Crystal structure of a glucose/H+ symporter and its mechanism of action.
ABSTRACT: Glucose transporters are required to bring glucose into cells, where it is an essential energy source and precursor in protein and lipid synthesis. These transporters are involved in important common diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Staphylococcus epidermidis glucose/H(+) symporter in an inward-facing conformation at 3.2-Å resolution. The Staphylococcus epidermidis glucose/H(+) symporter is homologous to human glucose transporters, is very specific and has high avidity for glucose, and is inhibited by the human glucose transport inhibitors cytochalasin B, phloretin, and forskolin. On the basis of the crystal structure in conjunction with mutagenesis and functional studies, we propose a mechanism for glucose/H(+) symport and discuss the symport mechanism versus facilitated diffusion.
Project description:Many secondary active membrane transporters pump substrates against concentration gradients by coupling their uptake to symport of sodium ions. Symport requires the substrate and ions to be always transported together. Cooperative binding of the solutes is a key mechanism contributing to coupled transport in the sodium and aspartate symporter from Pyrococcus horikoshii GltPh. Here, we describe the kinetic mechanism of coupled binding for GltPh in the inward facing state. The first of the three coupled sodium ions, binds weakly and slowly, enabling the protein to accept the rest of the ions and the substrate. The last ion binds tightly, but is in rapid equilibrium with solution. Its release is required for the complex disassembly. Thus, the first ion serves to 'open the door' for the substrate, the last ion 'locks the door' once the substrate is in, and one ion contributes to both events.
Project description:Glycerol and other polyols are used as osmoprotectants by many organisms. Several yeasts and other fungi can take up glycerol by proton symport. To identify genes involved in active glycerol uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae we screened a deletion mutant collection comprising 321 genes encoding proteins with 6 or more predicted transmembrane domains for impaired growth on glycerol medium. Deletion of STL1, which encodes a member of the sugar transporter family, eliminates active glycerol transport. Stl1p is present in the plasma membrane in S. cerevisiae during conditions where glycerol symport is functional. Both the Stl1 protein and the active glycerol transport are subject to glucose-induced inactivation, following identical patterns. Furthermore, the Stl1 protein and the glycerol symporter activity are strongly but transiently induced when cells are subjected to osmotic shock. STL1 was heterologously expressed in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a yeast that does not contain its own active glycerol transport system. In S. pombe, STL1 conferred the ability to take up glycerol against a concentration gradient in a proton motive force-dependent manner. We conclude that the glycerol proton symporter in S. cerevisiae is encoded by STL1.
Project description:The glucose transporter from Staphylococcus epidermidis, GlcPSe, is a homolog of the human GLUT sugar transporters of the major facilitator superfamily. Together with the xylose transporter from Escherichia coli, XylEEc, the other prominent prokaryotic GLUT homolog, GlcPSe, is equipped with a conserved proton-binding site arguing for an electrogenic transport mode. However, the electrophysiological analysis of GlcPSe presented here reveals important differences between the two GLUT homologs. GlcPSe, unlike XylEEc, does not perform steady-state electrogenic transport at symmetrical pH conditions. Furthermore, when a pH gradient is applied, partially uncoupled transport modes can be generated. In contrast to other bacterial sugar transporters analyzed so far, in GlcPSe sugar binding, translocation and release are also accomplished by the deprotonated transporter. Based on these experimental results, we conclude that coupling of sugar and H+ transport is incomplete in GlcPSe. To verify the viability of the observed partially coupled GlcPSe transport modes, we propose a universal eight-state kinetic model in which any degree of coupling is realized and H+/sugar symport represents only a specific instance. Furthermore, using sequence comparison with strictly coupled XylEEc and similar sugar transporters, we identify an additional charged residue that may be essential for effective H+/sugar symport.
