The first Cordyla Meigen species (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) from continental Australia and Tasmania.
ABSTRACT: A new species of Mycetophilidae, Cordyla australica sp. n., is described from continental Australia and Tasmania, representing the first Cordyla record in the region. A detailed description of its morphology with illustrations of male and female terminalia and a map of the collecting localities are provided. According to the structure of male terminalia, Cordyla australica sp. n. belongs to the Cordyla murina species-group that has 13 species worldwide. Within the group Cordyla australica sp. n. resembles Cordyla murina but has a unique outline of the hypoproct and medial branch of the gonostylus. The observed distributional pattern is restricted to the rainforest of eastern Australia and Tasmania.
Project description:Three new species of Mycetophilidae - Cordyla monticola sp. n., Cordyla pseudopusilla sp. n. and Cordyla reducta sp. n. - are described from the Colombian Andes, representing the first described species of Cordyla Meigen from the Neotropical region. Colour photos of their habitus, wing and terminalia are provided. The morphological affinities of male terminalia are discussed in a worldwide context. The distributional pattern of the genus clearly indicates a case of northern elements reaching the north-western region of the Neotropics that corresponds to a secondary extension of a Holarctic clade to the south.
Project description:Two new Mycetophilidae species, Neurateliajabalmoussae sp. n. and Neurateliasalmelai sp. n. are described on the basis of material collected from Lebanon, Estonia and Finland. Detailed figures of male terminalia and photographs of general facies are provided along with discussions of their morphological distinction from sibling species. For the first time molecular characters are used to distinguish new fungus gnat species. Molecular analysis relies on cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COI) but has additionally been corroborated by information from the 28S and ITS2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Situations where morphological and molecular data provide conflicting evidence for species delimitation are discussed. A new country record from Georgia is provided for Neurateliacaucasica.
Project description:Members of the family Mycetophilidae (Diptera) have life cycles that are typically associated with fungus. Their biology is relatively well known in the Palaearctic, though other regions are poorly known, and there are no associations recorded between mycetophilid immatures and fungi in the Neotropical region. Here we report the first association between a mycetophilid-Neoempheriapuncticoxa Edwards-and fungi in this region. Immatures of N.puncticoxa were collected on fungi and some were reared in the laboratory until adult emergence. The immature stages and adult of N.puncticoxa are described and re-described respectively, and high resolution images and illustrations of the habitus, wings, thorax, male and female terminalia, immatures, and in situ specimens are given.We report the first association between Mycetophilidae and fungi in the Neotropical region.
Project description:Background:The subfamily Gnoristinae is one of the most diverse and taxonomically difficult subfamilies of Mycetophilidae, with new species and genera being described almost every year from various parts of the world. Through inventories of fungus gnats in the Nordic Region and Russia, a genus and species new to science was discovered, yet with links back to an illustration made by the late French entomologist Loïc Matile in the 1980s. DNA barcoding aligned it with yet another species new to science, distributed across Canada and documented through The Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD) by Paul D. N. Hebert and colleagues at the BOLD team. New information:The new Holarctic genus, Coelosynapha gen. n. is described, consisting of two new species, the Palaearctic Coelosynapha loici sp. n. and the Nearctic Coelosynapha heberti sp. n. DNA-barcodes assign the two new species to distinctly separated (8.27% p-distance) Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) which are most closely aligned to unidentified species of Mycetophilidae from South Australia and Costa Rica on BOLD. The new genus shows morphological characteristics in between the two Holarctic genera Coelosia Winnertz, 1864 and Synapha Meigen, 1818 and further shows affinity to the southern continents genus Austrosynapha Tonnoir, 1929. The Palaearctic Coelosynapha loici sp. n., for which habitat requirements are best documented, is largely restricted to pristine, old-growth conifer (mostly spruce, Picea abies ssp. obovata) forests within the boreal vegetation zone, although it is also recorded from hummock tundra along the Anadyr River in Far East Russia.
