Dose-dense temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma: a randomized phase III clinical trial.
ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide is the standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM). O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status may be an important determinant of treatment response. Dose-dense (DD) temozolomide results in prolonged depletion of MGMT in blood mononuclear cells and possibly in tumor. This trial tested whether DD temozolomide improves overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with newly diagnosed GBM.This phase III trial enrolled patients older than age 18 years with a Karnofsky performance score of ? 60 with adequate tissue. Stratification included clinical factors and tumor MGMT methylation status. Patients were randomly assigned to standard temozolomide (arm 1) or DD temozolomide (arm 2) for 6 to 12 cycles. The primary end point was OS. Secondary analyses evaluated the impact of MGMT status.A total of 833 patients were randomly assigned to either arm 1 or arm 2 (1,173 registered). No statistically significant difference was observed between arms for median OS (16.6 v 14.9 months, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; P = .63) or median PFS (5.5 v 6.7 months; HR, 0.87; P = .06). Efficacy did not differ by methylation status. MGMT methylation was associated with improved OS (21.2 v 14 months; HR, 1.74; P < .001), PFS (8.7 v 5.7 months; HR, 1.63; P < .001), and response (P = .012). There was increased grade ? 3 toxicity in arm 2 (34% v 53%; P < .001), mostly lymphopenia and fatigue.This study did not demonstrate improved efficacy for DD temozolomide for newly diagnosed GBM, regardless of methylation status. However, it did confirm the prognostic significance of MGMT methylation. Feasibility of large-scale accrual, prospective tumor collection, and molecular stratification was demonstrated.
Project description:Importance:The initial report of NRG Oncology/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0424 demonstrated a 3-year overall survival benefit with the addition of temozolomide to radiotherapy compared with a historical control. However, an important end point of the trial-evaluation of the association between O6-methylgaunine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation and survival outcomes-was not previously reported. Objective:To examine the proportion of patients in NRG Oncology/RTOG 0424 with MGMT promoter methylation and its association with survival outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants:Specimens collected were analyzed after trial completion to determine MGMT promoter methylation and IDH1/2 status and the association between MGMT status and survival outcomes. A model derived from logistic regression (MGMT-STP27) was used to calculate MGMT promoter methylation status. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model to determine the association of MGMT status with survival outcomes. Patient pretreatment characteristics were included as covariates in multivariable analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures:Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results:Of all 129 eligible patients in NRG Oncology/RTOG 0424, 75 (58.1%) had MGMT status available (median age, 48 years; age range, 20-76 years; 42 [56.0%] male): 57 (76.0%) methylated and 18 (24.0%) unmethylated. A total of 13 unmethylated patients (72.2%) had astrocytoma as opposed to oligoastrocytoma or oligodendroglioma, whereas 23 methylated patients (40.4%) had astrocytoma. On univariate analyses, an unmethylated MGMT promoter was significantly associated with worse OS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.52; 95% CI, 1.64-7.56; P?<?.001) and PFS (HR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.55-6.04; P?<?.001). The statistical significances were maintained in multimarker multivariable analyses, including IDH1/2 status for both OS (HR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.02-7.14; P?=?.045) and PFS (HR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.19-6.33; P?=?.02). Conclusions and Relevance:In this study, MGMT promoter methylation was an independent prognostic biomarker of high-risk, low-grade glioma treated with temozolomide and radiotherapy. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to validate the prognostic importance of MGMT promoter methylation in patients with grade II glioma treated with combined radiotherapy and temozolomide and highlights its potential prognostic value beyond IDH1/2 mutation status. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00114140.
Project description:A phase II trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy of a dose-dense, 7 days on/7 days off schedule of temozolomide for patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG).Sixty patients with recurrent HGG received temozolomide at 150 mg/m(2)/day on days 1-7 and days 15-21 during each 4-week cycle. The primary endpoint was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS-6), with a secondary endpoint of overall survival (OS). A further exploratory objective included the investigation of whether methylation status of the O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter within tumor tissue predicted outcomes.Among patients with glioblastoma (n = 40), PFS-6 was 10% (95% CI, 3%-24%) with median OS of 21.6 weeks (95% CI, 16.9-30.6 weeks). PFS-6 for grade III glioma patients (n = 20) was 50% (95% CI, 27%-73%), and median OS was 100.6 weeks (95% CI, 67 weeks to not reached). There were trends towards longer PFS and OS with MGMT promoter methylation (log-rank test; P = .06 for PFS; P = .07 for OS). Additionally, bevacizumab-naïve glioblastoma patients had significantly longer PFS and OS (median PFS was 8.07 weeks [95% CI, 8 weeks to not reached] vs 7.57 weeks [95% CI, 7.29-8.29 weeks], log-rank test, P < .001; median OS was 62 weeks [26.1 weeks to not reached] vs 18.2 weeks [13.9-27.3 weeks], log-rank test, P < .001).The dose-dense temozolomide regimen was well tolerated, although it has no significant activity in this population. Clinical trials.gov identified. NCT00619112 (available at http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00619112).
