Tissue distribution of berberine and its metabolites after oral administration in rats.
ABSTRACT: Berberine (BBR) has been confirmed to have multiple bioactivities in clinic, such as cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetes, cardiovascular protection and anti- inflammation. However, BBR's plasma level is very low; it cannot explain its pharmacological effects in patients. We consider that the in vivo distribution of BBR as well as of its bioactive metabolites might provide part of the explanation for this question. In this study, liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/MS(n)-IT-TOF) as well as liquid chromatography that coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for the study of tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of BBR in rats after oral administration (200 mg/kg). The results indicated that BBR was quickly distributed in the liver, kidneys, muscle, lungs, brain, heart, pancreas and fat in a descending order of its amount. The pharmacokinetic profile indicated that BBR's level in most of studied tissues was higher (or much higher) than that in plasma 4 h after administration. BBR remained relatively stable in the tissues like liver, heart, brain, muscle, pancreas etc. Organ distribution of BBR's metabolites was also investigated paralleled with that of BBR. Thalifendine (M1), berberrubine (M2) and jatrorrhizine (M4), which the metabolites with moderate bioactivity, were easily detected in organs like the liver and kidney. For instance, M1, M2 and M4 were the major metabolites in the liver, among which the percentage of M2 was up to 65.1%; the level of AUC (0-t) (area under the concentration-time curve) for BBR or the metabolites in the liver was 10-fold or 30-fold higher than that in plasma, respectively. In summary, the organ concentration of BBR (as well as its bioactive metabolites) was higher than its concentration in the blood after oral administration. It might explain BBR's pharmacological effects on human diseases in clinic.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR) is a drug with multiple effects on cellular energy metabolism. The present study explored answers to the question of which CYP450 (Cytochrome P450) isoenzymes execute the phase-I transformation for BBR, and what are the bioactivities of its metabolites on energy pathways. METHODS: BBR metabolites were detected using LC-MS/MS. Computer-assistant docking technology as well as bioassays with recombinant CYP450s were employed to identify CYP450 isoenzymes responsible for BBR phase-I transformation. Bioactivities of BBR metabolites in liver cells were examined with real time RT-PCR and kinase phosphorylation assay. RESULTS: In rat experiments, 4 major metabolites of BBR, berberrubine (M1), thalifendine (M2), demethyleneberberine (M3) and jatrorrhizine (M4) were identified in rat's livers using LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). In the cell-free transformation reactions, M2 and M3 were detectable after incubating BBR with rCYP450s or human liver microsomes; however, M1 and M4 were below detective level. CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 played a major role in transforming BBR into M2; CYP2D6, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 were for M3 production. The hepatocyte culture showed that BBR was active in enhancing the expression of insulin receptor (InsR) and low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mRNA, as well as in activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). BBR's metabolites, M1-M4, remained to be active in up-regulating InsR expression with a potency reduced by 50-70%; LDLR mRNA was increased only by M1 or M2 (but not M3 and M4) with an activity level 35% or 26% of that of BBR, respectively. Similarly, AMPK-? phosphorylation was enhanced by M1 and M2 only, with a degree less than that of BBR. CONCLUSIONS: Four major BBR metabolites (M1-M4) were identified after phase-I transformation in rat liver. Cell-free reactions showed that CYP2D6, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 seemed to be the dominant CYP450 isoenzymes transforming BBR into its metabolites M2 and M3. BBR's metabolites remained to be active on BBR's targets (InsR, LDLR, and AMPK) but with reduced potency.
Project description:The importance of the gut microbiota in drug metabolism, especially in that of nonabsorbable drugs, has become known. The aim of this study was to explore the metabolites of triptolide by the gut microbiota. With high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and LC/MSn-IT-TOF), four metabolites of triptolide (M1, M2, M3, and M4) were found in the intestinal contents of rats. M1 and M2, were isomeric monocarbonyl-hydroxyl-substituted metabolites with molecular weights of 390. M3 and M4 were isomeric dehydrogenated metabolites with molecular weights of 356. Among the four metabolites, the dehydrogenated metabolites (M3 and M4) were reported in the gut microbiota for the first time. The metabolic behaviors of triptolide in the gut microbiota and liver microsomes of rats were further compared. The monocarbonyl-hydroxyl-substituted metabolites (M1 and M2) were generated in both systems, and another monohydroxylated metabolite (M5) was found only in the liver microsomes. The combined results suggested that the metabolism of triptolide in the gut microbiota was specific, with two characteristic, dehydrogenated metabolites. This investigation might provide a theoretical basis for the elucidation of the metabolism mechanism of triptolide and guide its proper application in clinical administration.