Project description:Both males and females of Baeopterogyna mihalyiiMatile, 1975 are recorded from northern Greece. Females are described for the first time providing photographs of the general facies and terminalia. In contrast to the single congener with stenopterous females - Baeopterogyna nudipes Vockeroth, 1972 - Baeopterogyna mihalyii is shown to have normally developed wings in both sexes. Association of sexes is based on both morphological characters and sequence data from cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COI). DNA sequences are used for the first time for the association of sexes in Mycetophilidae.
Project description:Megophthalmidia Dziedzicki is a small leiine genus (Mycetophilidae) with seven species described from the Neotropics and ten species from the Palearctic region. Two species of Megophthalmidia have been reported for North America. Recent collecting of Mycetophilidae in California and Arizona, however, shows current North American diversity of Megophthalmidia is at least on par to other regions of the world. Eight new species of Megophthalmidia are described here, increasing the number of Nearctic Megophthalmidia species to nine. Included is a particularly atypical member of the genus, M. saskia sp. n., which expands the genus concept of Megophthalmidia. Of the two species previously recorded for North America, only one actually belongs in the genus. Megophthalmidia occidentalis Johannsen, is fully described and illustrated. The other named species, M. marceda (Sherman) is illustrated and transferred to the genus Ectrepesthoneura Enderlein. A lectotype is designated for this species. A key to the species of Megophthalmidia of North America is provided. The biology of these flies is not yet known. Three of the new Megophthalmidia species - M. lenimenta, M. misericordia, and M. radiata - are only known to occur within small protected areas within the California State Park and UC Natural Reserve systems.
Project description:A total of 54 species of Mycetophilidae are recorded for the first time in Morocco, of which 38 species are new to North Africa. A first checklist of Moroccan Mycetophilidae is appended, containing 64 species in 25 genera.
Project description:California is one of the most biologically diverse regions of the world, yet the diversity of fungus gnats (Mycetophilidae) remains largely undocumented within the state. A modest survey of these flies has led to the discovery of a new genus and species of gnat that lives alongside one of the most iconic trees in the world, the giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum). Spritella sequoiaphila gen. et sp. n. is described and illustrated and its status among other mycetophilid genera is analyzed and discussed.
Project description:A new species of the TipulasubgenusMediotipula is described from the south-eastern part of Albania, south-eastern Europe. Morphologically, the new species is most similar to T. (M.) stigmatella Schummel, 1833, but differs mainly with respect to males, having a distinctly shaped posterior margin of tergite 9-10, a widened outer gonostylus and a series of details of the inner gonostylus (anterior end of the anterior arm, shape of the posterior arm), as well as having more bulbous and rounded hypogynal valves in the females. Further morphological differences of the male terminalia between allopatric populations of T. (M.) stigmatella in the Carpathians and Balkans, south-eastern Europe, are discussed.
Project description:European species of the Mycetophilaruficollis group are compared on the basis of morphology and sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COI) and the ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The study represents the first evaluation of morphology-based species delimitation of closely related fungus gnat species by applying molecular information. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of the male terminalia are presented along with a key for the identification of all nine European species of the group. Phylogenetic analyses of molecular data generally supported the morphological species discrimination. The barcoding region of COI superseded ITS2 rDNA in resolving species. In the COI barcoding region interspecific differences ranged from 2.9 to 10.6% and the intraspecific distance from 0.08 to 0.8%. Only COI data distinguished between the similar and closely related Mycetophilaichneumonea and Mycetophilauninotata of which the latter was observed to include cryptic species. The host range of some species is suggested to be narrower than previously considered and to depend on the forest type. Presented evidence indicates the importance of analysing sequence data of morphologically very similar mycetophages reared from identified host fungi for elucidating species delimitation as well as their geographic and host ranges. New country records, viz. Estonia for Mycetophilaevanida, Georgia for Mycetophilaichneumonea, Mycetophilaidonea and Mycetophilaruficollis, and Norway for Mycetophilastrobli, widen the known distribution ranges of these species.