Recruitment of trimeric proliferating cell nuclear antigen by G1-phase cyclin-dependent kinases following DNA damage with platinum-based antitumour agents.
ABSTRACT: In cycling tumour cells, the binary cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk4/cyclin D or Cdk2/cyclin E complex is inhibited by p21 following DNA damage to induce G1 cell-cycle arrest. However, it is not known whether other proteins are also recruited within Cdk complexes, or their role, and this was investigated.Ovarian A2780 tumour cells were exposed to the platinum-based antitumour agent 1R,2R-diaminocyclohexane(trans-diacetato)(dichloro)platinum(IV) (DAP), which preferentially induces G1 arrest in a p21-dependent manner. The Cdk complexes were analysed by gel filtration chromatography, immunoblot and mass spectrometry.The active forms of Cdk4 and Cdk2 complexes in control tumour cells have a molecular size of ~140 kDa, which increased to ~290 kDa when inhibited following G1 checkpoint activation by DAP. Proteomic analysis identified Cdk, cyclin, p21 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the inhibited complex, and biochemical studies provided unequivocal evidence that the increase in ~150 kDa of the inhibited complex is consistent with p21-dependent recruitment of PCNA as a trimer, likely bound to three molecules of p21. Although p21 alone was sufficient to inhibit the Cdk complex, PCNA was critical for stabilising p21.G1 Cdk complexes inhibited by p21 also recruit PCNA, which inhibits degradation and, thereby, prolongs activity of p21 within the complex.
Project description:Cisplatin is a DNA-damaging antitumor agent that is highly effective in treating ovarian cancer. It activates the p53/p21 pathway for its cytotoxic mode of action, but it does not induce p21-dependent cell cycle arrest in G1. Therefore, we investigated this paradox, and used the model analog DAP as a positive control for p21-dependent G1-arrest.Studies were conducted in p53-proficient ovarian A2780 tumor cells to examine Cdk activity, cell cycle distribution and DNA damage signaling after cisplatin or DAP in combination with the mitotic inhibitor nocodazole.Cisplatin consistently induced transient S-phase arrest by inhibiting Cdk2/cyclin A complex in S-phase at 12 h and then a durable G2/M-arrest by inhibiting Cdc2/cyclin B complex at 12-18 h. These inhibitions were associated with Chk1 and Chk2 activation and resultant increase in inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of Cdk2 and Cdc2. Cisplatin also potently inhibited G1-phase Cdk4/cyclin D1 and Cdk2/cyclin E activities at ~18 h. In agreement, exposure of cisplatin-treated A2780, HCT-116(p53-/-) and HCT-116(p21-/-) tumor cells to nocodazole revealed limited G1-arrest that was dependent on p53 and p21. In contrast, the durable G1-arrest by DAP, which failed to activate Chk1 and Chk2, was unaffected by nocodazole.Cisplatin induced G1-arrest, but at an attenuated level. This was primarily due to orchestration of Cdk inhibition in S-phase first, then in G2, and finally in G1 that effectively blocked cells in G2 and prevented cells from progressing and arresting in G1. These studies demonstrate that cisplatin unequivocally activates G1-checkpoint response, but the fidelity of G1-arrest is compromised by Chk1/2 activation and checkpoint response in S- and G2/M-phase.
Project description:The interactions between the tumor suppressor protein p21WAF1 and the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complexes and with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) regulate and coordinate the processes of cell-cycle progression and DNA replication. We present the x-ray crystal structure of PCNA complexed with a 16-mer peptide related to p21 that binds with a Kd of 100 nM. Two additional crystal structures of native PCNA provide previously undescribed structures of uncomplexed human PCNA and show that significant changes on ligand binding include rigidification of a number of flexible regions on the surface of PCNA. In the competitive binding experiments described here, we show that a 20-mer sequence from p21 can be associated simultaneously with PCNA and CDK/cyclin complexes. A structural model for this quaternary complex is presented in which the C-terminal sequence of p21 acts like double-sided tape and docks to both the PCNA and cyclin molecules. The quaternary complex shows little direct interaction between PCNA and cyclin, giving p21 the role of an adaptor molecule. Taken together, the biochemical and structural results delineate a druggable inhibitor site on the surface of PCNA that may be exploited in the design of peptidomimetics, which will act independently of cyclin-groove inhibitors.