Project description:1-(1-Propionylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)urea (TPPU) is a potent soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor that is used extensively in research for modulating inflammation and protecting against hypertension, neuropathic pain, and neurodegeneration. Despite its wide use in various animal disease models, the metabolism of TPPU has not been well-studied. A broader understanding of its metabolism is critical for determining contributions of metabolites to the overall safety and effectiveness of TPPU. Herein, we describe the identification of TPPU metabolites using LC-MS/MS strategies. Four metabolites of TPPU (M1-M4) were identified from rat urine by a sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method with double precursor ion scans. Their structures were further supported by LC-MS/MS comparison with synthesized standards. Metabolites M1 and M2 were formed from hydroxylation on a propionyl group of TPPU; M3 was formed by amide hydrolysis of the 1-propionylpiperdinyl group on TPPU; and M4 was formed by further oxidation of the hydroxylated metabolite M2. Interestingly, the predicted ?-keto amide metabolite and 4-(trifluoromethoxy)aniline (metabolite from urea cleavage) were not detected by the LC-MRM-MS method. This indicates that if formed, the two potential metabolites represent <0.01% of TPPU metabolism. Species differences in the formation of these four identified metabolites was assessed using liver S9 fractions from dog, monkey, rat, mouse, and human. M1, M2, and M3 were generated in liver S9 fractions from all species, and higher amounts of M3 were generated in monkey S9 fractions compared to other species. In addition, rat and human S9 metabolism showed the highest species similarity based on the quantities of each metabolite. The presence of all four metabolites were confirmed <i>in vivo</i> in rats over 72-h post single oral dose of TPPU. Urine and feces were major routes for TPPU excretion. M1, M4 and parent drug were detected as major substances, and M2 and M3 were minor substances. In blood, M1 accounted for ~9.6% of the total TPPU-related exposure, while metabolites M2, M3, and M4 accounted for <0.4%. All four metabolites were potent inhibitors of human sEH but were less potent than the parent TPPU. In conclusion, TPPU is metabolized via oxidation and amide hydrolysis without apparent breakdown of the urea. The aniline metabolites were not observed either <i>in vitro</i> or <i>in vivo</i>. Our findings increase the confidence in the ability to translate preclinical PK of TPPU in rats to humans and facilitates the potential clinical development of TPPU and other sEH inhibitors.
Project description:This paper reports a novel strategy based on high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) technique to separate in vivo metabolites from refined extract of urine after administration of an herbal medicine. Saussurea laniceps (SL) was chosen as a model herbal medicine to be used to test the feasibility of our proposed strategy. This strategy succeeded in the case of separating four in vivo metabolites of SL from the urine of rats. Briefly, after oral administration of SL extract to three rats for ten days (2.0?g/kg/d), 269.1?mg of umbelliferone glucuronide (M1, purity, 92.5%), 432.5?mg of scopoletin glucuronide (M2, purity, 93.2%), 221.4?mg of scopoletin glucuronide (M3, purity, 92.9%) and 319.0?mg of scopoletin glucuronide (M4, purity, 90.4%) were separated from 420?mL of the rat urine by HSCCC using a two-phase solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether-n-butanol-acetonitrile-water (MTBE-n-BuOH-ACN-H2O) at a volume ratio of 10:30:11:49. The chemical structures of the four metabolites, M1 to M4, were confirmed by MS and (1)H, (13)C NMR. As far as we know, this is the first report of the successful separation of in vivo metabolites by HSCCC after administration of an herbal medicine.
Project description:Eight dimeric isoenzymes of glutathione S-transferase (GST) were purified from liver, kidney and testis of the Syrian golden hamster, using S-hexylglutathione affinity chromatography and chromatofocusing. The isoenzymes were characterized according to their substrate selectivity, physical properties and amino acid sequence analysis. Thus a classification into Alpha, Mu and Pi classes was made in analogy with GSTs of other species. Two Alpha-class GSTs were purified, termed A1A1 (pI 8.9) and A1A2 (pI 8.6). Four Mu-class subunits were detected (M1-M4), all forming homodimers, with M2 and M3 also forming a heterodimer. The isoelectric points ranged from 5.9 to 8.6. One Pi-class isoenzyme was purified and termed P1P1 (pI 6.8). Using h.p.l.c. analysis, the subunit composition was determined in a number of organs. The major subunits in liver were A1 and M1. Subunit A1 was also the major subunit in the kidney. Subunit M1 was not detected in kidney, while subunit P1 was not found in the liver. Pancreas and trachea contained predominantly the Pi-class subunit, P1. GST in the testis was mostly of the Mu class. The major subunit was M4, and subunits M2 and M3 were exclusively detected in the testis.
Project description:Toosendanin is the major bioactive component of Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc., which is traditionally used for treatment of abdominal pain and as an insecticide. Previous studies reported that toosendanin possesses hepatotoxicity, but the mechanism remains unknown. Its bioavailability in rats is low, which indicates the hepatotoxicity might be induced by its metabolites. In this connection, in the current study, we examined the metabolites obtained by incubating toosendanin with human live microsomes, and then six of these metabolites (M1-M6) were identified for the first time by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Further analysis on the MS spectra showed M1, M2, and M3 are oxidative products and M6 is a dehydrogenation product, while M4 and M5 are oxidative and dehydrogenation products of toosendanin. Moreover, their possible structures were deduced from the MS/MS spectral features. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that M1-M5 levels rapidly increased and reached a plateau at 30 min, while M6 rapidly reached a maximal level at 20 min and then decreased slowly afterwards. These findings have provided valuable data not only for understanding the metabolic fate of toosendanin in liver microsomes, but also for elucidating the possible molecular mechanism of its hepatotoxicity.
