Characterization of Bacillus subtilis HC8, a novel plant-beneficial endophytic strain from giant hogweed.
ABSTRACT: Thirty endophytic bacteria were isolated from various plant species growing near Saint-Petersburg, Russia. Based on a screening for various traits, including plant-beneficial properties and DNA fragment patterns, potential siblings were removed. The remaining isolates were taxonomically identified using 16S rDNA sequences and potential human and plant pathogens were removed. The remaining strains were tested for their ability to promote radish root growth and to protect tomato plants against tomato foot and root rot. One strain, Bacillus subtilis HC8, isolated from the giant hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden, significantly promoted plant growth and protected tomato against tomato foot and root rot. Metabolites possibly responsible for these plant-beneficial properties were identified as the hormone gibberellin and (lipo)peptide antibiotics respectively. The antibiotic properties of strain HC8 are similar to those of the commercially available plant-beneficial strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. However, thin layer chromatography profiles of the two strains differ. It is speculated that endophytes such as B. subtilis HC8 contribute to the fast growth of giant hogweed.
Project description:Monitoring of pathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum (Fox), which cause wilt and rots on agricultural and ornamental plants, is important for predicting disease outbreaks. Since both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of Fox are ubiquitous and are able to colonize plant roots, detection of Fox DNA in plant material is not the ultimate proof of an ongoing infection which would cause damage to the plant. We followed the colonization of tomato plants by strains Fox f. sp. radicis-lycopersici ZUM2407 (a tomato foot and root rot pathogen), Fox f. sp. radiciscucumerinum V03-2g (a cucumber root rot pathogen) and Fox Fo47 (a well-known non-pathogenic biocontrol strain). We determined fungal DNA concentrations in tomato plantlets by quantitative PCR (qPCR) with primers complementary to the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of these three Fox strains. Two weeks after inoculation of tomato seedlings with these Fox strains, the DNA concentration of Forl ZUM2407 was five times higher than that of the non-compatible pathogen Forc V03-2g and 10 times higher than that of Fo47. In 3-week-old plantlets the concentration of Forl ZUM2407 DNA was at least 10 times higher than those of the other strains. The fungal DNA concentration, as determined by qPCR, appeared to be in good agreement with data of the score of visible symptoms of tomato foot and root rot obtained 3 weeks after inoculation of tomato with Forl ZUM2407. Our results show that targeting of the multicopy ribosomal operon results in a highly sensitive qPCR reaction for the detection of Fox DNA. Since formae speciales of Fox cannot be distinguished by comparison of ribosomal operons, detection of Fox DNA is not evidence of plant infection by a compatible pathogen. Nevertheless, the observed difference in levels of plant colonization between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains strongly suggests that a concentration of Fox DNA in plant material above the threshold level of 0.005% is due to proliferation of pathogenic Fox.
Project description:Salinity causes disturbance in symbiotic performance of plants, and increases susceptibility of plants to soil-borne pathogens. Endophytic bacteria are an essential determinant of cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The aim of this study was to isolate non-rhizobial endophytic bacteria from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), and to assess their ability to improve plant growth and symbiotic performance, and to control root rot in chickpea under saline soil conditions. A total of 40 bacterial isolates from internal root tissues of chickpea grown in salinated soil were isolated. Four bacterial isolates, namely Bacillus cereus NUU1, Achromobacter xylosoxidans NUU2, Bacillus thuringiensis NUU3, and Bacillus subtilis NUU4 colonizing root tissue demonstrated plant beneficial traits and/or antagonistic activity against F. solani and thus were characterized in more detail. The strain B. subtilis NUU4 proved significant plant growth promotion capabilities, improved symbiotic performance of host plant with rhizobia, and promoted yield under saline soil as compared to untreated control plants under field conditions. A combined inoculation of chickpea with M. ciceri IC53 and B. subtilis NUU4 decreased H2O2 concentrations and increased proline contents compared to the un-inoculated plants indicating an alleviation of adverse effects of salt stress. Furthermore, the bacterial isolate was capable to reduce the infection rate of root rot in chickpea caused by F. solani. This is the first report of F. solani causing root rot of chickpea in a salinated soil of Uzbekistan. Our findings demonstrated that the endophytic B. subtilis strain NUU4 provides high potentials as a stimulator for plant growth and as biological control agent of chickpea root rot under saline soil conditions. These multiple relationships could provide promising practical approaches to increase the productivity of legumes under salt stress.
Project description:Fusarium culmorum is a soilborne fungal plant pathogen that causes foot and root rot and Fusarium head blight on small-grain cereals, in particular on wheat and barley. We report herein the draft genome sequence of a 1998 field strain called FcUK99 adapted to the temperate climate found in England.