Project description:To study the regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity during mitotic exit in mammalian cells, we constructed murine cell lines that constitutively express a stabilized mutant of cyclin A (cyclin A47). Even though cyclin A47 was expressed throughout mitosis and in G1 cells, its associated CDK activity was inactivated after the transition from metaphase to anaphase. Cyclin A47 associated with both p21 and p27 during mitotic exit, implicating these proteins in CDK inactivation. However, cyclin A47 was fully inhibited during the M-to-G1 transition in p21(-/-) p27(-/-) fibroblasts. Also, the CDKs associated with cyclin A47 were not inactivated by phosphorylation at tyrosines. The protein responsible for CDK inactivation during mitotic exit in p21/p27 null cells was the Rb family member, p107. p107 bound to cyclin A47 when p21 and p27 were absent, and cyclin A47-CDK activity was not inactivated during the M-to-G1 transition in p21(-/-) p27(-/-) p107(-/-) null fibroblasts. Enforced expression of cyclin A in cells lacking all three CDK inhibitors induced rapid tetraploidization, indicative of mitotic failure/endoreduplication. We concluded that cyclin proteolysis and CDK inhibitors constitute redundant pathways that control cyclin A-CDK activity during mitotic exit in mammalian cells and that loss of these pathways can cause genetic instability.
Project description:Transcriptional repressor complexes containing p130 and E2F4 regulate the expression of genes involved in DNA replication. During the G1 phase of the cell cycle, sequential phosphorylation of p130 by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) disrupts these complexes allowing gene expression. The Cdk inhibitor and tumor suppressor p27(Kip1) associates with p130 and E2F4 by its carboxyl domain on the promoters of target genes but its role in the regulation of transcription remains unclear. We report here that p27(Kip1) recruits cyclin D2/D3-Cdk4 complexes on the promoters by its amino terminal domain in early and mid G1. In cells lacking p27(Kip1), cyclin D2/D3-Cdk4 did not associate to the promoters and phosphorylation of p130 and transcription of target genes was increased. In late G1, these complexes were substituted by p21(Cip1)-cyclin D1-Cdk2. In p21(Cip1) null cells cyclin D1-Cdk2 were not found on the promoters and transcription was elevated. In p21/p27 double null cells transcription was higher than in control cells and single knock out cells. Thus, our results clarify the role of p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1) in transcriptional regulation of genes repressed by p130/E2F4 complexes in which p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1) play a sequential role by recruiting and regulating the activity of specific cyclin-Cdk complexes on the promoters.
Project description:Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors of genes involved in development and differentiation, and also maintain repression of key genes involved in the cell cycle, indirectly regulating cell proliferation. The human SCML2 gene, a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila PcG protein SCM, encodes two protein isoforms: SCML2A that is bound to chromatin and SCML2B that is predominantly nucleoplasmic. Here, we purified SCML2B and found that it forms a stable complex with CDK/CYCLIN/p21 and p27, enhancing the inhibitory effect of p21/p27. SCML2B participates in the G1/S checkpoint by stabilizing p21 and favoring its interaction with CDK2/CYCE, resulting in decreased kinase activity and inhibited progression through G1. In turn, CDK/CYCLIN complexes phosphorylate SCML2, and the interaction of SCML2B with CDK2 is regulated through the cell cycle. These findings highlight a direct crosstalk between the Polycomb system of cellular memory and the cell-cycle machinery in mammals.
Project description:Previous studies have shown conflicting data regarding cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) complexes, and considering the widespread overexpression of cyclin D1 in cancer, it is important to fully understand their relevance. While many have shown that cyclin D1 and Cdk2 form active complexes, others have failed to show activity or association. Here, using a novel p21-PCNA fusion protein as well as p21 mutant proteins, we show that p21 is a required scaffolding protein, with cyclin D1 and Cdk2 failing to complex in its absence. These p21/cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes are active and also bind the trimeric PCNA complex, with each trimer capable of independently binding distinct cyclin/Cdk complexes. We also show that increased p21 levels due to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents result in increased formation and kinase activity of cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes, and that cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes are able to phosphorylate a number of substrates in addition to Rb. Nucleophosmin and Cdh1, two proteins important for centrosome replication and implicated in the chromosomal instability of cancer, are shown to be phosphorylated by cyclin D1/Cdk2 complexes. Additionally, polypyrimidine tract binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) is identified as a novel Cdk2 substrate, being phosphorylated by Cdk2 complexed with either cyclin E or cyclin D1, and given the many functions of PSF, it could have important implications on cellular activity.
