Relationship between air pollution and positivity of RA-related autoantibodies in individuals without established RA: a report on SERA.
ABSTRACT: Studies suggest that respiratory exposures including smoking, proximity to traffic and air pollution might be associated with development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA-related autoantibodies are predictive of the development of RA.We evaluated the relationship between RA-related autoantibodies and exposure to particulate matter (PM), a measure of air pollution of interest to health, in individuals without RA.The Studies of the Etiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis (SERA) is a multicentre study following first-degree relatives (FDRs) of a proband with RA. FDRs are without the 1987 ACR (American College of Rheumatology) classifiable RA at enrolment and are followed for the development of RA-related autoimmunity. RA-related autoantibody outcomes as well as tender and swollen joint outcomes were assessed. Exposure to PM was assigned using ambient air pollution monitoring data and interpolated with inverse distance weighting spatial analyses using Geographic Information Systems. PM exposures were linked to FDR's residential zip codes.RA-related autoantibodies as well as tender or swollen joints are not associated with ambient PM concentrations.While other respiratory exposures may be associated with increased risk of RA, our data suggest that ambient PM is not associated with autoantibodies and joint signs among individuals without RA, but at increased risk of developing RA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Autoimmune disease prevention requires tools to assess an individual's risk of developing a specific disease. One tool is disease-associated autoantibodies, which accumulate in an asymptomatic preclinical period. However, patients sometimes exhibit autoantibodies associated with a different disease classification. When and how these alternative autoantibodies first appear remain unknown. This cross-sectional study characterizes alternative autoimmunity, and associated genetic and environmental factors, in unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients, who exhibit increased future risk for the same disease. METHODS:Samples (n?=?1321) from disease-specific autoantibody-positive (aAb+) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients; and unaffected aAb+ and autoantibody-negative (aAb-) SLE and RA FDRs were tested for SLE, RA, and T1D aAbs, as well as anti-tissue transglutaminase, anti-cardiolipin and anti-thyroperoxidase. FDR SLE and RA genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated. FINDINGS:Alternative autoimmunity occurred in SLE patients (56%) and FDRs (57·4%), RA patients (32·6%) and FDRs (34·8%), and T1D patients (43%). Expanded autoimmunity, defined as autoantibodies spanning at least two other diseases, occurred in 18·5% of SLE patients, 16·4% of SLE FDRs, 7·8% of RA patients, 5·3% of RA FDRs, and 10·8% of T1D patients. SLE FDRs were more likely to have alternative (odds ratio [OR] 2·44) and expanded (OR 3·27) autoimmunity than RA FDRs. Alternative and expanded autoimmunity were associated with several environmental exposures. Alternative autoimmunity was associated with a higher RA GRS in RA FDRs (OR 1·41), and a higher SLE GRS in aAb+?RA FDRs (OR 1·87), but not in SLE FDRs. INTERPRETATION:Autoimmunity commonly crosses disease-specific boundaries in systemic (RA, SLE) and organ-specific (T1D) autoimmune diseases. Alternative autoimmunity is more common in SLE FDRs than RA FDRs, and is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. These findings have substantial implications for preclinical disease pathogenesis and autoimmune disease prevention studies. FUND: NIH U01AI101981, R01AR051394, U19AI082714, P30AR053483, P30GM103510, U54GM104938, U01AI101934, R01AI024717, U01AI130830, I01BX001834, & U01HG008666.
