Immunodepletion plasma proteomics by tripleTOF 5600 and Orbitrap elite/LTQ-Orbitrap Velos/Q exactive mass spectrometers.
ABSTRACT: Plasma proteomic experiments performed rapidly and economically using several of the latest high-resolution mass spectrometers were compared. Four quantitative hyperfractionated plasma proteomics experiments were analyzed in replicates by two AB SCIEX TripleTOF 5600 and three Thermo Scientific Orbitrap (Elite/LTQ-Orbitrap Velos/Q Exactive) instruments. Each experiment compared two iTRAQ isobaric-labeled immunodepleted plasma proteomes, provided as 30 labeled peptide fractions, and 480 LC-MS/MS runs delivered >250 GB of data in 2 months. Several analysis algorithms were compared. At 1% false discovery rate, the relative comparative findings concluded that the Thermo Scientific Q Exactive Mass Spectrometer resulted in the highest number of identified proteins and unique sequences with iTRAQ quantitation. The confidence of iTRAQ fold-change for each protein is dependent on the overall ion statistics (Mascot Protein Score) attainable by each instrument. The benchmarking also suggested how to further improve the mass spectrometry parameters and HPLC conditions. Our findings highlight the special challenges presented by the low abundance peptide ions of iTRAQ plasma proteome because the dynamic range of plasma protein abundance is uniquely high compared with cell lysates, necessitating high instrument sensitivity.
Project description:The quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer (Q Exactive) made a powerful proteomics instrument available in a benchtop format. It significantly boosted the number of proteins analyzable per hour and has now evolved into a proteomics analysis workhorse for many laboratories. Here we describe the Q Exactive Plus and Q Exactive HF mass spectrometers, which feature several innovations in comparison to the original Q Exactive instrument. A low-resolution pre-filter has been implemented within the injection flatapole, preventing unwanted ions from entering deep into the system, and thereby increasing its robustness. A new segmented quadrupole, with higher fidelity of isolation efficiency over a wide range of isolation windows, provides an almost 2-fold improvement of transmission at narrow isolation widths. Additionally, the Q Exactive HF has a compact Orbitrap analyzer, leading to higher field strength and almost doubling the resolution at the same transient times. With its very fast isolation and fragmentation capabilities, the instrument achieves overall cycle times of 1 s for a top 15 to 20 higher energy collisional dissociation method. We demonstrate the identification of 5000 proteins in standard 90-min gradients of tryptic digests of mammalian cell lysate, an increase of over 40% for detected peptides and over 20% for detected proteins. Additionally, we tested the instrument on peptide phosphorylation enriched samples, for which an improvement of up to 60% class I sites was observed.
Project description:The orbitrap mass analyzer combines high sensitivity, high resolution, and high mass accuracy in a compact format. In proteomics applications, it is used in a hybrid configuration with a linear ion trap (LTQ-Orbitrap) where the linear trap quadrupole (LTQ) accumulates, isolates, and fragments peptide ions. Alternatively, isolated ions can be fragmented by higher energy collisional dissociation. A recently introduced stand-alone orbitrap analyzer (Exactive) also features a higher energy collisional dissociation cell but cannot isolate ions. Here we report that this instrument can efficiently characterize protein mixtures by alternating MS and "all-ion fragmentation" (AIF) MS/MS scans in a manner similar to that previously described for quadrupole time-of-flight instruments. We applied the peak recognition algorithms of the MaxQuant software at both the precursor and product ion levels. Assignment of fragment ions to co-eluting precursor ions was facilitated by high resolution (100,000 at m/z 200) and high mass accuracy. For efficient fragmentation of different mass precursors, we implemented a stepped collision energy procedure with cumulative MS readout. AIF on the Exactive identified 45 of 48 proteins in an equimolar protein standard mixture and all of them when using a small database. The technique also identified proteins with more than 100-fold abundance differences in a high dynamic range standard. When applied to protein identification in gel slices, AIF unambiguously characterized an immunoprecipitated protein that was barely visible by Coomassie staining and quantified it relative to contaminating proteins. AIF on a benchtop orbitrap instrument is therefore an attractive technology for a wide range of proteomics analyses.
Project description:We describe an improved version of the data-independent acquisition (DIA) computational analysis tool DIA-Umpire, and show that it enables highly sensitive, untargeted, and direct (spectral library-free) analysis of DIA data obtained using the Orbitrap family of mass spectrometers. DIA-Umpire v2 implements an improved feature detection algorithm with two additional filters based on the isotope pattern and fractional peptide mass analysis. The targeted re-extraction step of DIA-Umpire is updated with an improved scoring function and a more robust, semiparametric mixture modeling of the resulting scores for computing posterior probabilities of correct peptide identification in a targeted setting. Using two publicly available Q Exactive DIA datasets generated using HEK-293 cells and human liver microtissues, we demonstrate that DIA-Umpire can identify similar number of peptide ions, but with better identification reproducibility between replicates and samples, as with conventional data-dependent acquisition. We further demonstrate the utility of DIA-Umpire using a series of Orbitrap Fusion DIA experiments with HeLa cell lysates profiled using conventional data-dependent acquisition and using DIA with different isolation window widths.
