The trends and the risk of type 1 diabetes over the past 40 years: an analysis by birth cohorts and by parental migration background in Sweden.
ABSTRACT: To investigate the trends and the risk of developing type 1 diabetes in the offspring of Swedes and immigrants by specific parental migration background, age, sex and birth cohort.Registry-based cohort study.Using Swedish nationwide data we analysed the risk of developing type 1 diabetes in 3 457 486 female and 3 641 304 male offspring between 0 and 30 years of age, born to native Swedes or immigrants and born and living in Sweden between 1969 and 2009. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. We further calculated age-standardised rates (ASRs) of type 1 diabetes, using the world population as standard.We observed a trend of increasing ASRs among offspring below 15 years of age born to native Swedes and a less evident increase among offspring of immigrants. We further observed a shift towards a younger age at diagnosis in younger birth cohorts in both groups of offspring.Compared with offspring of Swedes, children (0-14 years) and young adults (15-30 years) with one parent born abroad had an overall 30% and 15-20% lower IRR, respectively, after multivariable adjustment. The reduction in IRR was even greater among offspring of immigrants if both parents were born abroad. Analysis by specific parental region of birth revealed a 45-60% higher IRR among male and female offspring aged 0-30 years of Eastern Africa.Parental country of birth and early exposures to environmental factors play an important role in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes.
Project description:Higher risks of psychiatric disorders and lower-than-average subjective health in adulthood have been demonstrated in offspring of immigrants in Sweden compared with offspring of native Swedes, and linked to relative socioeconomic disadvantage. The present study investigated mortality rates in relation to this inequity from a gender perspective.We used data from national registers covering the entire Swedish population aged 18-65 years. Offspring of foreign-born parents who were either Swedish born or had received residency in Sweden before school age (<7 years) were defined as "offspring of immigrants." We used Cox regression models to examine the association between parental country of birth and mortality between 1990 and 2008, with adjustment for education, income, age and family type.Male offspring of immigrants from the Middle East (HR:2.00, CI:1.66-2.26), other non-European countries (HR:1.80, CI:1.36-2.36) and Finland (HR:1.56, CI:1.48-1.65) showed an age-adjusted excess mortality risk from all causes of death when compared to offspring with Swedish-born parents. Income, but not education, greatly attenuated these increased mortality risks. No excess mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants, with the exception of external cause of death among offspring of Finnish immigrants.The study demonstrates high mortality rates in male offspring of immigrants from Finland and non-European countries that are associated with economic, but not educational, disadvantage. No increased mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants. Future studies are needed to explain this gender differential and why income, but not education, predicts mortality in male offspring of immigrants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Migrant and ethnic minority groups are often assumed to have poor health relative to the majority population. Few countries have the capacity to study a key indicator, mortality, by ethnicity and country of birth. We hypothesized at least 10% differences in mortality by ethnic group in Scotland that would not be wholly attenuated by adjustment for socio-economic factors or country of birth. METHODS AND FINDINGS:We linked the Scottish 2001 Census to mortality data (2001-2013) in 4.62 million people (91% of estimated population), calculating age-adjusted mortality rate ratios (RRs; multiplied by 100 as percentages) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 13 ethnic groups, with the White Scottish group as reference (ethnic group classification follows the Scottish 2001 Census). The Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, education status, and household tenure were socio-economic status (SES) confounding variables and born in the UK or Republic of Ireland (UK/RoI) an interacting and confounding variable. Smoking and diabetes data were from a primary care sub-sample (about 53,000 people). Males and females in most minority groups had lower age-adjusted mortality RRs than the White Scottish group. The 95% CIs provided good evidence that the RR was more than 10% lower in the following ethnic groups: Other White British (72.3 [95% CI 64.2, 81.3] in males and 75.2 [68.0, 83.2] in females); Other White (80.8 [72.8, 89.8] in males and 76.2 [68.6, 84.7] in females); Indian (62.6 [51.6, 76.0] in males and 60.7 [50.4, 73.1] in females); Pakistani (66.1 [57.4, 76.2] in males and 73.8 [63.7, 85.5] in females); Bangladeshi males (50.7 [32.5, 79.1]); Caribbean females (57.5 [38.5, 85.9]); and Chinese (52.2 [43.7, 62.5] in males and 65.8 [55.3, 78.2] in females). The differences were diminished but not eliminated after adjusting for UK/RoI birth and SES variables. A mortality advantage was evident in all 12 minority groups for those born abroad, but in only 6/12 male groups and 5/12 female groups of those born in the UK/RoI. In the primary care sub-sample, after adjustment for age, UK/RoI born, SES, smoking, and diabetes, the RR was not lower in Indian males (114.7 [95% CI 78.3, 167.9]) and Pakistani females (103.9 [73.9, 145.9]) than in White Scottish males and females, respectively. The main limitations were the inability to include deaths abroad and the small number of deaths in some ethnic minority groups, especially for people born in the UK/RoI. CONCLUSIONS:There was relatively low mortality for many ethnic minority groups compared to the White Scottish majority. The mortality advantage was less clear in UK/RoI-born minority group offspring than in immigrants. These differences need explaining, and health-related behaviours seem important. Similar analyses are required internationally to fulfil agreed goals for monitoring, understanding, and improving health in ethnically diverse societies and to apply to health policy, especially on health inequalities and inequities.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The first aim was to determine the extent of the relationship between place of birth and self-rated health (SRH) in primary healthcare patients born outside Sweden and those born in Sweden. The second aim was to investigate whether socioeconomic and lifestyle factors explained any differences. SETTING:Two academic primary healthcare centres in Stockholm County, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS:825 patients at high risk of developing pre-diabetes and diabetes, aged 18-74 years, attending academic healthcare centres in areas with large numbers of immigrants, 56.8% born abroad and 43.2% born in Sweden. Patients with a diagnosis of diabetes were excluded. Inclusion criteria were based on previous research showing that people born in Middle Eastern and Asian countries who live in Sweden have a high prevalence of and risk for diabetes. OUTCOME:SRH was dichotomised as optimal (very good/good) and suboptimal (fair/bad/very bad) and compared in those born outside Sweden and in Sweden. RESULTS:There was a statistically significant difference in the SRH of the two groups (p=0.008). Logistic regression analysis showed a crude OR for reduced SRH of 1.46 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.92) in patients born outside Sweden. After controlling for education, employment and marital status, the OR increased to 1.50 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.02). After controlling for physical activity and smoking, it decreased to 1.36 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.85). CONCLUSION:Socioeconomic and lifestyle factors influenced SRH. It could therefore be useful for clinicians to consider these factors when providing care for patients born outside Sweden and resettled in areas with large numbers of immigrants.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of hormonal contraceptives among immigrant and native women in Norway. DESIGN: Nationwide registry-based study based on merged data from the Norwegian Prescription Database, the Norwegian Population Registry, the Regular General Practitioner Database and the Medical Birth Registry. SETTING: Norway. SAMPLE: All women born abroad to two foreign-born parents (immigrants), or born in Norway to two Norwegian-born parents (natives) aged 16-45 years, who lived in Norway in 2008. METHODS: Data on all collected supplies of hormonal contraceptives in 2008 were merged with demographic, socio-economic and immigration data, information on any delivery and women's general practitioners. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: User rates of hormonal contraception and predictors of contraceptive use. RESULTS: A total of 893,073 women were included, of whom 130,080 were immigrants. More native women (38%) used hormonal contraceptives compared with all immigrant groups (15-24%). The odds ratios for any use of hormonal contraceptives for immigrants compared with Norwegian-born women were; Nordic countries 0.53, South and Central America 0.53, Western countries 0.39, Asia 0.30, Eastern Europe 0.29, Africa 0.29. Work, education, long stay in Norway and young age of immigration predicted the use of hormonal contraceptives among immigrants. CONCLUSIONS: The use of hormonal contraceptives varies between natives and immigrant groups. Further work is needed to ascertain whether these differences can be explained by higher desires for fertility, preferential use of non-hormonal contraceptives or other reasons identified through qualitative research.
