Virtual Screening Analysis and In-vitro Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Some Commercially Available Flavonoids.
ABSTRACT: Allopurinol, the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, is the only drug available for the treatment of gout. We examined the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of some commercially available flavonoids such asepigallocatechin, acacatechin, myricetin, naringenin, daidzein and glycitein by virtual screening and in-vitro studies. The interacting residues within the complex model and their contact types were identified. The virtual screening analysis were carried out using AutoDock 4.2 and in-vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was carried out using xanthine as the substrate. In addition, enzyme kinetics was performed using LineweaverBurkplot analysis. Allopurinol, a known xanthine oxidase inhibitor was used as the standard. The docking energy ofglycitein was found to be -8.49 kcal/mol which was less than that of the standard (-4.47 kcal/ mol). All the selected flavonoids were found to exhibit lower binding energy (-8.08 to -6.03 kcal/ mol) than allopurinol. The docking results confirm that flavonoids showed greater inhibition of xanthine oxidase due to their active binding sites and lesser binding energies compared to allopurinol. This may be attributed to the presence of benzopyran ring in the flavonoids. In the xanthine oxidase assay, IC50 value of glycitein was found to be 12±0.86 ?g/mL, whereas that of allopurinol was 24±0.28 ?g/mL. All the remaining compounds exhibited IC50 values ranging between 22±0.64 to 62±1.18 ?g/mL. In the enzyme kinetic studies, flavonoids showed competitive type of enzyme inhibition. It can be concluded that flavonoids could be a promising remedy for the treatment of gout and related inflammatory disorders. Further in-vivo studies are required to develop potential compounds with lesser side effects.
Project description:Introduction: Gout is a type of painful inflammation initiated by the interactions between monosodium urate crystals and connective tissue. Xanthine oxidase (XO) catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine, then to uric acid. The primary treatments for gout include XO inhibitors. At present, allopurinol is the most used XO inhibitor for the treatment of gout. However, it can cause adverse effects commonly known as allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome, thereby limiting its usage. Consequently, it is necessary to develop potent and less toxic inhibitors of XO. Chromolaena odorata is one of such plants under investigation for its diverse health benefits. Methods: Phytochemicals of C. odorata were screened against XO receptor, using molecular docking. The top five hit compounds of glide docking yield flavones scaffold which were subjected to induced fit docking (IFD) and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies. Results: The result showed that flavones scaffold of C. odorata can bind with higher affinity and lower free energy values when compared to that of the standard, allopurinol. The IFD scores of the flavones scaffold range from -1525.25 to -1527.99 kcal/mol. Conclusion: Our results have shown that flavones scaffold might have the potential to act as an effective drug candidate when compared to allopurinol in treating and/or preventing gout and some inflammatory condition.
Project description:In the present study, in silico predictions and molecular docking were performed on five clerodane diterpenes (1-5) from Polyalthia longifolia seeds to evaluate their potential as xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors. The initial screening was conducted by target prediction using TargetNet web server application and only compounds 3 and 4 showed a potential interaction with XO. Compounds 3 and 4 were subsequently subjected to in silico analyses on XO protein structure (PDB: 1N5X) using Schrödinger Release 2020-3 followed by structural modeling & molecular simulation studies to confirm the initial prediction result and identify the binding mode of these compounds to the XO. Molecular docking results revealed that compounds 3 (-37.3 kcal/mol) and 4 (-32.0 kcal/mol) binds more stably to XO than the reference drug allopurinol (-27.0 kcal/mol). Interestingly, two residues Glu 802 and Thr 1010 were observed as the two main H-bond binding sites for both tested compounds and the allopurinol. The center scaffold of allopurinol was positioned by some π-π stacking with Phe 914 and Phe 1009, while that of compounds 3 and 4 were supported by many hydrophobic interactions mainly with Leu 648, Phe 649, Phe 1013, and Leu 1014. Additionally, the docking simulation predicted that the inhibitory effect of compounds 3 and 4 was mediated by creating H-bond with particularly Glu 802, which is a key amino acid for XO enzyme inhibition. Altogether, in vitro studies showed that compounds 3 and 4 had better inhibitory capacity against XO enzyme with IC50 values significantly (p < 0.001) lower than that of allopurinol. In short, the present study identified cleroda-4(18),13-dien-15,16-olide as novel potential XO inhibitors, which can be potentially used for the treatment of gout.