Project description:Candida intermedia PYCC 4715 was previously shown to grow well on xylose and to transport this sugar by two different transport systems: high-capacity and low-affinity facilitated diffusion and a high-affinity xylose-proton symporter, both of which accept glucose as a substrate. Here we report the isolation of genes encoding both transporters, designated GXF1 (glucose/xylose facilitator 1) and GXS1 (glucose/xylose symporter 1) respectively. Although GXF1 was isolated by functional complementation of an HXT-null (where Hxt refers to hexose transporters) Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, isolation of the GXS1 cDNA required partial purification and micro-sequencing of the transporter, identified by its relative abundance in cells grown on low xylose concentrations. Both genes were expressed in S. cerevisiae and the kinetic parameters of glucose and xylose transport were determined. Gxs1 is the first yeast xylose/glucose-H+ symporter to be characterized at the molecular level. Comparison of its amino acid sequence with available sequence data revealed the existence of a family of putative monosaccharide-H+ symporters encompassing proteins from several yeasts and filamentous fungi.
Project description:Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a fructophilic yeast than can grow at very high sugar concentrations. We have identified an ORF encoding a putative fructose/H(+) symporter in the Z. rouxii CBS 732 genome database. Heterologous expression of this ORF in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking its own hexose transporters (hxt-null) and subsequent kinetic characterization of its sugar transport activity showed it is a high-affinity low-capacity fructose/H(+) symporter, with Km 0.45 ± 0.07 mM and Vmax 0.57 ± 0.02 mmol h(-1) (gdw)(-1). We named it ZrFsy1. This protein also weakly transports xylitol and sorbose, but not glucose or other hexoses. The expression of ZrFSY1 in Z. rouxii is higher when the cells are cultivated at extremely low fructose concentrations (<0.2%) and on non-fermentable carbon sources such as mannitol and xylitol, where the cells have a prolonged lag phase, longer duplication times and change their microscopic morphology. A clear phenotype was determined for the first time for the deletion of a fructose/H(+) symporter in the genome where it occurs naturally. The effect of the deletion of ZrFSY1 in Z. rouxii cells is only evident when the cells are cultivated at very low fructose concentrations, when the ZrFsy1 fructose symporter is the main active fructose transporter system.
Project description:The glucose transporters (GLUT/SLC2A) are members of the major facilitator superfamily. Here, we generated a three-dimensional model for Glut1 using a two-step strategy: 1), GlpT structure as an initial homology template and 2), evolutionary homology using glucose-6-phosphate translocase as a template. The resulting structure (PDB No. 1SUK) exhibits a water-filled passageway communicating the extracellular and intracellular domains, with a funnel-like exofacial vestibule (infundibulum), followed by a 15 A-long x 8 A-wide channel, and a horn-shaped endofacial vestibule. Most residues which, by mutagenesis, are crucial for transport delimit the channel, and putative sugar recognition motifs (QLS, QLG) border both ends of the channel. On the outside of the structure there are two positively charged cavities (one exofacial, one endofacial) delimited by ATP-binding Walker motifs, and an exofacial large side cavity of yet unknown function. Docking sites were found for the glucose substrate and its inhibitors: glucose, forskolin, and phloretin at the exofacial infundibulum; forskolin, and phloretin at an endofacial site next to the channel opening; and cytochalasin B at a positively charged endofacial pocket 3 A away from the channel. Thus, 1SUK accounts for practically all biochemical and mutagenesis evidence, and provides clues for the transport process.