Project description:As the application of mass spectrometry intensifies in scope and diversity, the need for advanced instrumentation addressing a wide variety of analytical needs also increases. To this end, many modern, top-end mass spectrometers are designed or modified to include a wider range of fragmentation technologies, for example, ECD, ETD, EThcD, and UVPD. Still, the majority of instrument platforms are limited to more conventional methods, such as CID and HCD. While these latter methods have performed well, the less conventional fragmentation methods have been shown to lead to increased information in many applications including middle-down proteomics, top-down proteomics, glycoproteomics, and disulfide bond mapping. We describe the modification of the popular Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer to extend its fragmentation capabilities to include ECD. We show that this modification allows ?85% matched ion intensity to originate from ECD fragment ion types as well as provides high sequence coverage (?60%) of intact proteins and high fragment identification rates with ?70% of ion signals matched. Finally, the ECD implementation promotes selective disulfide bond dissociation, facilitating the identification of disulfide-linked peptide conjugates. Collectively, this modification extends the capabilities of the Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer to a range of new applications.
Project description:The use of mass spectrometry as a tool to detect proteins of biological interest has become a cornerstone of proteomics. The popularity of mass spectrometry-based methods has increased along with instrument improvements in detection and speed. The Orbitrap Fusion Lumos mass spectrometer has recently been shown to have better fragmentation and detection than its predecessors. Here, we determined the sensitivity of the Lumos using the NIST monoclonal antibody reference material at various concentrations to detect its peptides in a background of S. cerevisiae whole cell lysate, which was kept at a constant concentration. The data collected by data-dependent acquisition showed that the spiked protein could be detected at 10 pg by an average of 4 peptides in 250 ng of whole cell lysate when the instrument was operated by detecting the peptide masses in the Orbitrap and the fragment masses in the ion trap (FTIT mode). In contrast, when the peptides and fragments were both detected in the Orbitrap on either the Lumos or Q-Exactive Plus (FTFT mode), the lowest concentration of NIST monoclonal antibody detected was 50 pg. The Lumos can detect a single protein at a level 2500 times lower than the whole cell background and the combination of detecting ions in the Orbitrap and ion trap can improve the identification of low abundance proteins. Furthermore, the total number of proteins identified from decreasing starting amounts of whole cell extracts was determined. The Lumos, when operated in FTIT mode, was able to identify twice as many proteins compared to the Q-Exactive+ at 5 ng of whole cell lysate. Similar numbers of proteins were identified on both platforms at higher concentrations of starting material. Therefore, the Lumos mass spectrometer is especially useful for detecting proteins of low abundance in complex backgrounds or samples that have limited starting material.
Project description:There is an immediate need for improved methods to systematically and precisely quantify large sets of peptides in complex biological samples. To date protein quantification in biological samples has been routinely performed on triple quadrupole instruments operated in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM), and two major challenges remain. Firstly, the number of peptides to be included in one survey experiment needs to be increased to routinely reach several hundreds, and secondly, the degree of selectivity should be improved so as to reliably discriminate the targeted analytes from background interferences. High resolution and accurate mass (HR/AM) analysis on the recently developed Q-Exactive mass spectrometer can potentially address these issues. This instrument presents a unique configuration: it is constituted of an orbitrap mass analyzer equipped with a quadrupole mass filter as the front-end for precursor ion mass selection. This configuration enables new quantitative methods based on HR/AM measurements, including targeted analysis in MS mode (single ion monitoring) and in MS/MS mode (parallel reaction monitoring). The ability of the quadrupole to select a restricted m/z range allows one to overcome the dynamic range limitations associated with trapping devices, and the MS/MS mode provides an additional stage of selectivity. When applied to targeted protein quantification in urine samples and benchmarked with the reference SRM technique, the quadrupole-orbitrap instrument exhibits similar or better performance in terms of selectivity, dynamic range, and sensitivity. This high performance is further enhanced by leveraging the multiplexing capability of the instrument to design novel acquisition methods and apply them to large targeted proteomic studies for the first time, as demonstrated on 770 tryptic yeast peptides analyzed in one 60-min experiment. The increased quality of quadrupole-orbitrap data has the potential to improve existing protein quantification methods in complex samples and address the pressing demand of systems biology or biomarker evaluation studies.
