Environmental cues dictate the fate of individual CD8+ T cells responding to infection.
ABSTRACT: Many studies have examined pathways controlling effector T cell differentiation, but less is known about the fate of individual CD8+ T cells during infection. Here, we examine the antiviral and antibacterial responses of single CD8+ T cells from the polyclonal repertoire. The progeny of naive clonal CD8+ T cells displayed unique profiles of differentiation based on extrinsic pathogen-induced environmental cues, with some clones demonstrating extreme bias toward a single developmental pathway. Moreover, even within the same animal, a single naive CD8+ T cell exhibited distinct fates that were controlled by tissue-specific events. However, memory CD8+ T cells relied on intrinsic factors to control differentiation upon challenge. Our results demonstrate that stochastic and instructive events differentially contribute to shaping the primary and secondary CD8+ T cell response and provide insight into the underlying forces that drive effector differentiation and protective memory formation.
Project description:The contribution of different DC subsets to effector and memory CD8(+) T cell generation during infection and the mechanism by which DCs controls these fate decisions is unclear. Here we demonstrated that the CD103(+) and CD11b(hi) migratory respiratory DC (RDC) subsets after influenza virus infection activated naive virus-specific CD8(+) T cells differentially. CD103(+) RDCs supported the generation of CD8(+) T effector (Teff) cells, which migrate from lymph nodes to the infected lungs. In contrast, migrant CD11b(hi) RDCs activated CD8(+) T cells characteristic of central memory CD8(+) T (CD8(+) Tcm) cells including retention within the draining lymph nodes. CD103(+) RDCs expressed CD24 at an elevated level, contributing to the propensity of this DC subpopulation to support CD8(+) Teff cell differentiation. Mechanistically, CD24 was shown to regulate CD8(+) T cell activation through HMGB1-mediated engagement of T cell RAGE. Thus, there is distribution of labor among DC subsets in regulating CD8(+) T cell differentiation.
Project description:Memory CD8 T cells that circulate in the blood and are present in lymphoid organs are an essential component of long-lived T cell immunity. These memory CD8 T cells remain poised to rapidly elaborate effector functions upon re-exposure to pathogens, but also have many properties in common with naive cells, including pluripotency and the ability to migrate to the lymph nodes and spleen. Thus, memory cells embody features of both naive and effector cells, fuelling a long-standing debate centred on whether memory T cells develop from effector cells or directly from naive cells. Here we show that long-lived memory CD8 T cells are derived from a subset of effector T cells through a process of dedifferentiation. To assess the developmental origin of memory CD8 T cells, we investigated changes in DNA methylation programming at naive and effector cell-associated genes in virus-specific CD8 T cells during acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in mice. Methylation profiling of terminal effector versus memory-precursor CD8 T cell subsets showed that, rather than retaining a naive epigenetic state, the subset of cells that gives rise to memory cells acquired de novo DNA methylation programs at naive-associated genes and became demethylated at the loci of classically defined effector molecules. Conditional deletion of the de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3a at an early stage of effector differentiation resulted in reduced methylation and faster re-expression of naive-associated genes, thereby accelerating the development of memory cells. Longitudinal phenotypic and epigenetic characterization of the memory-precursor effector subset of virus-specific CD8 T cells transferred into antigen-free mice revealed that differentiation to memory cells was coupled to erasure of de novo methylation programs and re-expression of naive-associated genes. Thus, epigenetic repression of naive-associated genes in effector CD8 T cells can be reversed in cells that develop into long-lived memory CD8 T cells while key effector genes remain demethylated, demonstrating that memory T cells arise from a subset of fate-permissive effector T cells.
Project description:The generation of CD8+ T-cell memory is an important aim of immunization. While several distinct subsets of CD8+ T-cell memory have been described, the lineage relationships between effector (EFF), effector memory (EM) and central memory (CM) T cells remain contentious. Specifically, there is contradictory experimental evidence to support both the linear (Naive>EFF>EM>CM) and progressive differentiation (Naive>CM>EM>EFF) models. In this study, we applied a systems biology approach to examine global transcriptional relationships between the three major CD8+ T cell subsets arising endogenously as a result of vaccination with three different prime-boost vaccine regimens. Differential gene expression analysis and principle component analysis revealed that central memory cells were more closely related to naive T cells than both effector memory and effector cells. When the transcriptional relationships between subsets were enriched in an unbiased fashion with known global transcriptional changes that result when T-cells repeatedly encounter antigen, our analysis favored a model whereby cumulative antigenic stimulation drives differentiation specifically from Naive > CM > EM > EFF. These findings provide an insight into the lineage relationship between mature CD8+ T-cell subsets and will help in the rational design of vaccines aimed at generating effective immune responses against infections and cancer. Effector (EFF), effector memory (EM), central memory (CM) and naive CD8+ T cells from mice spleen. Memory subset arise endogenously as a result of vaccination with three different prime-boost vaccine regimens: DNA-rAd5, rAd5-rAd5 and rAd5-rLCMV.