Project description:Background and objective:Promoter status of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) has been widely established as a clinically relevant factor in glioblastoma (GBM) patients. However, in addition to varied therapy schedule, the prognosis of GBM patients is also affected by variations of age, race, primary or recurrent tumor. This study comprehensively investigated the association between MGMT promoter status and prognosis in overall GBM patients and in different GBM subtype including new diagnosed patients, recurrent patients and elderly patients. Methods:A comprehensive search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane databases to identify literatures (published from January 1, 2005 to April 1, 2017) that evaluated the associations between MGMT promoter methylation and prognosis of GBM patients. Results:Totally, 66 studies including 7,886 patients met the inclusion criteria. Overall GBM patients with a methylated status of MGMT receiving temozolomide (TMZ)-containing treatment had better overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) [OS: hazard ratio (HR)?=?0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41-0.52, p?<?0.001, Bon?=?0.017; PFS: HR?=?0.48, 95% CI 0.40-0.57, p?<?0.001, Bon?=?0.014], but no significant advantage on OS or PFS in GBM patients with TMZ-free treatment was observed (OS: HR?=?0.97, 95% CI 0.91-1.03, p?=?0.08, Bon?=?1; PFS: HR?=?0.76, 95% CI 0.57-1.02, p?=?0.068, Bon?=?0.748). These different impacts of MGMT status on OS were similar in newly diagnosed GBM patients, elderly GBM patients and recurrent GBM. Among patients receiving TMZ-free treatment, survival benefit in Asian patients was not observed anymore after Bonferroni correction (Asian OS: HR?=?0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95, p?=?0.02, Bon?=?0.24, I2?=?0%; PFS: HR?=?0.69, 95% CI 0.50-0.94, p?=?0.02, Bon?=?0.24). No benefit was observed in Caucasian receiving TMZ-free therapy regardless of Bonferroni adjustment. Conclusion:The meta-analysis highlights the universal predictive value of MGMT methylation in newly diagnosed GBM patients, elderly GBM patients and recurrent GBM patients. For elderly methylated GBM patients, TMZ alone therapy might be a more suitable option than radiotherapy alone therapy. Future clinical trials should be designed in order to optimize therapeutics in different GBM subpopulation.
Project description:O<sup>6</sup>-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation and its subsequent loss of protein expression has been identified to have a variable impact on clinical outcome of glioma patients indicated for chemotherapy with alkylating agents (Temozolomide). This study investigated methylation status of MGMT gene along with in situ protein expression in malignant glioma patients of different histological types to evaluate the associated clinical outcome vis-a-vis use of alkylating drugs and radiotherapy. Sixty three cases of glioma were evaluated for MGMT promoter methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR) and protein expression by immunostaining (IHC). Methylation status of MGMT and loss of protein expression showed a very high concordant association with better survival and progression free survival (PFS) (p?<?0.0001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed both MGMT methylation and loss of protein as significant independent prognostic factors in glioma patients with respect to lower Hazard Ratio (HR) for better OS and PFS) [p?<?0.05]. Interestingly concordant MGMT methylation and lack of protein showed better response in TMZ therapy treated patient subgroups with HR of 2.02 and 0.76 (p?<?0.05). We found the merits of prognostication of MGMT parameters, methylation as well as loss of its protein as predictive factors for favorable outcome in terms of better survival for TMZ therapy.