Project description:We have discovered that an electrode containing a conical channel with a small angular divergence can transmit into the vacuum almost 100% of an electrospray ion current produced at atmospheric pressure. Our first implementation of such a conical duct, which we term "ConDuct," uses a conductive plastic pipette tip containing an approximately 1.6° divergent channel at its entrance. We observed that the beam formed by the ConDuct electrode has a very low divergence (less than 1°) and persists for long distances in vacuum. Intrigued by these properties, we incorporated this electrode into a novel atmosphere-to-vacuum ion transmission interface, and devised a technique for evaluating its performance relative to the commercial reference interfaces that contain heated metal capillaries. We determined that our new interface transmits at least 400 times more ions than the commercial Thermo LCQ DECA XP atmosphere-to-vacuum interface and 2 to 3 times more than the commercial interface in the Thermo Velos Orbitrap and the Q Exactive mass spectrometers. We conclude that it might be possible to optimize the properties of the transmitted ions further by manufacturing ConDuct inlet electrodes from metal rather than conductive plastic and by determining the optimum angle of channel divergence and channel length.
Project description:Introduced in 2000, atmospheric pressure (AP)/matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) has attracted substantial attention in the mass spectrometry community due to its ease of sample introduction and handling, interchangeability with ESI source and capability of analyzing volatile species. In this study, an AP/MALDI source with ultra-high spatial resolution was coupled to a Q Exactive HF orbitrap mass spectrometer for high resolution in situ analysis by MALDI, laserspray ionization (LSI) and matrix assisted ionization (MAI) without instrument modification. LSI and MAI generated multiply charged ions, which expanded the mass detection range and improved fragmentation efficiency. Full MS, targeted MS/MS, data dependent acquisition (DDA) and parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) acquisitions were performed on peptide and protein standards, tissue extracts and tissue sections for in depth characterization of various biomolecules. High resolution full MS and MS/MS images were obtained from crustacean and rat tissues with pixel size less than 30 μm. Overall, AP/MALDI-Q-Orbitrap is a fast scanning instrument that is capable of performing multiple types of ionization and multiple acquisition modes without instrument modification. This instrument platform provides an attractive alternative to other high resolution MALDI instruments.
Project description:Isobaric stable isotope tagging reagents such as tandem mass tags or isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification enable multiplexed quantification of peptides via reporter ion signals in the low mass range of tandem mass spectra. Until recently, the poor recovery of low mass fragments observed in tandem mass spectra acquired on ion trap mass spectrometers precluded the use of these reagents on this widely available instrument platform. The Pulsed Q Dissociation (PQD) technique allows negotiating this limitation but suffers from poor fragmentation efficiency, which has raised doubts in the community as to its practical utility. Here we show that by carefully optimizing instrument parameters such as collision energy, activation Q, delay time, ion isolation width, number of microscans, and number of trapped ions, low m/z fragment ion intensities can be generated that enable accurate peptide quantification at the 100 amol level. Side by side comparison of PQD on an LTQ Orbitrap with CID on a five-year old Q-Tof Ultima using complex protein digests shows that whereas precision of quantification of 10-15% can be achieved by both approaches, PQD quantifies twice as many proteins. PQD on an LTQ Orbitrap also outperforms "higher energy collision induced dissociation" on the same instrument using the recently introduced octapole collision cell in terms of lower limit of quantification. Finally, we demonstrate the significant analytical potential of iTRAQ quantification using PQD on an LTQ Orbitrap by quantitatively measuring the kinase interaction profile of the small molecule drug imatinib in K-562 cells. This article gives practical guidance for the implementation of PQD, discusses its merits, and for the first time, compares its performance to higher energy collision-induced dissociation.
Project description:Native mass spectrometry continues to develop as a significant complement to traditional structural biology techniques. Within native mass spectrometry (MS), surface-induced dissociation (SID) has been shown to be a powerful activation method for the study of noncovalent complexes of biological significance. High-resolution mass spectrometers have become increasingly adapted to the analysis of high-mass ions and have demonstrated their importance in understanding how small mass changes can affect the overall structure of large biomolecular complexes. Herein we demonstrate the first adaptation of surface-induced dissociation in a modified high-mass-range, high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The SID device was designed to be installed in the Q Exactive series of Orbitrap mass spectrometers with minimal disruption of standard functions. The performance of the SID-Orbitrap instrument has been demonstrated with several protein complex and ligand-bound protein complex systems ranging from 53 to 336 kDa. We also address the effect of ion source temperature on native protein-ligand complex ions as assessed by SID. Results are consistent with previous findings on quadrupole time-of-flight instruments and suggest that SID coupled to high-resolution MS is well-suited to provide information on the interface interactions within protein complexes and ligand-bound protein complexes.