Project description:The root of Rumex crispus L. has been shown to possess anti-gout and anti-diabetic properties, but the compounds responsible for these pharmaceutical effects have not yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to isolate and purify active components from the root of R. crispus, and to evaluate their anti-radical, anti-gout and anti-diabetic capacities. From the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract, two compounds, chrysophanol (1) and physcion (2), were isolated by column chromatography with an elution of hexane and EtOAc at a 9:1 ratio. Their structures were identified by spectrometric techniques including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), X-ray diffraction analyses and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results of bioassays indicated that (1) showed stronger activities than (2). For antioxidant activity, (1) and (2) exhibited remarkable DPPH radical scavenging capacity (IC50 = 9.8 and 12.1 µg/mL), which was about two times stronger than BHT (IC50 = 19.4 µg/mL). The anti-gout property of (1) and (2) were comparable to the positive control allopurinol, these compounds exerted strong inhibition against the activity of xanthine oxidase (IC50 = 36.4 and 45.0 µg/mL, respectively). In the anti-diabetic assay, (1) and (2) displayed considerable inhibitory ability on ?-glucosidase, their IC50 values (IC50 = 20.1 and 18.9 µg/mL, respectively) were higher than that of standard acarbose (IC50 = 143.4 µg/mL). Findings of this study highlight that (1) and (2) may be promising agents to treat gout and diabetes, which may greatly contribute to the medicinal properties of Rumex crispus root.
Project description:Marantodes pumilum (Primulaceae) has been used in Malaysian folk medicine to help women regain strength after delivery and for "sickness in the bones." It was previously revealed that its extracts inhibited xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in vitro. The leaves and roots of M. pumilum var. alata (MPA), var. pumila (MPP), and var. lanceolata (MPL) were individually extracted in ethanol (80%). The anti-hyperuricemic activity was initially assessed by XO inhibition with a spectrophotometric in vitro assay. The most active extract was further investigated on hyperuricemic rat model induced by potassium oxonate to determine serum uric acid levels and liver XO effect. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was carried out on monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., interleukin (IL)1?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?) secretion using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and ELISA technique, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)secretion using radioimmunoassay. The active extract was then investigated on gout-induced inflammation with MSU crystals to determine pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 secretion levels in the synovial fluid of rat knee joint. Quantitative analysis using validated HPLC was performed on the extracts to determine presence of bioactive flavonoids. The findings revealed that extract of MPP leaves gave the highest inhibitory activity on XO (IC50 130.5 ?g/mL) compared to other extracts tested. However, all extracts possessed significantly lower activity compared to allopurinol (IC50 0.13 ?g/mL). Oral administration of MPP leaf extract (200 mg/kg) significantly reduced serum uric acid level in hyperuricemic rats in time-dependent manner to the baseline level and it was as effective as allopurinol (5 mg/kg). The extract also inhibited liver XO activity (25%) compared to allopurinol (45%). In vitro anti-inflammatory assay showed that extract of MPP roots inhibited MSU crystals-induced secretion of IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-8, TNF-?, and PGE2 with IC50 values of 36, 25, 38, 18, and 46 ?g/mL, respectively. Oral administration of the MPP root extract (200 mg/kg) significantly decreased IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, and PGE2 levels in rat's synovial fluid as effective as indomethacin. There were no significant body weight changes of all experimental animals. MPP extracts showed presence of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol. Myricetin was detected with values of 0.2 and 0.6 mg/g for root and leaf extracts, respectively. The anti-hyperuricemic of MPP leaf and anti-inflammatory of MPP root indicated that MPP may be promising for complementary therapy of gout.