Project description:An approach to manage seed-transmitted Fusarium crown-foot-root rot (FCR, Fusarium spp.) and common root rot (CRR, Bipolaris sorokiniana) on wheat, avoiding environmental risks of chemicals, is seed treatments with microbial metabolites. F. sambucinum strain FS-94 that induces resistance to tomato wilt was shown by this study to be a source of non-fungitoxic wheat-protecting metabolites, which were contained in a mycelium extract purified by gel-chromatography and ultrafiltration. Plant-protecting effect of the purified mycelial extract (PME) was demonstrated in vegetation experiments using a rolled-towel assay and by small-plot field trials. To elucidate mechanisms putatively underlying PME protective activity, tests with cultured Triticum aestivum and T. kiharae cells, particularly the extracellular alkalinization assay, as well as gene expression analysis in germinated wheat seeds were used. Pre-inoculation treatments of seeds with PME significantly decreased the incidence (from 30 to 40%) and severity (from 37 to 50%) of root rots on seedlings without any inhibition of the seed germination and potentiation of deoxynivalenol (DON), DON monoacetylated derivatives and zearalenon production in FCR agents. In vegetation experiments, reductions in the DON production were observed with doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/mL of PME. Pre-sowing PME application on seeds of two spring wheat cultivars naturally infected with FCR and CRR provided the mitigation of both diseases under field conditions during four growing seasons (2013?2016). PME-induced ion exchange response in cultured wheat cells, their increased survivability, and up-regulated expression of some defensins' genes in PME-exposed seedlings allow the suggestion of the plant-mediated character of disease-controlling effect observed in field.
Project description:Plants are master regulators of rhizosphere ecology, secreting a complex mixture of compounds into the soil, collectively termed plant root exudate. Root exudate composition is highly dynamic and functional, mediating economically important interactions between plants and a wide range of soil organisms. Currently we know very little about the molecular basis of root exudate composition, which is a key hurdle to functional exploitation of root exudates for crop improvement. Root expressed transporters modulate exudate composition and could be manipulated to develop beneficial plant root exudate traits. Using Virus Induced Gene silencing (VIGS), we demonstrate that knockdown of two root-expressed ABC transporter genes in tomato cv. Moneymaker, ABC-C6 and ABC-G33, alters the composition of semi-volatile compounds in collected root exudates. Root exudate chemotaxis assays demonstrate that knockdown of each transporter gene triggers the repulsion of economically relevant Meloidogyne and Globodera spp. plant parasitic nematodes, which are attracted to control treatment root exudates. Knockdown of ABC-C6 inhibits egg hatching of Meloidogyne and Globodera spp., relative to controls. Knockdown of ABC-G33 has no impact on egg hatching of Meloidogyne spp. but has a substantial inhibitory impact on egg hatching of G. pallida. ABC-C6 knockdown has no impact on the attraction of the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens, or the plant growth promoting Bacillus subtilis, relative to controls. Silencing ABC-G33 induces a statistically significant reduction in attraction of B. subtilis, with no impact on attraction of A. tumefaciens. By inoculating selected differentially exuded compounds into control root exudates, we demonstrate that hexadecaonic acid and pentadecane are biologically relevant parasite repellents. ABC-C6 represents a promising target for breeding or biotechnology intervention strategies as gene knockdown leads to the repulsion of economically important plant parasites and retains attraction of the beneficial rhizobacterium B. subtilis. This study exposes the link between ABC transporters, root exudate composition, and ex planta interactions with agriculturally and economically relevant rhizosphere organisms, paving the way for new approaches to rhizosphere engineering and crop protection.
Project description:Trichoderma species are opportunistic plant symbionts that are common in the root and rhizosphere ecosystems. Many Trichoderma species may enhance plant growth, nutrient acquisition, and disease resistance, and for these reasons, they are widely used in agriculture as biofertilizers or biocontrol agents. Host plant genotype and other microorganisms, such as root pathogens, may influence the efficacy of Trichoderma inoculants. Aphanomyces euteiches is an important soil-borne oomycete in western Canada that causes root rot in legume crops such as lentil and pea, and there is not yet any significantly resistant varieties or effective treatments available to control the disease. In this study, the composition of root-associated fungal communities and the abundance of Trichoderma species, T. harzianum strain T-22 and T. virens strain G41, was determined in the roots of eight Lens genotypes based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) Illumina MiSeq paired-end sequencing, both in the presence and the absence of the root rot pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches. Biocontrol effects of T. harzianum on A. euteiches was also examined. Significant genotypic variations were observed in the composition of root-associated fungal communities and the abundance of the different Trichoderma species in the lentil roots. The presence of A. euteiches altered the composition of Trichoderma found associated to the lentil genotypes. Biocontrol of A. euteiches by T. harzianum T22 species was observed in vitro and positive correlations between the abundance of Trichoderma and plant root and shoot biomass were observed in vivo. These findings revealed that lentil genotype and infection by the phytopathogen A. euteiches greatly influenced the colonization of root-associated fungi and the abundance of the Trichoderma species, as well as the effect on plant growth promotion. The multipartite interactions observed among lentil genotypes, Trichoderma species and A. euteiches suggest possibilities to select compatible host-beneficial microbe combinations in lentil breeding programs and to develop application strategies to harness the beneficial effects of Trichoderma inoculants in sustainable crop production systems.
