Interannual variation of water isotopologues at Vostok indicates a contribution from stratospheric water vapor.
ABSTRACT: Combined measurements of water isotopologues of a snow pit at Vostok over the past 60 y reveal a unique signature that cannot be explained only by climatic features as usually done. Comparisons of the data using a general circulation model and a simpler isotopic distillation model reveal a stratospheric signature in the (17)O-excess record at Vostok. Our data and theoretical considerations indicate that mass-independent fractionation imprints the isotopic signature of stratospheric water vapor, which may allow for a distinction between stratospheric and tropospheric influences at remote East Antarctic sites.
Project description:RATIONALE:The doubly substituted isotopologues (e.g., 18 O18 O, 17 O18 O) in atmospheric O2 are potential tracers for ozone photochemistry and atmospheric temperatures. Their low abundances and isobaric interference are the major analytical challenges. The 253 Ultra high-resolution stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer is suitable for resolving isobaric interferences. METHODS:O2 from air is purified using gas chromatography on a packed column filled with molecular sieve 5 Å and cooled to -78°C. The δ17 O, δ18 O, Δ17 O, Δ35 and Δ36 values are measured on the extracted O2 with the 253 Ultra at medium mass resolution (M/ΔM ~10000) using Faraday detectors for the singly substituted isotopologues and ion counters for the doubly substituted isotopologues. RESULTS:Interferences from isobars, mainly 35 Cl for 17 O18 O and H35 Cl and 36 Ar for 18 O18 O, are sufficiently resolved to enable high-precision determination of Δ35 and Δ36 . The Δ35 and Δ36 values of O2 after photochemical isotope equilibration at -63°C and heating to 850°C agree with the theoretical prediction. The stratospheric Δ35 and Δ36 values are close to isotopic equilibrium at the ambient temperatures. However, the values for tropospheric O2 differ from those expected at equilibrium. CONCLUSIONS:The 253 Ultra allows interference-free clumped isotope measurements of O2 at medium mass resolution. The Δ35 and Δ36 signatures in atmospheric O2 are mainly governed by O3 photochemistry, temperature and atmospheric transport. Tropospheric O2 is isotopically well mixed and retains a significant stratospheric signature.
Project description:High quality records of stratospheric volcanic eruptions, required to model past climate variability, have been constructed by identifying synchronous (bipolar) volcanic sulfate horizons in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Here we present a new 2600-year chronology of stratospheric volcanic events using an independent approach that relies on isotopic signatures (Δ33S and in some cases Δ17O) of ice core sulfate from five closely-located ice cores from Dome C, Antarctica. The Dome C stratospheric reconstruction provides independent validation of prior reconstructions. The isotopic approach documents several high-latitude stratospheric events that are not bipolar, but climatically-relevant, and diverges deeper in the record revealing tropospheric signals for some previously assigned bipolar events. Our record also displays a collapse of the Δ17O anomaly of sulfate for the largest volcanic eruptions, showing a further change in atmospheric chemistry induced by large emissions. Thus, the refinement added by considering both isotopic and bipolar correlation methods provides additional levels of insight for climate-volcano connections and improves ice core volcanic reconstructions.
Project description:The stratospheric CO(2) oxygen isotope budget is thought to be governed primarily by the O((1)D)+CO(2) isotope exchange reaction. However, there is increasing evidence that other important physical processes may be occurring that standard isotopic tools have been unable to identify. Measuring the distribution of the exceedingly rare CO(2) isotopologue (16)O(13)C(18)O, in concert with (18)O and (17)O abundances, provides sensitivities to these additional processes and, thus, is a valuable test of current models. We identify a large and unexpected meridional variation in stratospheric (16)O(13)C(18)O, observed as proportions in the polar vortex that are higher than in any naturally derived CO(2) sample to date. We show, through photochemical experiments, that lower (16)O(13)C(18)O proportions observed in the midlatitudes are determined primarily by the O((1)D)+CO(2) isotope exchange reaction, which promotes a stochastic isotopologue distribution. In contrast, higher (16)O(13)C(18)O proportions in the polar vortex show correlations with long-lived stratospheric tracer and bulk isotope abundances opposite to those observed at midlatitudes and, thus, opposite to those easily explained by O((1)D)+CO(2). We believe the most plausible explanation for this meridional variation is either an unrecognized isotopic fractionation associated with the mesospheric photochemistry of CO(2) or temperature-dependent isotopic exchange on polar stratospheric clouds. Unraveling the ultimate source of stratospheric (16)O(13)C(18)O enrichments may impose additional isotopic constraints on biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange, biosphere productivity, and their respective responses to climate change.