Project description:Primary stimulation of T cells is believed to trigger unidirectional differentiation from naive to effector and memory subsets. Here we demonstrate that IL-7 can drive the phenotypic reversion of recently differentiated human central and effector memory CD8+ T cells into a naive-like phenotype. These "naive-revertant" cells display a phenotype similar to that of previously reported stem cell memory populations and undergo rapid differentiation and functional response following secondary challenge. The chromatin landscape of reverted cells undergoes substantial epigenetic reorganization with increased accessibility for cytokine-induced mediators such as STAT and closure of BATF-dependent sites that drive terminal differentiation. Phenotypic reversion may at least partly explain the generation of "stem cell memory" CD8+ T cells and reveals cells within the phenotypically naive CD8+ T cell pool that are epigenetically primed for secondary stimulation. This information provides insight into mechanisms that support maintenance of T cell memory and may guide therapeutic manipulation of T cell differentiation.
Project description:In response to acute infection, naive CD8+ T cells expand, differentiate into effector cells, and then contract to a long-lived pool of memory cells after pathogen clearance. During chronic infections or in tumors, CD8+ T cells acquire an "exhausted" phenotype. Here we present genome-wide comparisons of chromatin accessibility and gene expression from endogenous CD8+ T cells responding to acute and chronic viral infection using ATAC-seq and RNA-seq techniques. Acquisition of effector, memory, or exhausted phenotypes was associated with stable changes in chromatin accessibility away from the naive T cell state. Regions differentially accessible between functional subsets in vivo were enriched for binding sites of transcription factors known to regulate these subsets, including E2A, BATF, IRF4, T-bet, and TCF1. Exhaustion-specific accessible regions were enriched for consensus binding sites for NFAT and Nr4a family members, indicating that chronic stimulation confers a unique accessibility profile on exhausted cells.
Project description:During acute viral infections, naïve CD8+ T cells differentiate into effector CD8+ T cells and, after viral control, into memory CD8+ T cells. Memory CD8+ T cells are highly functional, proliferate rapidly upon reinfection and persist long-term without antigen. In contrast, during chronic infections, CD8+ T cells become “exhausted” and have poor effector function, express multiple inhibitory receptors, possess low proliferative capacity, and cannot persist without antigen. To compare the development of functional memory T cells with poorly functional exhausted T cells, we generated longitudinal transcriptional profiles for each. Naive CD44Lo CD8+ T cells were isolated and sorted from uninfected C57BL/6 mice and H2-Db GP33-specific CD8+ T cells were sorted using MHC-I tetramers at d6, 8, 15, and 30 p.i. with either LCMV Arm or LCMV clone 13. RNA from these CD8+ T cells was processed, amplified, labeled, and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip MoGene 1.0 st microarrays
Project description:Cluster of differentiation (CD)8(+) T cells exist as naive, central memory, and effector memory subsets, and any of these populations can be genetically engineered into tumor-reactive effector cells for adoptive immunotherapy. However, the optimal subset from which to derive effector CD8(+) T cells for patient treatments is controversial and understudied. We investigated human CD8(+) T cells and found that naive cells were not only the most abundant subset but also the population most capable of in vitro expansion and T-cell receptor transgene expression. Despite increased expansion, naive-derived cells displayed minimal effector differentiation, a quality associated with greater efficacy after cell infusion. Similarly, the markers of terminal differentiation, killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 and CD57, were expressed at lower levels in cells of naive origin. Finally, naive-derived effector cells expressed higher CD27 and retained longer telomeres, characteristics that suggest greater proliferative potential and that have been linked to greater efficacy in clinical trials. Thus, these data suggest that naive cells resist terminal differentiation, or "exhaustion," maintain high replicative potential, and therefore may be the superior subset for use in adoptive immunotherapy.