Project description:20(S)-Ginsenoside Rg? (1) has recently become a hot research topic due to its potent bioactivities and abundance in natural sources such as the roots, rhizomes and stems-leaves of Panax ginseng. However, due to the lack of studies on systematic metabolic profiles, the prospects for new drug development of 1 are still difficult to predict, which has become a huge obstacle for its safe clinical use. To solve this problem, investigation of the metabolic profiles of 1 in rat liver microsomes was first carried out. To identify metabolites, a strategy of combined analyses based on prepared metabolites by column chromatography and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was performed. As a result, four metabolites M1-M4, including a rare new compound named ginsenotransmetin A (M1), were isolated and the structures were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses. A series of metabolites of 1, MA-MG, were also tentatively identified by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS in rat liver microsomal incubate of 1. Partial metabolic pathways were proposed. Among them, 1 and its metabolites M1, M3 and M4 were discovered for the first time to be activators of SIRT1. The SIRT1 activating effects of the metabolite M1 was comparable to those of 1, while the most interesting SIRT1 activatory effects of M3 and M4 were higher than that of 1 and comparable with that of resveratrol, a positive SIRT1 activator. These results indicate that microsome-dependent metabolism may represent a bioactivation pathway for 1. This study is the first to report the metabolic profiles of 1 in vitro, and the results provide an experimental foundation to better understand the in vivo metabolic fate of 1.
Project description:Cyclic phenones are chemicals of interest to the USEPA and international organizations due to their potential for endocrine disruption to aquatic and terrestrial species. The metabolic conversion of cyclic phenones by liver hepatocytes and the structure of main metabolites yielded have not been assessed in fish species. As part of a larger project, in this study we investigated the structure of metabolites produced in vitro by rainbow trout (rt) liver slices after exposure to the model cyclic phenones benzophenone (DPK), cyclobutyl phenyl ketone (CBP) and cyclohexyl phenyl ketone (CPK). While only one distinct metabolite was detected for DPK and CBP (benzhydrol and CBPOH, respectively), CPK yielded nine positional isomers (M1-M9) as products. In absence of standards, improved inference of CPK metabolites tentative structures was achieved by combining GC-MS with and without derivatization, LC with tandem MS, LC with high resolution time of flight (TOF) MS and LC fractionation data with CPK phase II conjugative metabolism information. Data supported that CPK is metabolized by phase I oxidation of the cyclohexyl ring and not the phenyl group as predicted by metabolism simulators. CPK metabolites M1 and M2 (MW 186), were proposed to be cyclohexenyl-derivatives. Also, M6-M9 were proposed to be hydroxylated metabolites (MW 204), with the potential for undergoing phase II conjugative metabolism to glucuronides and sulfates. Finally, M3, M4 and M5 were proposed as cyclohexanone-derivatives of CPK (MW 202), resulting from the limited redox-interconversion of their hydroxylated pairs M8, M6 and M7, respectively. Assessment of metabolite role in biological responses associated with endocrine disruption will advance the development of methods for species extrapolation and the understanding of differential sensitivity of species to chemical exposure.
Project description:The disease progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) from simple steatosis (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is driven by multiple factors. Berberine (BBR) is an ancient Chinese medicine and has various beneficial effects on metabolic diseases, including NAFLD/NASH. However, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood due to the limitation of the NASH animal models used. <b>Methods:</b> A high-fat and high-fructose diet-induced mouse model of NAFLD, the best available preclinical NASH mouse model, was used. RNAseq, histological, and metabolic pathway analyses were used to identify the potential signaling pathways modulated by BBR. LC-MS was used to measure bile acid levels in the serum and liver. The real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were used to validate the RNAseq data. <b>Results:</b> BBR not only significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation by modulating fatty acid synthesis and metabolism but also restored the bile acid homeostasis by targeting multiple pathways. In addition, BBR markedly inhibited inflammation by reducing immune cell infiltration and inhibition of neutrophil activation and inflammatory gene expression. Furthermore, BBR was able to inhibit hepatic fibrosis by modulating the expression of multiple genes involved in hepatic stellate cell activation and cholangiocyte proliferation. Consistent with our previous findings, BBR's beneficial effects are linked with the downregulation of microRNA34a and long noncoding RNA H19, which are two important players in promoting NASH progression and liver fibrosis. <b>Conclusion</b>: BBR is a promising therapeutic agent for NASH by targeting multiple pathways. These results provide a strong foundation for a future clinical investigation.