Project description:All Canadian immigrants undergo screening for tuberculosis (TB) before immigration, and selected immigrants must undergo postimmigration surveillance for the disease. We sought to quantify the domestic health impact of screening for TB in all new immigrants and to identify mechanisms to enhance effectiveness and efficiency of this screening.We linked preimmigration medical examination records from 944,375 immigrants who settled in Ontario between 2002 and 2011 to active TB reporting data in Ontario between 2002 and 2011. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we measured birth country-specific rates of active TB detected through preimmigration screening and postimmigration surveillance. We then quantified the proportion of active TB cases among residents of Ontario born abroad that were detected through postimmigration surveillance. Using Cox regression, we identified independent predictors of active TB postimmigration.Immigrants from 6 countries accounted for 87.3% of active TB cases detected through preimmigration screening, and 10 countries accounted for 80.4% of cases detected through postimmigration surveillance. Immigrants from countries with a TB (all-sites) incidence rate of less than 30 cases per 100 000 persons resulted in pre- and postimmigration detection of 2.4 and 0.9 cases per 100 000 immigrants, respectively. Postimmigration surveillance detected 2.6% of active TB cases in Ontario residents born abroad, and TB was detected a median of 18 days earlier in those undergoing surveillance than in those who were not referred to surveillance or who did not comply. Predictors of active TB postimmigration included radiographic markers of old TB, birth country, immigration category, location of application for residency, immune status and age.Universal screening for TB in new immigrants has a modest impact on the domestic burden of active TB and is highly inefficient. Focusing preimmigration screening in countries with high incidence rates and revising criteria for postimmigration surveillance could increase the effectiveness and efficiency of screening.
Project description:The prevalence of obesity, as well as use of bariatric surgery, has increased worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential differences in the use of bariatric surgery among Swedes and immigrants in Sweden and whether the hypothesized differences remain after adjustment for socioeconomic factors.A closed cohort of all individuals aged 20-64 years was followed during 2001-2010. Further analyses were performed in 2 periods separately (2001-2005 and 2006-2010). Age-standardized cumulative incidence rates (CR) of bariatric surgery were compared between Swedes and immigrants considering individual variables. Cox proportional hazards models were used in univariate and multivariate models for males and females.A total of 12,791 Swedes and 2060 immigrants underwent bariatric surgery. The lowest rates of bariatric surgery were found in immigrant men. The largest difference in CR between Swedes and immigrants was observed among low-income individuals (3.4 and 2.3 per 1000 individuals, respectively). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were lower for all immigrants compared with Swedes in the second period. The highest HRs were observed among immigrants from Chile and Lebanon and the lowest among immigrants from Bosnia. Except for Nordic countries, immigrants from all other European countries had a lower HR compared with Swedes.Men in general and some immigrant groups had a lower HR of bariatric surgery. Moreover, the difference between Swedes and immigrants was more pronounced in individuals with low socioeconomic status (income). It is unclear if underlying barriers to receive bariatric surgery are due to patients' preferences/lack of knowledge or healthcare structures. Future studies are needed to examine potential causes behind these differences.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that immigrants from Middle Eastern countries are a high-risk group for type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared with Swedes, and that the pathogenesis of T2D may be ethnicity-specific. Deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression has been demonstrated to be associated with T2D but ethnic differences in miRNA have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the ethnic specific expression (Swedish and Iraqi) of a panel of 14 previously identified miRNAs in patients without T2D (including those with prediabetes) and T2D. METHODS: A total of 152 individuals were included in the study (84 Iraqis and 68 Swedes). Nineteen Iraqis and 14 Swedes were diagnosed with T2D. Expression of the 14 selected miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-20, miR-21, miR-24, miR-29b, miR-126, miR-144, miR-150, miR-197, miR-223, miR-191, miR-320a, miR-486-5p, and miR-28-3p) in plasma samples was measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS: In the whole study population, the expression of miR-24 and miR-29b was significantly different between T2D patients and controls after adjustment for age, sex, waist circumference, family history of T2D, and a sedentary lifestyle. Interestingly, when stratifying the study population according to country of birth, we found that higher expression of miR-144 was significantly associated with T2D in Swedes (OR?=?2.43, p?=?0.035), but not in Iraqis (OR?=?0.54, p?=?0.169). The interaction test was significant (p?=?0.017). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the association between plasma miR-144 expression and T2D differs between Swedes and Iraqis.