Project description:During a T cell response, naive CD8 T cells differentiate into effector cells. Subsequently, a subset of effector cells termed memory precursor effector cells further differentiates into functionally mature memory CD8 T cells. The transcriptional network underlying this carefully scripted process is not well understood. In this study, we report that the transcription factor FoxO1 plays an integral role in facilitating effector-to-memory transition and functional maturation of memory CD4 and CD8 T cells. We find that FoxO1 is not required for differentiation of effector cells, but in the absence of FoxO1, memory CD8 T cells displayed features of senescence and progressive attrition in polyfunctionality, which in turn led to impaired recall responses and poor protective immunity. These data suggest that FoxO1 is essential for maintenance of functional CD8 T cell memory and protective immunity. Under competing conditions in bone marrow chimeric mice, FoxO1 deficiency did not perturb clonal expansion or effector differentiation. Instead, FoxO1-deficient memory precursor effector cells failed to survive and form memory CD8 T cells. Mechanistically, FoxO1 deficiency perturbed the memory CD8 T cell transcriptome, characterized by pronounced alterations in the expression of genes that encode transcription factors (including Tcf7), effector molecules, cell cycle regulators, and proteins that regulate fatty acid, purine, and pyramidine metabolism and mitochondrial functions. We propose that FoxO1 is a key regulator that reprograms and steers the differentiation of effector cells to functionally competent memory cells. These findings have provided fundamental insights into the mechanisms that regulate the quality of CD8 T cell memory to intracellular pathogens.
Project description:The mechanisms underpinning integration of instructions that program naive CD8+ T cells for effector and/or memory differentiation are not well understood. Herein, we demonstrate that interleukin-12 (IL-12) enhanced and sustained antigen and costimulatory molecule (B7.1)-induced mTOR kinase activity in naive CD8+ (OT-I) T cells via phosphoinositide 3-kinase and STAT4 transcription factor pathways. Blocking mTOR activity by rapamycin reversed IL-12-induced effector functions because of loss of persistent expression of the transcription factor T-bet. Rapamycin treatment of IL-12-conditioned OT-I cells promoted persistent Eomesodermin expression and produced memory cell precursors that demonstrated enhanced sustenance and antigen-recall responses upon adoptive transfer. The memory cell precursors showed greater tumor efficacy than IL-12-conditioned effector OT-I cells. These results identify mTOR as the central regulator of transcriptional programs that determine effector and/or memory cell fates in CD8+ T cells. Targeting mTOR activity offers new opportunities to regulate CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity.
Project description:An optimal CD8(+) T cell response requires signals from the T cell receptor (TCR), co-stimulatory molecules, and cytokines. In most cases, the relative contribution of these signals to CD8(+) T cell proliferation, accumulation, effector function, and differentiation to memory is unknown. Recent work (Boyman, O., M. Kovar, M.P. Rubinstein, C.D. Surh, and J. Sprent. 2006. Science. 311:1924-1927; Kamimura, D., Y. Sawa, M. Sato, E. Agung, T. Hirano, and M. Murakami. 2006. J. Immunol. 177:306-314) has shown that anti-interleukin (IL) 2 monoclonal antibodies that are neutralizing in vitro enhance the potency of IL-2 in vivo. We investigated the role of IL-2 signals in driving CD8(+) T cell proliferation in the absence of TCR stimulation by foreign antigen. IL-2 signals induced rapid activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 in all CD8(+) T cells, both naive and memory phenotype, and promoted the differentiation of naive CD8(+) T cells into effector cells. IL-2-anti-IL-2 complexes induced proliferation of naive CD8(+) T cells in an environment with limited access to self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and when competition for self-MHC ligands was severe. After transfer into wild-type animals, IL-2-activated CD8(+) T cells attained and maintained a central memory phenotype and protected against lethal bacterial infection. IL-2-anti-IL-2 complex-driven memory-like CD8(+) T cells had incomplete cellular fitness compared with antigen-driven memory cells regarding homeostatic turnover and cytokine production. These results suggest that intense IL-2 signals, with limited contribution from the TCR, program the differentiation of protective memory-like CD8(+) cells but are insufficient to guarantee overall cellular fitness.