion under venous shear profiles in a mouse model of mesenteric inflammation, where MP adhesion was 127% greater (p < 0.0001) for low modulus particles compared to more rigid ones. Mechanistically, we establish that particle collisions with leukocytes drive these trends, rather than differences in particle deformation, localization, or detachment. Overall, this work demonstrates the importance of VTC modulus as a design parameter for enhanced VTC interaction with vascular walls, and thus, contributes important knowledge for development of successful clinical theranostics with applications for many diseases.
Project description:Vascular endothelial growth factor pathway inhibitors (VEGFi), used as anti-angiogenic drugs to treat cancer are associated with cardiovascular toxicities through unknown molecular mechanisms. Endothelial cell-derived microparticles (ECMPs) are biomarkers of endothelial injury and are also functionally active since they influence downstream target cell signalling and function. We questioned whether microparticle (MP) status is altered in cancer patients treated with VEGFi and whether they influence endothelial cell function associated with vascular dysfunction. Plasma MPs were isolated from cancer patients before and after treatment with VEGFi (pazopanib, sunitinib, or sorafenib). Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were stimulated with isolated MPs (106 MPs/mL). Microparticle characterization was assessed by flow cytometry. Patients treated with VEGFi had significantly increased levels of plasma ECMP. Endothelial cells exposed to post-VEGFi treatment ECMPs induced an increase in pre-pro-ET-1 mRNA expression, corroborating the increase in endothelin-1 (ET-1) production in HAEC stimulated with vatalanib (VEGFi). Post-VEGFi treatment MPs increased generation of reactive oxygen species in HAEC, effects attenuated by ETA (BQ123) and ETB (BQ788) receptor blockers. VEGFi post-treatment MPs also increased phosphorylation of the inhibitory site of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), decreased nitric oxide (NO), and increased ONOO- levels in HAEC, responses inhibited by ETB receptor blockade. Additionally, gene expression of proinflammatory mediators was increased in HAEC exposed to post-treatment MPs, effects inhibited by BQ123 and BQ788. Our findings define novel molecular mechanism involving interplay between microparticles, the ET-1 system and endothelial cell pro-inflammatory and redox signalling, which may be important in cardiovascular toxicity and hypertension associated with VEGFi anti-cancer treatment. New and noteworthy: our novel data identify MPs as biomarkers of VEGFi-induced endothelial injury and important mediators of ET-1-sensitive redox-regulated pro-inflammatory signalling in effector endothelial cells, processes that may contribute to cardiovascular toxicity in VEGFi-treated cancer patients.
Project description:The tumor stroma plays an essential role in tumor growth, resistance to therapy and occurrence of metastatic phenotype. Tumor vessels have been considered as passive conducts for nutrients but several studies have demonstrated secretion of pro-tumoral factors by endothelial cells. The failure of anti-angiogenic therapies to meet expectations raised by pre-clinical studies prompt us to better study the cross-talk between endothelial and cancer cells. Here, we hypothesized that tumor cells and the endothelium secrete bio-active microparticles (MPs) participating to a functional cross-talk. We characterized the cancer cells MPs, using breast and ovarian cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB231, SKOV3, OVCAR3 and a primary cell lines, APOCC). Our data show that MPs from mesenchymal-like cell lines (MDA-MB231, SKOV3 and APOCC) were able to promote an activation of endothelial cells through Akt phosphorylation, compared to MPs from epithelial-like cell lines (OVCAR3 and MCF7). The MPs from mesenchymal-like cells contained increased angiogenic molecules including PDGF, IL8 and angiogenin. The endothelial activation was associated to increased Arf6 expression and MPs secretion. Endothelial activation functionalized an MP dependent pro-tumoral vascular niche promoting cancer cells proliferation, invasiveness, stem cell phenotype and chemoresistance. MPs from cancer and endothelial cells displayed phenotypic heterogeneity, and participated to a functional cross-talk where endothelial activation by cancer MPs resulted in increased secretion of EC-MPs sustaining tumor cells. Such cross-talk may play a role in perfusion independent role of the endothelium.
Project description:Two distinct monocyte (Mo)/macrophage (Mp) subsets (Ly6Clow and Ly6Chigh) orchestrate cardiac recovery process following myocardial infarction (MI). Prostaglandin (PG) E2 is involved in the Mo/Mp-mediated inflammatory response, however, the role of its receptors in Mos/Mps in cardiac healing remains to be determined. Here we show that pharmacological inhibition or gene ablation of the Ep3 receptor in mice suppresses accumulation of Ly6Clow Mos/Mps in infarcted hearts. Ep3 deletion in Mos/Mps markedly attenuates healing after MI by reducing neovascularization in peri-infarct zones. Ep3 deficiency diminishes CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) expression and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion in Mos/Mps by suppressing TGF?1 signalling and subsequently inhibits Ly6Clow Mos/Mps migration and angiogenesis. Targeted overexpression of Ep3 receptors in Mos/Mps improves wound healing by enhancing angiogenesis. Thus, the PGE2/Ep3 axis promotes cardiac healing after MI by activating reparative Ly6Clow Mos/Mps, indicating that Ep3 receptor activation may be a promising therapeutic target for acute MI.