Project description:Gout is a chronic disease associated with deposition of monosodium urate crystals and accompanied by diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Hypertriglyceridemia is common among patients with gout, and fenofibrate is usually used to reduce triglyceride levels. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of uric acid reduction by fenofibrate in patients with gout administered uric acid lowering agents (viz., the xanthine oxidase inhibitors allopurinol and febuxostat). Data from 863 patients with gout were collected from electronic medical records comprising information on underlying diseases, laboratory findings, and drug histories. Among all the patients, 70 (8.11%) took fenofibrate with allopurinol or febuxostat. Male and young patients took fenofibrate more frequently, and hypertension was less frequent in patients administered xanthine oxidase inhibitors and fenofibrate than in those administered only xanthine oxidase inhibitors. After the treatment, serum uric acid levels more significantly decreased (-1.81?±?2.41 vs. -2.40?±?2.28?mg/dL, p?=?0.043) in patients with fenofibrate cotreatment, than in those administered allopurinol or febuxostat alone. The effect of uric acid reduction was larger (b?=?-1.098, p?<?0.001) in patients taking glucocorticoids than in those administered other treatments. There was no difference in the levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and aminotransferases between patients treated with and without fenofibrate. Fenofibrate additionally reduced uric acid levels without showing any change in the results of renal or liver function tests, suggesting that the addition of fenofibrate is a reasonable option for treating gout in patients having high triglyceride levels.
Project description:Quercetin is an abundant flavonoid in nature and is used in several dietary supplements. Although quercetin is extensively metabolized by human enzymes and the colonic microflora, we have only few data regarding the pharmacokinetic interactions of its metabolites. Therefore, we investigated the interaction of human and microbial metabolites of quercetin with the xanthine oxidase enzyme. Inhibitory effects of five conjugates and 23 microbial metabolites were examined with 6-mercaptopurine and xanthine substrates (both at 5 ?M), employing allopurinol as a positive control. Quercetin-3'-sulfate, isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, and pyrogallol proved to be strong inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. Sulfate and methyl conjugates were similarly strong inhibitors of both 6-mercaptopurine and xanthine oxidations (IC50 = 0.2-0.7 ?M); however, pyrogallol inhibited xanthine oxidation (IC50 = 1.8 ?M) with higher potency vs. 6-MP oxidation (IC50 = 10.1 ?M). Sulfate and methyl conjugates were approximately ten-fold stronger inhibitors (IC50 = 0.2-0.6 ?M) of 6-mercaptopurine oxidation than allopurinol (IC50 = 7.0 ?M), and induced more potent inhibition compared to quercetin (IC50 = 1.4 ?M). These observations highlight that some quercetin metabolites can exert similar or even a stronger inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase than the parent compound, which may lead to the development of quercetin-drug interactions (e.g., with 6-mercaptopurin or azathioprine).