Project description:Importance:There is a need for a more refined, molecularly based classification model for glioblastoma (GBM) in the temozolomide era. Objective:To refine the existing clinically based recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) model by incorporating molecular variables. Design, Setting, and Participants:NRG Oncology RTOG 0525 specimens (n?=?452) were analyzed for protein biomarkers representing key pathways in GBM by a quantitative molecular microscopy-based approach with semiquantitative immunohistochemical validation. Prognostic significance of each protein was examined by single-marker and multimarker Cox regression analyses. To reclassify the prognostic risk groups, significant protein biomarkers on single-marker analysis were incorporated into an RPA model consisting of the same clinical variables (age, Karnofsky Performance Status, extent of resection, and neurologic function) as the existing RTOG RPA. The new RPA model (NRG-GBM-RPA) was confirmed using traditional immunohistochemistry in an independent data set (n?=?176). Main Outcomes and Measures:Overall survival (OS). Results:In 452 specimens, MGMT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.81; 95% CI, 1.37-2.39; P?<?.001), survivin (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.76; P?=?.02), c-Met (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.06-2.23; P?=?.02), pmTOR (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60-0.97; P?=?.03), and Ki-67 (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.10-1.78; P?=?.007) protein levels were found to be significant on single-marker multivariate analysis of OS. To refine the existing RPA, significant protein biomarkers together with clinical variables (age, Karnofsky Performance Status, extent of resection, and neurological function) were incorporated into a new model. Of 166 patients used for the new NRG-GBM-RPA model, 97 (58.4%) were male (mean [SD] age, 55.7 [12.0] years). Higher MGMT protein level was significantly associated with decreased MGMT promoter methylation and vice versa (1425.1 for methylated vs 1828.0 for unmethylated; P?<?.001). Furthermore, MGMT protein expression (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.38-2.43; P?<?.001) had greater prognostic value for OS compared with MGMT promoter methylation (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.28-2.44; P?<?.001). The refined NRG-GBM-RPA consisting of MGMT protein, c-Met protein, and age revealed greater separation of OS prognostic classes compared with the existing clinically based RPA model and MGMT promoter methylation in NRG Oncology RTOG 0525. The prognostic significance of the NRG-GBM-RPA was subsequently confirmed in an independent data set (n?=?176). Conclusions and Relevance:This new NRG-GBM-RPA model improves outcome stratification over both the current RTOG RPA model and MGMT promoter methylation, respectively, for patients with GBM treated with radiation and temozolomide and was biologically validated in an independent data set. The revised RPA has the potential to contribute to improving the accurate assessment of prognostic groups in patients with GBM treated with radiation and temozolomide and to influence clinical decision making. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00304031.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tumor treating fields (TTFields) is a non-invasive, antimitotic therapy. In the EF-14 phase 3 trial in newly diagnosed glioblastoma, TTFields plus temozolomide (TTFields/TMZ) improved progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) versus TMZ alone. Previous data indicate a ??75% daily compliance improves outcomes. We analyzed compliance data from TTFields/TMZ patients in the EF-14 study to correlate TTFields compliance with PFS and OS and identify potential lower boundary for compliance with improved clinical outcomes. METHODS:Compliance was assessed by usage data from the NovoTTF-100A device and calculated as percentage per month of TTFields delivery. TTFields/TMZ patients were segregated into subgroups by percent monthly compliance. A Cox proportional hazard model controlled for sex, extent of resection, MGMT methylation status, age, region, and performance status was used to investigate the effect of compliance on PFS and OS. RESULTS:A threshold value of 50% compliance with TTFields/TMZ improved PFS (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.47-1.05) and OS (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45-0.99) versus TMZ alone with improved outcome as compliance increased. At compliance?>?90%, median survival was 24.9 months (28.7 months from diagnosis) and 5-year survival rate was 29.3%. Compliance was independent of gender, extent of resection, MGMT methylation status, age, region and performance status (HR 0.78; p?=?0.031; OS at compliance ??75% vs.?<?75%). CONCLUSION:A compliance threshold of 50% with TTFields/TMZ correlated with significantly improved OS and PFS versus TMZ alone. Patients with compliance >?90% showed extended median and 5-year survival rates. Increased compliance with TTFields therapy is independently prognostic for improved survival in glioblastoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ventricular entry during glioblastoma resection and tumor contact with the subventricular zone (SVZ) have both been shown to associate with development of hydrocephalus, leptomeningeal dissemination, distant parenchymal recurrence, and decreased survival. However, prior studies did not analyze these variables together in a single-patient population; therefore, it is unknown which is an independent predictor of these outcomes. OBJECTIVE:To conduct a comparative outcome analysis of surgical ventricular entry and SVZ contact by glioblastoma in a retrospective cohort of 232 patients. METHODS:Outcomes studied included hydrocephalus, leptomeningeal dissemination, distant tumor recurrences, and progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival. The Cox proportional regression analyses were adjusted for age at diagnosis, preoperative Karnofsky performance status score, extent of resection, temozolomide and radiation treatments, and tumor molecular status (specifically, IDH1/2 mutation and MGMT promoter methylation). RESULTS:Surgical ventricular entry, SVZ-contacting glioblastoma, hydrocephalus, leptomeningeal dissemination, and distant recurrences were observed in 85 (36.6%), 114 (49.1%), 19 (8.2%), 78 (33.6%), and 59 (25.4%) patients, respectively. Multivariate, adjusted analysis revealed SVZ tumor contact-but not ventricular entry-associated with hydrocephalus (hazard ratio, HR, 4.20 [1.13-15.7], P = .03), leptomeningeal dissemination (HR 1.93 [1.14-3.28], P = .01), PFS (HR 2.10 [1.53-2.88], P < .001), and OS (HR 1.90 [1.35-2.67], P < .001). Distant recurrences were not associated with either. No interaction between the 2 variables was statistically noted. CONCLUSION:SVZ contact by glioblastoma was independently associated with the development of hydrocephalus, leptomeningeal dissemination, and decreased survival. SVZ tumor contact was associated with ventricular entry during surgical resections, which did not independently correlate with these outcomes.