Project description:Lactose permease structure is deemed consistent with a mechanical switch device for H(+)-coupled symport. Because the crystallography-assigned docking position of thiodigalactoside (TDG) does not make close contact with several amino acids essential for symport; the switch model requires allosteric interactions between the proton and sugar binding sites. The docking program, Autodock 3 reveals other lactose-docking sites. An alternative cotransport mechanism is proposed where His-322 imidazolium, positioned in the central pore equidistant (5-7 A) between six charged amino acids, Arg-302 and Lys-319 opposing Glu-269, Glu-325, Asp-237, and Asp-240, transfers a proton transiently to an H-bonded lactose hydroxyl group. Protonated lactose and its dissociation product H(3)O+ are repelled by reprotonated His-322 and drift in the electrostatic field toward the cytosol. This Brownian ratchet model, unlike the conventional carrier model, accounts for diminished symport by H322N mutant; how H322 mutants become uniporters; why exchanging Lys-319 with Asp-240 paradoxically inactivates symport; how some multiple mutants become revertant transporters; the raised export rate and affinity toward lactose of uncoupled mutants; the altered specificity toward lactose, melibiose, and galactose of some mutants, and the proton dissociation rate of H322 being 100-fold faster than the symport turnover rate.
Project description:Protozoa of the order kinetoplastida have colonized many habitats, and several species are important parasites of humans. Adaptation to different environments requires an associated adaptation at a cell's interface with its environment, i.e. the plasma membrane. Sugar transport by the kinetoplastida as a phylogenetically related group of organisms offers an exceptional model in which to study the ways by which the carrier proteins involved in this process may evolve to meet differing environmental challenges. Seven genes encoding proteins involved in glucose transport have been cloned from several kinetoplastid species. The transporters all belong to the glucose transporter superfamily exemplified by the mammalian erythrocyte transporter GLUT1. Some species, such as the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei, which undergo a life cycle where the parasites are exposed to very different glucose concentrations in the mammalian bloodstream and tsetse-fly midgut, have evolved two different transporters to deal with this fluctuation. Other species, such as the South American trypanosome Trypanosoma cruzi, multiply predominantly in conditions of relative glucose deprivation (intracellularly in the mammalian host, or within the reduviid bug midgut) and have a single, relatively high-affinity type, transporter. All of the kinetoplastid transporters can also transport d-fructose, and are relatively insensitive to the classical inhibitors of GLUT1 transport cytochalasin B and phloretin.
Project description:The bacterial melibiose permease (MelB) belongs to the glycoside-pentoside-hexuronide:cation symporter family, a part of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Structural information regarding glycoside-pentoside-hexuronide:cation symporter family transporters and other Na(+)-coupled permeases within MFS has been lacking, although a wealth of biochemical and biophysical data are available. Here we present the three-dimensional crystal structures of Salmonella typhimurium MelBSt in two conformations, representing an outward partially occluded and an outward inactive state of MelBSt. MelB adopts a typical MFS fold and contains a previously unidentified cation-binding motif. Three conserved acidic residues form a pyramidal-shaped cation-binding site for Na(+), Li(+) or H(+), which is in close proximity to the sugar-binding site. Both cosubstrate-binding sites are mainly contributed by the residues from the amino-terminal domain. These two structures and the functional data presented here provide mechanistic insights into Na(+)/melibiose symport. We also postulate a structural foundation for the conformational cycling necessary for transport catalysed by MFS permeases in general.
Project description:The Escherichia coli uracil:proton symporter UraA is a prototypical member of the nucleobase/ascorbate transporter (NAT) or nucleobase/cation symporter 2 (NCS2) family, which corresponds to the human solute carrier family SLC23. UraA consists of 14 transmembrane segments (TMs) that are organized into two distinct domains, the core domain and the gate domain, a structural fold that is also shared by the SLC4 and SLC26 transporters. Here we present the crystal structure of UraA bound to uracil in an occluded state at 2.5 Å resolution. Structural comparison with the previously reported inward-open UraA reveals pronounced relative motions between the core domain and the gate domain as well as intra-domain rearrangement of the gate domain. The occluded UraA forms a dimer in the structure wherein the gate domains are sandwiched by two core domains. In vitro and in vivo biochemical characterizations show that UraA is at equilibrium between dimer and monomer in all tested detergent micelles, while dimer formation is necessary for the transport activity. Structural comparison between the dimeric UraA and the recently reported inward-facing dimeric UapA provides important insight into the transport mechanism of SLC23 transporters.