ABSTRACT: Gram-negative bacterial pathogens deliver a variety of virulence proteins through the type III secretion system (T3SS) directly into the host cytoplasm. These type III secreted effectors (T3SEs) play an essential role in bacterial infection, mainly by targeting host immunity. However, the molecular basis of their functionalities remains largely enigmatic. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae T3SE HopZ1a, a member of the widely distributed YopJ effector family, directly interacts with jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins through the conserved Jas domain in plant hosts. JAZs are transcription repressors of jasmonate (JA)-responsive genes and major components of the jasmonate receptor complex. Upon interaction, JAZs can be acetylated by HopZ1a through a putative acetyltransferase activity. Importantly, P. syringae producing the wild-type, but not a catalytic mutant of HopZ1a, promotes the degradation of HopZ1-interacting JAZs and activates JA signaling during bacterial infection. Furthermore, HopZ1a could partially rescue the virulence defect of a P. syringae mutant that lacks the production of coronatine, a JA-mimicking phytotoxin produced by a few P. syringae strains. These results highlight a novel example by which a bacterial effector directly manipulates the core regulators of phytohormone signaling to facilitate infection. The targeting of JAZ repressors by both coronatine toxin and HopZ1 effector suggests that the JA receptor complex is potentially a major hub of host targets for bacterial pathogens.
Project description:Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae is dependent on a type III secretion system, which secretes a suite of virulence effector proteins into the host cytoplasm, and the production of a number of toxins such as coronatine (COR), which is a mimic of the plant hormone jasmonate-isoleuce (JA-Ile). Inside the plant cell, effectors target host molecules to subvert the host cell physiology and disrupt defenses. However, despite the fact that elucidating effector action is essential to understanding bacterial pathogenesis, the molecular function and host targets of the vast majority of effectors remain largely unknown. Here, we found that effector HopX1 from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pta) 11528, a strain that does not produce COR, interacts with and promotes the degradation of JAZ proteins, a key family of JA-repressors. We show that hopX1 encodes a cysteine protease, activity that is required for degradation of JAZs by HopX1. HopX1 associates with JAZ proteins through its central ZIM domain and degradation occurs in a COI1-independent manner. Moreover, ectopic expression of HopX1 in Arabidopsis induces the expression of JA-dependent genes, represses salicylic acid (SA)-induced markers, and complements the growth of a COR-deficient P. syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000 strain during natural bacterial infections. Furthermore, HopX1 promoted susceptibility when delivered by the natural type III secretion system, to a similar extent as the addition of COR, and this effect was dependent on its catalytic activity. Altogether, our results indicate that JAZ proteins are direct targets of bacterial effectors to promote activation of JA-induced defenses and susceptibility in Arabidopsis. HopX1 illustrates a paradigm of an alternative evolutionary solution to COR with similar physiological outcome.
Project description:The lipid-derived hormone jasmonate (JA) regulates diverse aspects of plant immunity and development. Among the central components of the JA signaling cascade are the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCFCOI1 and Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins that repress transcription of JA-responsive genes. Recent studies provide evidence that amino acid-conjugated forms of JA initiate signal transduction upon formation of a coronatine-insensitive1 (COI1)-JA-JAZ ternary complex in which JAZs are ubiquitinated and subsequently degraded. Coronatine, a virulence factor produced by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, is a potent agonist of this hormone receptor system. Coronatine-induced targeting of JAZs to COI1 obstructs host immune responses to P. syrinage, providing a striking example of how pathogens exploit hormone signaling pathways in the host to promote disease. These findings, together with homology between COI1 and the auxin receptor, TIR1, extend the paradigm of F-box proteins as intracellular sensors of small molecules, and suggest a common evolutionary origin of the auxin and JA response pathways.
Project description:Pathogens target phytohormone signalling pathways to promote disease. Plants deploy salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defences against biotrophs. Pathogens antagonize SA immunity by activating jasmonate signalling, for example Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 produces coronatine (COR), a jasmonic acid (JA) mimic. This study found unexpected dynamics between SA, JA and COR and co-operation between JAZ jasmonate repressor proteins during DC3000 infection. We used a systems-based approach involving targeted hormone profiling, high-temporal-resolution micro-array analysis, reverse genetics and mRNA-seq. Unexpectedly, foliar JA did not accumulate until late in the infection process and was higher in leaves challenged with COR-deficient P. syringae or in the more resistant JA receptor mutant coi1. JAZ regulation was complex and COR alone was insufficient to sustainably induce JAZs. JAZs contribute to early basal and subsequent secondary plant defence responses. We showed that JAZ5 and JAZ10 specifically co-operate to restrict COR cytotoxicity and pathogen growth through a complex transcriptional reprogramming that does not involve the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MYC2 and related MYC3 and MYC4 previously shown to restrict pathogen growth. mRNA-seq predicts compromised SA signalling in a jaz5/10 mutant and rapid suppression of JA-related components on bacterial infection.