Project description:O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status has been considered a prognostic factor in newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM). In this study, we evaluated the prognostic and predictive value of MGMT promoter methylation in patients with glioblastoma in Donostia Hospital. Surprisingly, methylation of MGMT promoter did not predict response to temozolomide in patients with glioblastoma in Donostia Hospital. Specifically, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) did not differ significantly by MGMT methylation status in our cohort. In contrast, both were longer in patients who received treatment, received more TMZ cycles, had a better general status and perform at least a partial resection. No association was detected between methylation of MGMT promoter and molecular markers such as ATRX, IDH, p53 and Ki67. These results indicate that MGMT methylation did not influence in patient survival in our cohort.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There are controversial results concerning the prognostic implication of TERT promoter mutation in glioma patients concerning MGMT status. In this meta-analysis, we investigated whether there are any interactions of these two genetic markers on the overall survival (OS) of glioma patients. METHODS:Electronic databases including PubMed and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies. Hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) for OS adjusted for selected covariates were calculated from the individual patient data (IPD), Kaplan-Meier curve (KMC), or directly obtained from the included studies. RESULTS:A total of nine studies comprising 2819 glioma patients were included for meta-analysis. Our results showed that TERT promoter mutation was associated with a superior outcome in MGMT-methylated gliomas (HR?=?0.73; 95% CI?=?0.55-0.98; p-value?=?0.04), whereas this mutation was associated with poorer survival in gliomas without MGMT methylation (HR?=?1.86; 95% CI?=?1.54-2.26; p-value <?0.001). TERT-mutated glioblastoma (GBM) patients with MGMT methylation benefited from temozolomide (TMZ) treatment (HR?=?0.33; 95% CI?=?0.23-0.47; p-value <?0.001). MGMT methylation was not related with any improvement in OS in TERT-wild type GBMs (HR?=?0.80; 95% CI?=?0.56-1.15; p-value?=?0.23). CONCLUSIONS:The prognostic value of TERT promoter mutation may be modulated by MGMT methylation status. Not all MGMT-methylated GBM patients may benefit from TMZ; it is possible that only TERT-mutated GBM with MGMT methylation, in particular, may respond.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Epigenetic silencing of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) by promoter methylation is associated with improved survival in glioblastomas treated with alkylating agents. In this study, we investigated MGMT promoter methylation in glioblastomas treated with temozolomide and radiotherapy in a single UK treatment centre.<h4>Methods</h4>Quantitative methylation data at individual CpG sites were obtained by pyrosequencing for 109 glioblastomas.<h4>Results</h4>Median overall survival (OS) was 12.4 months with 2-year survival of 17.9%. Pyrosequencing data were reproducible with archival samples yielding data for all glioblastomas. Variation in methylation patterns of discrete CpG sites and intratumoral methylation heterogeneity were observed. A total of 58 out of 109 glioblastomas showed average methylation >non-neoplastic brain in at least one clinical sample; 86% had homogeneous methylation status in multiple samples. Methylation was an independent prognostic factor associated with prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and OS. Cases with methylation more than 35% had the longest survival (median PFS 19.2; OS 26.2 months, 2-year survival of 59.7%). Significant differences in PFS were seen between those with intermediate or high methylation and unmethylated cases, whereas cases with low, intermediate or high methylation all showed significantly different OS.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data indicate that MGMT methylation is prognostically significant in glioblastomas given chemoradiotherapy in the routine clinic; furthermore, the extent of methylation may be used to provide additional prognostic stratification.