Project description:The use of microorganisms and their secreted molecules to prevent plant diseases is considered an attractive alternative and way to supplement synthetic fungicides for the management of plant diseases. Strain BS062 was selected based on its ability to inhibit the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea, a major causal fungus of postharvest root rot of ginseng and strawberry gray mold disease. Strain BS062 was found to be closely related to Streptomyces hygroscopicus (99% similarity) on the basis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Postharvest root rot of ginseng and strawberry gray mold disease caused by B. cinerea were controlled up to 73.9% and 58%, respectively, upon treatment with culture broth of Streptomyces sp. BS062. These results suggest that strain BS062 may be a potential agent for controlling ginseng postharvest root rot and strawberry gray mold disease.
Project description:Allelopathy may drive invasions of some exotic plants, although empirical evidence for this theory remains largely inconclusive. This could be related to the large intraspecific variability of chemically mediated plant-plant interactions, which is poorly studied. This study addressed intraspecific variability in allelopathy of Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed), an invasive species with a considerable negative impact on native communities and ecosystems.Bioassays were carried out to test the alleopathic effects of H. mantegazzianum root exudates on germination of Arabidopsis thaliana and Plantago lanceolata. Populations of H. mantegazzianum from the Czech Republic were sampled and variation in the phytotoxic effects of the exudates was partitioned between areas, populations within areas, and maternal lines. The composition of the root exudates was determined by metabolic profiling using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the relationships between the metabolic profiles and the effects observed in the bioassays were tested using orthogonal partial least-squares analysis.Variance partitioning indicated that the highest variance in phytotoxic effects was within populations. The inhibition of germination observed in the bioassay for the co-occurring native species P. lanceolata could be predicted by the metabolic profiles of the root exudates of particular maternal lines. Fifteen compounds associated with this inhibition were tentatively identified.The results present strong evidence that intraspecific variability needs to be considered in research on allelopathy, and suggest that metabolic profiling provides an efficient tool for studying chemically mediated plant-plant interactions whenever unknown metabolites are involved.
Project description:Colonization of plant roots by Bacillus subtilis is mutually beneficial to plants and bacteria. Plants can secrete up to 30% of their fixed carbon via root exudates, thereby feeding the bacteria, and in return the associated B. subtilis bacteria provide the plant with many growth-promoting traits. Formation of a biofilm on the root by matrix-producing B. subtilis is a well-established requirement for long-term colonization. However, we observed that cells start forming a biofilm only several hours after motile cells first settle on the plant. We also found that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for early root colonization by B. subtilis and for plant protection. Arabidopsis thaliana root exudates attract B. subtilis in vitro, an activity mediated by the two characterized chemoreceptors, McpB and McpC, as well as by the orphan receptor TlpC. Nonetheless, bacteria lacking these chemoreceptors are still able to colonize the root, suggesting that other chemoreceptors might also play a role in this process. These observations suggest that A. thaliana actively recruits B. subtilis through root-secreted molecules, and our results stress the important roles of B. subtilis chemoreceptors for efficient colonization of plants in natural environments. These results demonstrate a remarkable strategy adapted by beneficial rhizobacteria to utilize carbon-rich root exudates, which may facilitate rhizobacterial colonization and a mutualistic association with the host. IMPORTANCE:Bacillus subtilis is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that establishes robust interactions with roots. Many studies have now demonstrated that biofilm formation is required for long-term colonization. However, we observed that motile B. subtilis mediates the first contact with the roots. These cells differentiate into biofilm-producing cells only several hours after the bacteria first contact the root. Our study reveals that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for the bacteria to reach the root. Many, if not all, of the B. subtilis 10 chemoreceptors are involved in the interaction with the plant. These observations stress the importance of root-bacterium interactions in the B. subtilis lifestyle.
Project description:Bacillus subtilis and other Bacilli have long been used as biological control agents against plant bacterial diseases but the mechanisms by which the bacteria confer protection are not well understood. Our goal in this study was to isolate strains of B.?subtilis that exhibit high levels of biocontrol efficacy from natural environments and to investigate the mechanisms by which these strains confer plant protection. We screened a total of 60 isolates collected from various locations across China and obtained six strains that exhibited above 50% biocontrol efficacy on tomato plants against the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum under greenhouse conditions. These wild strains were able to form robust biofilms both in defined medium and on tomato plant roots and exhibited strong antagonistic activities against various plant pathogens in plate assays. We show that plant protection by those strains depended on widely conserved genes required for biofilm formation, including regulatory genes and genes for matrix production. We provide evidence suggesting that matrix production is critical for bacterial colonization on plant root surfaces. Finally, we have established a model system for studies of B.?subtilis-tomato plant interactions in protection against a plant pathogen.