Project description:We report on separations of ion isotopologues and isotopomers using ultrahigh-resolution traveling wave-based Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations with serpentine ultralong path and extended routing ion mobility spectrometry coupled to mass spectrometry (SLIM SUPER IMS-MS). Mobility separations of ions from the naturally occurring ion isotopic envelopes (e.g., [M], [M+1], [M+2], ... ions) showed the first and second isotopic peaks (i.e., [M+1] and [M+2]) for various tetraalkylammonium ions could be resolved from their respective monoisotopic ion peak ([M]) after SLIM SUPER IMS with resolving powers of ?400-600. Similar separations were obtained for other compounds (e.g., tetrapeptide ions). Greater separation was obtained using argon versus helium drift gas, as expected from the greater reduced mass contribution to ion mobility described by the Mason-Schamp relationship. To more directly explore the role of isotopic substitutions, we studied a mixture of specific isotopically substituted (15N, 13C, and 2H) protonated arginine isotopologues. While the separations in nitrogen were primarily due to their reduced mass differences, similar to the naturally occurring isotopologues, their separations in helium, where higher resolving powers could also be achieved, revealed distinct additional relative mobility shifts. These shifts appeared correlated, after correction for the reduced mass contribution, with changes in the ion center of mass due to the different locations of heavy atom substitutions. The origin of these apparent mass distribution-induced mobility shifts was then further explored using a mixture of Iodoacetyl Tandem Mass Tag (iodoTMT) isotopomers (i.e., each having the same exact mass, but with different isotopic substitution sites). Again, the observed mobility shifts appeared correlated with changes in the ion center of mass leading to multiple monoisotopic mobilities being observed for some isotopomers (up to a ?0.04% difference in mobility). These mobility shifts thus appear to reflect details of the ion structure, derived from the changes due to ion rotation impacting collision frequency or momentum transfer, and highlight the potential for new approaches for ion structural characterization.
Project description:Volcanic eruptions are thought to be a key driver of rapid climate perturbations over geological time, such as global cooling, global warming, and changes in ocean chemistry. However, identification of stratospheric volcanic eruptions in the geological record and their causal link to the mass extinction events during the past 540 million years remains challenging. Here we report unexpected, large mass-independent sulphur isotopic compositions of pyrite with ?33S of up to 0.91‰ in Late Ordovician sedimentary rocks from South China. The magnitude of the ?33S is similar to that discovered in ice core sulphate originating from stratospheric volcanism. The coincidence between the large ?33S and the first pulse of the Late Ordovician mass extinction about 445 million years ago suggests that stratospheric volcanic eruptions may have contributed to synergetic environmental deteriorations such as prolonged climatic perturbations and oceanic anoxia, related to the mass extinction.
Project description:Stratospheric water vapour is a powerful greenhouse gas. The longest available record from balloon observations over Boulder, Colorado, USA shows increases in stratospheric water vapour concentrations that cannot be fully explained by observed changes in the main drivers, tropical tropopause temperatures and methane. Satellite observations could help resolve the issue, but constructing a reliable long-term data record from individual short satellite records is challenging. Here we present an approach to merge satellite data sets with the help of a chemistry-climate model nudged to observed meteorology. We use the models' water vapour as a transfer function between data sets that overcomes issues arising from instrument drift and short overlap periods. In the lower stratosphere, our water vapour record extends back to 1988 and water vapour concentrations largely follow tropical tropopause temperatures. Lower and mid-stratospheric long-term trends are negative, and the trends from Boulder are shown not to be globally representative. In the upper stratosphere, our record extends back to 1986 and shows positive long-term trends. The altitudinal differences in the trends are explained by methane oxidation together with a strengthened lower-stratospheric and a weakened upper-stratospheric circulation inferred by this analysis. Our results call into question previous estimates of surface radiative forcing based on presumed global long-term increases in water vapour concentrations in the lower stratosphere.
Project description:Determination of the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione is of profound clinical interest in assessing the oxidative status of tissues and body fluids. However, this ratio is not yet a routine clinical parameter due to the analytically challenging interconversion of reduced (free) glutathione to oxidized (bound) glutathione. We aimed to facilitate this ratio determination in order to aid its incorporation as a routine clinical parameter. To this end, we developed a simple derivatization route that yields different isotopologues of N-ethylmaleimide alkylated glutathione from reduced and oxidized glutathione (after its chemical reduction) for mass spectrometric analysis. A third isotopologue can be used as isotopic standard for simultaneous absolute quantification. As all isotopologues have similar chromatographic properties, matrix effects arising from different sample origins can only impact method sensitivity but not quantification accuracy. Robustness, simplified data analysis, cost effectiveness by one common standard, and highly improved mass spectrometric sensitivity by conversion of oxidized glutathione to an alkylated glutathione isotopologue are the main advantages of our approach. We present a method fully optimized for blood, plasma, serum, cell, and tissue samples. In addition, we propose production of N-ethylmaleimide customized blood collection tubes to even further facilitate the analysis in a clinical setting.