Project description:Pathogens target phytohormone signalling pathways to promote disease. Plants deploy salicylic acid (SA) mediated defences against biotrophs. Pathogens antagonise SA immunity by activating jasmonate signalling, e.g. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 produces coronatine (COR), a jasmonate (JA) mimic. This study found unexpected dynamics between SA, JA and COR and co-operation between JAZ jasmonate repressor proteins during DC3000 infection. JA did not accumulate until late in the infection process and was higher in leaves challenged with coronatine deficient P. syringae or in the more resistant JA receptor mutant coi1. JAZ regulation was complex and coronatine alone was insufficient to sustainably induce JAZs. RNA was extracted from leaves of wild type Col-0 or the jaz5/10 mutant plants from leaves 6, 8, 12 or 16 hours after challenged with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000.
Project description:Coronatine is an important virulence factor produced by several pathovars of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The structure of coronatine is similar to that of a class of plant hormones called jasmonates (JAs). An important step in JA signaling is the SCF(COI1) E3 ubiquitin ligase-dependent degradation of JAZ repressor proteins. We have recently shown that jasmonoyl isoleucine (JA-Ile) promotes physical interaction between Arabidopsis JAZ1 and COI1 (the F-box component of SCF(COI1)) proteins, and that the JA-Ile-dependent COI1-JAZ1 interaction could be reconstituted in yeast cells (i.e. in the absence of other plant proteins). Here we show that coronatine, but not its two biosynthetic precursors, also promotes interaction between Arabidopsis COI1 and multiple JAZ proteins. The C-terminal Jas motif, but not the N-terminal (NT) domain or central ZIM domain of JAZ proteins, is critical for JA-Ile/coronatine-dependent interaction with COI1. Two positively charged amino acid residues in the Jas domain were identified as essential for coronatine-dependent COI1-JAZ interactions. Mutations of these two residues did not affect the ability of JAZ1 and JAZ9 to interact with the transcription factor AtMYC2. Importantly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing JAZ1 carrying these two mutations exhibited JA-insensitive phenotypes, including male sterility and enhanced resistance to P. syringae infection. These results not only suggest that coronatine and JA-Ile target the physical interaction between COI1 and the Jas domain of JAZ repressors, but also illustrate the critical role of positively charged amino acids in the Jas domain in mediating the JA-Ile/coronatine-dependent JAZ interaction with COI1.
Project description:The jasmonates (JAs) comprise a family of plant hormones that regulate several developmental processes and mediate responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses, including pathogens. JA signalling is manipulated by several strains of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, including P. syringae strain DC3000, using the virulence factor coronatine (COR) as a mimic of jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). To better understand the JA-Ile-mediated processes contributing to P. syringae disease susceptibility, it is important to investigate the regulation of JA signalling during infection. In Arabidopsis thaliana, JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins are negative regulators of JA signalling. The transcription factor JASMONATE INSENSITIVE1 (JIN1/ATMYC2) has been implicated in the regulation of JAZ gene expression. To investigate the regulation of JAZ genes during P. syringae pathogenesis, we examined JAZ gene expression during infection of Arabidopsis by DC3000. We found that eight of the 12 JAZ genes are induced during infection in a COR-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, the induction of the majority of JAZ genes during infection was not dependent on JIN1, indicating that JIN1 is not the only transcription factor regulating JAZ genes. A T-DNA insertion mutant and an RNA interference line disrupted for the expression of JAZ10, one of the few JAZ genes regulated by JIN1 during infection, exhibited enhanced JA sensitivity and increased susceptibility to DC3000, with the primary effect being increased disease symptom severity. Thus, JAZ10 is a negative regulator of both JA signalling and disease symptom development.
Project description:Plants have evolved sophisticated systems for adaptation to their natural habitat. In response to developmental and environmental cues, plants produce and perceive jasmonate (JA) signals, which induce degradation of JASMONATE-ZIM-Domain (JAZ) proteins and derepress the JAZ-repressed transcription factors to regulate diverse aspects of defense responses and developmental processes. Here, we identified the bHLH subgroup IIId transcription factors (bHLH3, bHLH13, bHLH14 and bHLH17) as novel targets of JAZs. These bHLH subgroup IIId transcription factors act as transcription repressors and function redundantly to negatively regulate JA responses. The quadruple mutant bhlh3 bhlh13 bhlh14 bhlh17 showed severe sensitivity to JA-inhibited root growth and JA-induced anthocyanin accumulation, and exhibited obvious increase in JA-regulated plant defense against pathogen infection and insect attack. Transgenic plants overexpressing bHLH13 or bHLH17 displayed reduced JA responses. Furthermore, these bHLH factors functioned as transcription repressors to antagonize the transcription activators, such as MYC2 and the WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex, through binding to their target sequences. Coordinated regulation of JA responses by transcription activators and repressors would benefit plants by allowing fine regulation of defense and development, and survival in their frequently changing environment.