Project description:Maternal diabetes mellitus in pregnancy results in greater offspring adiposity at birth. It is unclear whether it is associated with greater adiposity into adulthood, and if so, whether this is via intrauterine mechanisms or shared familial characteristics.A record-linkage prospective cohort study of 280,866 singleton-born Swedish men from 248,293 families was used to explore the intrauterine effect of maternal diabetes mellitus on offspring body mass index (BMI) in early adulthood. Maternal diabetes mellitus during pregnancy was associated with greater mean BMI at age 18 in their sons. The difference in BMI was similar within brothers and between nonsiblings. BMI of men whose mothers had diabetes mellitus during their pregnancy was on average 0.94 kg/m² greater (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 1.52) than in their brothers born before their mother was diagnosed with diabetes, after adjustment for birth year, maternal age, parity and education, birth weight, gestational age, and age at assessment of BMI. Early-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with son's BMI between nonsiblings, but there was no association within brothers. Adjustment of the maternal diabetes-offspring BMI association for maternal BMI did not alter the association either within brothers or between nonsiblings. Results were also robust to sensitivity analyses restricting the within-sibling analyses to siblings born within 3 years of each other.Maternal diabetes mellitus has long-term consequences for greater BMI in offspring; this association is likely to be via intrauterine mechanisms, and is independent of maternal BMI in early pregnancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Female physicians have become an increasing proportion of the medical workforce in Israel. This study investigates this trend and discusses its likely impact on the quantity and quality of medical care available. METHOD: Data on licensed physicians and new licenses issued to physicians were taken from a Ministry of Health database, and analyzed by gender, age, academic origin (Israeli graduates, immigrants, Israeli-born who studied abroad), and specialty for the years 1999-2011.Data on employed physicians, their population group, and work hours were taken from the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) annual Labour Force Survey for the years 2009-2011. RESULTS: The proportion of women amongst physicians aged under 65 rose from 38% in 1999 to 42% in 2011, and was even higher for younger physicians. The highest proportion of females is found amongst new immigrant physicians who studied abroad. The corresponding proportion has been rising steadily amongst Israeli-educated physicians, and is lowest amongst Israeli-born physicians who studied abroad.Similarly, among newly licensed physicians, the proportion of females has traditionally been highest among immigrants who studied abroad and lowest among Israeli-born graduates who studied abroad. Among newly-licensed physicians who studied in Israel, the proportion of females has historically been intermediate between the other two groups, but it has recently risen to 54% and now parallels the proportion of females among immigrants who studied abroad. In recent years, the mix of academic origins among newly licensed physicians has changed dramatically, with important implications for the proportion of women among newly licensed physicians.The highest percentage of females was found in family medicine followed by oncology, pediatrics and psychiatry. The greatest increase over the years in this percentage was for gynecology and internal medicine.Female physicians worked shorter hours than males, particularly at younger ages. The proportion of females among employed Arab physicians is much lower than among Jewish physicians. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of female physicians has been steadily rising, although in recent years the increase has leveled off. This has been due, in part, to the decline in the flow of immigrant physicians and the increase in the number of Israelis studying abroad. Future developments in medical education options and immigration will determine whether their proportion will continue rising. Planning for future medical personnel must take these results into consideration.
Project description:Some non-Western immigrant groups in Europe have elevated risk of psychosis relative to native-born. It is hypothesized that neighborhood ethnic density moderates this risk. Immigration to Sweden has increased substantially recently, particularly from the Middle East. This study examined the relationship between neighborhood ethnic density (i.e., living in an immigrant enclave) and risk of psychotic and affective disorders among three groups: Iraqi immigrants, immigrants from other nations, and native-born Swedes.Individuals aged 15-60, without prevalent psychopathology, were drawn from Swedish population-based registries and followed from 2005 to 2010 (N = 950,979). Multi-level logistic regression was used to examine the association between neighborhood ethnic composition and incident psychopathology.Cumulative incidence of psychopathology was greater in Iraqi enclaves relative to predominantly Swedish neighborhoods (6.3 vs. 4.5%). Iraqis living in enclaves did not have significantly greater risk of psychosis (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.92-2.97) or affective disorders (OR: 1.04, 95%CI 0.85-1.27) relative to those in predominantly Swedish neighborhoods. There was no increased risk of psychosis (OR: 0.93, p > 0.05) or affective disorders (OR: 0.93, p > 0.05) for other immigrants living in an enclave. Swedes living in an enclave had elevated risk of both psychosis (OR: 1.37, p < 0.05) and affective disorders (OR: 1.14, p < 0.05) relative to those in predominantly Swedish neighborhoods. Second-generation Iraqis had higher risk of psychotic but not affective disorders relative to first-generation.Neighborhood ethnic density does not moderate risk of psychopathology for immigrants in Sweden. Findings regarding Swedes are consistent with social drift.