Project description:To identify the possible anomalous oxygen isotope signature in stratospheric water predicted by model studies, 25 water vapor samples were collected in 2003-2005 at Alert station, Canada (82°30'N), where there is downward transport of stratospheric air to the polar troposphere, and were analyzed for ?(17)O and ?(18)O relative to Chicago local precipitation (CLP). The latter was chosen as a reference because the relatively large evaporative moisture source should erase any possible oxygen isotope anomaly from the stratosphere. A mass-dependent fractionation coefficient for meteoric waters, ?MDF(H2O) = 0.529 ± 0.003 [2? standard error (SE)], was determined from 27 CLP samples collected in 2003-2005. An oxygen isotopic anomaly of ?(17)O = 76 ± 16 ppm (2? SE) was found in water vapor samples from Alert relative to CLP. We propose that the positive oxygen isotope anomalies observed at Alert originated from stratospheric ozone, were transferred to water in the stratosphere, and subsequently mixed with tropospheric water at high latitudes as the stratospheric air descended into the troposphere. On the basis of this ground signal, the average ?(17)O in stratospheric water vapor predicted by a steady-state box model is ?40‰. Seven ice core samples (1930-1991) from Dasuopu glacier (Himalayas, China) and Standard Light Antarctic Precipitation did not show an obvious oxygen isotope anomaly, and Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water exhibited a negative ?(17)O relative to CLP. Six Alert snow samples collected in March 2011 and measured at Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Gif sur Yvette, France, had (17)Oexcess of 45 ± 5 ppm (2? SE) relative to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water.
Project description:We report observations of stratospheric CO2 that reveal surprisingly large anomalous enrichments in (17)O that vary systematically with latitude, altitude, and season. The triple isotope slopes reached 1.95 ± 0.05(1?) in the middle stratosphere and 2.22 ± 0.07 in the Arctic vortex versus 1.71 ± 0.03 from previous observations and a remarkable factor of 4 larger than the mass-dependent value of 0.52. Kinetics modeling of laboratory measurements of photochemical ozone-CO2 isotope exchange demonstrates that non-mass-dependent isotope effects in ozone formation alone quantitatively account for the (17)O anomaly in CO2 in the laboratory, resolving long-standing discrepancies between models and laboratory measurements. Model sensitivities to hypothetical mass-dependent isotope effects in reactions involving O3, O((1)D), or CO2 and to an empirically derived temperature dependence of the anomalous kinetic isotope effects in ozone formation then provide a conceptual framework for understanding the differences in the isotopic composition and the triple isotope slopes between the laboratory and the stratosphere and between different regions of the stratosphere. This understanding in turn provides a firmer foundation for the diverse biogeochemical and paleoclimate applications of (17)O anomalies in tropospheric CO2, O2, mineral sulfates, and fossil bones and teeth, which all derive from stratospheric CO2.
Project description:Reanalysis data sets are widely used to understand atmospheric processes and past variability, and are often used to stand in as "observations" for comparisons with climate model output. Because of the central role of water vapor (WV) and ozone (O3) in climate change, it is important to understand how accurately and consistently these species are represented in existing global reanalyses. In this paper, we present the results of WV and O3 intercomparisons that have been performed as part of the SPARC (Stratosphere-troposphere Processes and their Role in Climate) Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP). The comparisons cover a range of timescales and evaluate both inter-reanalysis and observation-reanalysis differences. We also provide a systematic documentation of the treatment of WV and O3 in current reanalyses to aid future research and guide the interpretation of differences amongst reanalysis fields. The assimilation of total column ozone (TCO) observations in newer reanalyses results in realistic representations of TCO in reanalyses except when data coverage is lacking, such as during polar night. The vertical distribution of ozone is also relatively well represented in the stratosphere in reanalyses, particularly given the relatively weak constraints on ozone vertical structure provided by most assimilated observations and the simplistic representations of ozone photochemical processes in most of the reanalysis forecast models. However, significant biases in the vertical distribution of ozone are found in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in all reanalyses. In contrast to O3, reanalysis estimates of stratospheric WV are not directly constrained by assimilated data. Observations of atmospheric humidity are typically used only in the troposphere, below a specified vertical level at or near the tropopause. The fidelity of reanalysis stratospheric WV products is therefore mainly dependent on the reanalyses' representation of the physical drivers that influence stratospheric WV, such as temperatures in the tropical tropopause layer, methane oxidation, and the stratospheric overturning circulation. The lack of assimilated observations and known deficiencies in the representation of stratospheric transport in reanalyses result in much poorer agreement amongst observational and reanalysis estimates of stratospheric WV. Hence, stratospheric WV products from the current generation of reanalyses should generally not be used in scientific studies.