Project description:Jasmonate (JA) is a lipid-derived hormone that regulates diverse aspects of plant immunity and development. An amino acid-conjugated form of JA, jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), stimulates binding of the F-box protein coronatine-insensitive 1 (COI1) to, and subsequent ubiquitin-dependent degradation of, jasmonate ZIM domain (JAZ) proteins that repress transcription of JA-responsive genes. The virulence factor coronatine (COR), which is produced by plant pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae, suppresses host defense responses by activating JA signaling in a COI1-dependent manner. Although previous data indicate that COR acts as a molecular mimic of JA-Ile, the mechanism by which JA-Ile and COR are perceived by plant cells remains unknown. Here, we show that interaction of tomato COI1 with divergent members of the JAZ family is highly specific for JA-Ile and structurally related JA conjugates and that COR is approximately 1,000-fold more active than JA-Ile in promoting this interaction in vitro. JA-Ile competes for binding of COR to COI1-JAZ complexes, demonstrating that COR and JA-Ile are recognized by the same receptor. Binding of COR to the COI1-JAZ complex requires COI1 and is severely impaired by a point mutation in the putative ligand-binding pocket of COI1. Finally, we show that the C-terminal region of JAZ3 containing the highly conserved Jas motif is necessary and sufficient for hormone-induced COI1-JAZ interaction. These findings demonstrate that COI1 is a critical component of the JA receptor and that COR exerts its virulence effects by functioning as a potent agonist of this receptor system.
Project description:Ralstonia solanacearum is the causative agent of bacterial wilt in many plants. To identify R. solanacearum effectors that suppress pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) in plants, we transiently expressed R. solanacearum RS1000 effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and evaluated their ability to suppress the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggered by flg22. Out of the 61 effectors tested, 11 strongly and five moderately suppressed the flg22-triggered ROS burst. Among them, RipE1 shared homology with the Pseudomonas syringae cysteine protease effector HopX1. By yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified jasmonate-ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, which are transcriptional repressors of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway in plants, as RipE1 interactors. RipE1 promoted the degradation of JAZ repressors and induced the expressions of JA-responsive genes in a cysteine-protease-activity-dependent manner. Simultaneously, RipE1, similarly to the previously identified JA-producing effector RipAL, decreased the expression level of the salicylic acid synthesis gene that is required for the defense responses against R. solanacearum. The undecuple mutant that lacks 11 effectors with a strong PTI suppression activity showed reduced growth of R. solanacearum in Nicotiana plants. These results indicate that R. solanacearum subverts plant PTI responses using multiple effectors and manipulates JA signaling at two different steps to promote infection.
Project description:The nonhost-specific phytotoxin coronatine (COR) produced by several pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae functions as a jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) mimic and contributes to disease development by suppressing plant defense responses and inducing reactive oxygen species in chloroplast. It has been shown that the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) is the receptor for COR and JA-Ile. JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins act as negative regulators for JA signaling in Arabidopsis. However, the physiological significance of JAZ proteins in P. syringae disease development and nonhost pathogen-induced hypersensitive response (HR) cell death is not completely understood. In this study, we identified JAZ genes from tomato, a host plant for P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), and examined their expression profiles in response to COR and pathogens. Most JAZ genes were induced by COR treatment or inoculation with COR-producing Pst DC3000, but not by the COR-defective mutant DB29. Tomato SlJAZ2, SlJAZ6 and SlJAZ7 interacted with SlCOI1 in a COR-dependent manner. Using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), we demonstrated that SlJAZ2, SlJAZ6 and SlJAZ7 have no effect on COR-induced chlorosis in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana. However, SlJAZ2-, SlJAZ6- and SlJAZ7-silenced tomato plants showed enhanced disease-associated cell death to Pst DC3000. Furthermore, we found delayed HR cell death in response to the nonhost pathogen Pst T1 or a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), INF1, in SlJAZ2- and SlJAZ6-silenced N. benthamiana. These results suggest that tomato JAZ proteins regulate the progression of cell death during host and nonhost interactions.