Project description:A novel cyclin gene was discovered by searching an expressed sequence tag database with a cyclin box profile. The human cyclin E2 gene encodes a 404-amino-acid protein that is most closely related to cyclin E. Cyclin E2 associates with Cdk2 in a functional kinase complex that is inhibited by both p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1). The catalytic activity associated with cyclin E2 complexes is cell cycle regulated and peaks at the G1/S transition. Overexpression of cyclin E2 in mammalian cells accelerates G1, demonstrating that cyclin E2 may be rate limiting for G1 progression. Unlike cyclin E1, which is expressed in most proliferating normal and tumor cells, cyclin E2 levels were low to undetectable in nontransformed cells and increased significantly in tumor-derived cells. The discovery of a novel second cyclin E family member suggests that multiple unique cyclin E-CDK complexes regulate cell cycle progression.
Project description:The proper execution of premeiotic S phase is essential to both the maintenance of genomic integrity and accurate chromosome segregation during the meiotic divisions. However, the regulation of premeiotic S phase remains poorly defined in metazoa. Here, we identify the p21(Cip1)/p27(Kip1)/p57(Kip2)-like cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) Dacapo (Dap) as a key regulator of premeiotic S phase and genomic stability during Drosophila oogenesis. In dap(-/-) females, ovarian cysts enter the meiotic cycle with high levels of Cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)2 activity and accumulate DNA damage during the premeiotic S phase. High Cyclin E/Cdk2 activity inhibits the accumulation of the replication-licensing factor Doubleparked/Cdt1 (Dup/Cdt1). Accordingly, we find that dap(-/-) ovarian cysts have low levels of Dup/Cdt1. Moreover, mutations in dup/cdt1 dominantly enhance the dap(-/-) DNA damage phenotype. Importantly, the DNA damage observed in dap(-/-) ovarian cysts is independent of the DNA double-strands breaks that initiate meiotic recombination. Together, our data suggest that the CKI Dap promotes the licensing of DNA replication origins for the premeiotic S phase by restricting Cdk activity in the early meiotic cycle. Finally, we report that dap(-/-) ovarian cysts frequently undergo an extramitotic division before meiotic entry, indicating that Dap influences the timing of the mitotic/meiotic transition.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>p53 induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells and negatively regulates glycolysis via TIGAR. Glycolysis is crucial for cancer progression although TIGAR provides protection from reactive oxygen species and apoptosis. The relation between TIGAR-mediated inhibition of glycolysis and p53 tumour-suppressor activity is unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>RT-PCR, western blot, luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to study TIGAR gene regulation. Co-IPP was used to determine the role of TIGAR protein in regulating the protein-protein interaction between retinoblastoma (RB) and E2F1. MCF-7 tumour xenografts were utilised to study the role of TIGAR in tumour regression.<h4>Results</h4>Our study shows that TIGAR promotes p21-independent, p53-mediated G1-phase arrest in cancer cells. p53 activates the TIGAR promoter only in cells exposed to repairable doses of stress. TIGAR regulates the expression of genes involved in cell-cycle progression; suppresses synthesis of CDK-2, CDK-4, CDK-6, Cyclin D, Cyclin E and promotes de-phosphorylation of RB protein. RB de-phosphorylation stabilises the complex between RB and E2F1 thus inhibiting the entry of cell cycle from G1 phase to S phase.<h4>Conclusion</h4>TIGAR mediates de-phosphorylation of RB and stabilisation of RB-E2F1 complex thus delaying the entry of cells in S phase of the cell cycle. Thus, TIGAR inhibits proliferation of cancer cells and increases drug-mediated tumour regression by promoting p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest.
Project description:Cyclin C was cloned as a growth-promoting G1 cyclin, and was also shown to regulate gene transcription. Here we report that in vivo cyclin C acts as a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor, by controlling Notch1 oncogene levels. Cyclin C activates an 'orphan' CDK19 kinase, as well as CDK8 and CDK3. These cyclin-C-CDK complexes phosphorylate the Notch1 intracellular domain (ICN1) and promote ICN1 degradation. Genetic ablation of cyclin C blocks ICN1 phosphorylation in vivo, thereby elevating ICN1 levels in cyclin-C-knockout mice. Cyclin C ablation or heterozygosity collaborates with other oncogenic lesions and accelerates development of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). Furthermore, the cyclin C encoding gene CCNC is heterozygously deleted in a significant fraction of human T-ALLs, and these tumours express reduced cyclin C levels. We also describe point mutations in human T-ALL that render cyclin-C-CDK unable to phosphorylate ICN1. Hence, tumour cells may develop different strategies to evade inhibition by cyclin C.