Project description:To assess the impact of allopurinol on diabetes in a retrospective cohort of Veterans' Affairs patients with gout.The New York Harbor VA computerized patient record system was searched to identify patients with an ICD-9 code for gout meeting at least 4 modified 1977 American Rheumatology Association gout diagnostic criteria. Patients were divided into subgroups based on >30 continuous days of allopurinol, versus no allopurinol. New diagnoses of diabetes, defined according to American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria or clinical documentation explicitly stating a new diagnosis of diabetes, were identified during an observation period from January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2015.Six hundred six gout patients used allopurinol >30 continuous days, and 478 patients never used allopurinol. Over an average 7.9?±?4.8 years of follow-up, there was no significant difference in diabetes incidence between the allopurinol and non-allopurinol groups (11.7/1000 person-years vs 10.0/1000 person-years, P?=?.27). A lower diabetes incidence in the longest versus shortest quartiles of allopurinol use (6.3 per 1000 person-years vs 19.4 per 1000 person-years, P<.0001) was attributable to longer duration of medical follow-up.In this study, allopurinol use was not associated with decreased diabetes incidence. Prospective studies may further elucidate the relationship between hyperuricemia, gout, xanthine oxidase activity, and diabetes, and the potential impact of gout treatments on diabetes incidence.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Gout affects 2.5% of the UK's adult population and is now the most common type of inflammatory arthritis. The long-term management of gout requires reduction of serum urate levels and this is most often achieved with use of xanthine oxidase inhibitors, such as allopurinol. Febuxostat is the first new xanthine oxidase inhibitor since allopurinol and was licensed for use in 2008. The European Medicines Agency requested a postlicensing cardiovascular safety study of febuxostat versus allopurinol, which has been named the Febuxostat versus Allopurinol Streamlined trial (FAST). METHODS AND ANALYSIS:FAST is a cardiovascular safety study using the prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint design. FAST is recruiting in the UK and Denmark. Recruited patients are aged over 60?years, prescribed allopurinol for symptomatic hyperuricaemia and have at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. After an allopurinol lead-in phase where the dose of allopurinol is optimised to achieve European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) urate targets (serum urate <357?µmol/L), patients are randomised to either continue optimal dose allopurinol or to use febuxostat. Patients are followed-up for an average of 3?years. The primary endpoint is first occurrence of the Anti-Platelet Trialists' Collaboration (APTC) cardiovascular endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or cardiovascular death. Secondary endpoints are all cause mortality and hospitalisations for heart failure, unstable, new or worsening angina, coronary or cerebral revascularisation, transient ischaemic attack, non-fatal cardiac arrest, venous and peripheral arterial vascular thrombotic event and arrhythmia with no evidence of ischaemia. The primary analysis is a non-inferiority analysis with a non-inferiority upper limit for the HR for the primary outcome of 1.3. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:FAST (ISRCTN72443728) has ethical approval in the UK and Denmark, and results will be published in a peer reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:FAST is registered in the EU Clinical Trials Register (EUDRACT No: 2011-001883-23) and International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register (ISRCTN No: ISRCTN72443728).
Project description:Xanthine oxidase (XO) contributes to oxidative stress and vascular disease. Hyperuricemia and gout are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), a population at increased risk of vascular disease. We evaluated effects of allopurinol on serum XO activity and metabolome of CKD patients who had participated in a randomized double-blind clinical trial of allopurinol vs. placebo. XO activity was measured in participants' serum. XO expression in venous endothelial cells was evaluated via immunofluorescence. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was utilized for metabolomics analysis. We found that in patients with stage 3 CKD and hyperuricemia, allopurinol lowered serum urate while increasing serum xanthine levels. Allopurinol, however, did not significantly suppress measured serum XO activity. Of note, baseline serum XO activity was low. Additionally, neither baseline serum XO activity nor XO protein expression were associated with measures of vascular dysfunction or with systemic or endothelial biomarkers of oxidative stress. Allopurinol affected several pathways, including pentose phosphate, pyrimidine, and tyrosine metabolism. Our findings suggest that circulating XO does not contribute to vascular disease in CKD patients. In addition to inhibition of XO activity, allopurinol was observed to impact other pathways; the implications of which require further study.
Project description:In this study, a new method based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) combined with ultrafiltration-ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UF-UPLC-MS) was developed for discovering ligands for xanthine oxidase (XO) in Gnaphalium hypoleucum DC., a folk medicine used in China for the treatment of gout. By IMAC, the high flavonoid content of G. hypoleucum could be determined rapidly and efficiently. UF-UPLC-MS was used to select the bound xanthine oxidase ligands in the mixture and identify them. Finally, two flavonoids, luteolin-4'-O-glucoside and luteolin, were successfully screened and identified as the candidate XO inhibitors of G. hypoleucum. They were evaluated in vitro for XO inhibitory activity and their interaction mechanism was studied coupled with molecular simulations. The results were in favor of the hypothesis that the flavonoids of G. hypoleucum might be the active content for gout treatment by inhibiting XO.