Project description:population-based studies have demonstrated associations between ambient air pollution exposures and mortality, but few have been able to adjust for occupational exposures. Additionally, two studies have observed higher risks in individuals with occupational dust, gas, or fume exposure.we examined the association of ambient residential exposure to particulate matter less than 10 microm in diameter (PM(10)), particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM(2.5)), NO(2), SO(2), and mortality in 53,814 men in the U.S. trucking industry.exposures for PM(10), NO(2), and SO(2) at each residential address were assigned using models combining spatial smoothing and geographic covariates. PM(2.5) exposures in 2000 were assigned from the nearest available monitor. Single and multipollutant Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association of an interquartile range (IQR) change (6 microg/m(3) for PM(10), 4 microg/m(3) for PM(2.5), 4ppb for SO(2), and 8ppb for NO(2)) and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality.an IQR change in ambient residential exposures to PM(10) was associated with a 4.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-7.7%) increased risk of all-cause mortality. The increase for an IQR change in SO(2) was 6.9% (95% CI, 2.3-11.6%), for NO(2) was 8.2% (95% CI, 4.5-12.1%), and for PM(2.5) was 3.9% (95% CI, 1.0-6.9%). Elevated associations with cause-specific mortality (lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease) were observed for PM(2.5), SO(2), and NO(2), but not PM(10). None of the pollutants were confounded by occupational exposures. In multipollutant models, overall, the associations were attenuated, most strongly for PM(10). In sensitivity analyses excluding long-haul drivers, who spend days away from home, larger hazard ratios were observed.in this population of men, residential ambient air pollution exposures were associated with mortality.
Project description:Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with adverse birth outcomes such as preterm delivery. However, only one study to date has linked air pollution to blood pressure changes during pregnancy, a period of dramatic cardiovascular function changes.We examined whether maternal exposures to criteria air pollutants, including particles of less than 10 ?m (PM(10)) or 2.5 ?m diameter (PM(2.5)), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), and ozone (O(3)), in each trimester of pregnancy are associated with magnitude of rise of blood pressure between the first 20 weeks of gestation and late pregnancy in a prospectively followed cohort of 1684 pregnant women in Allegheny County, PA.Air pollution measures for maternal ZIP code areas were derived using Kriging interpolation. Using logistic regression analysis, we evaluated the associations between air pollution exposures and blood pressure changes between the first 20 weeks of gestation and late pregnancy.First trimester PM(10) and ozone exposures were associated with blood pressure changes between the first 20 weeks of gestation and late pregnancy, most strongly in non-smokers. Per interquartile increases in first trimester PM(10) and O(3) concentrations were associated with mean increases in systolic blood pressure of 1.88 mm Hg (95% CI=0.84 to 2.93) and 1.84 (95% CI=1.05 to 4.63), respectively, and in diastolic blood pressure of 0.63 mm Hg (95% CI=-0.50 to 1.76) and 1.13 (95% CI=-0.46 to 2.71) in non-smokers.Our novel finding suggests that first trimester PM(10) and O(3) air pollution exposures increase blood pressure in the later stages of pregnancy. These changes may play a role in mediating the relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes.
Project description:Previous studies reported adverse impacts of traffic-related air pollution exposure on pregnancy outcomes. Yet, little information exists on how effect estimates are impacted by the different exposure assessment methods employed in these studies.To compare effect estimates for traffic-related air pollution exposure and preeclampsia, preterm birth (gestational age less than 37 weeks), and very preterm birth (gestational age less than 30 weeks) based on four commonly used exposure assessment methods.We identified 81,186 singleton births during 1997-2006 at four hospitals in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California. Exposures were assigned to individual subjects based on residential address at delivery using the nearest ambient monitoring station data [carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), ozone (O(3)), and particulate matter less than 2.5 (PM(2.5)) or less than 10 (PM(10))?m in aerodynamic diameter], both unadjusted and temporally adjusted land-use regression (LUR) model estimates (NO, NO(2), and NO(x)), CALINE4 line-source air dispersion model estimates (NO(x) and PM(2.5)), and a simple traffic-density measure. We employed unconditional logistic regression to analyze preeclampsia in our birth cohort, while for gestational age-matched risk sets with preterm and very preterm birth we employed conditional logistic regression.We observed elevated risks for preeclampsia, preterm birth, and very preterm birth from maternal exposures to traffic air pollutants measured at ambient stations (CO, NO, NO(2), and NO(x)) and modeled through CALINE4 (NO(x) and PM(2.5)) and LUR (NO(2) and NO(x)). Increased risk of preterm birth and very preterm birth were also positively associated with PM(10) and PM(2.5) air pollution measured at ambient stations. For LUR-modeled NO(2) and NO(x) exposures, elevated risks for all the outcomes were observed in Los Angeles only--the region for which the LUR models were initially developed. Unadjusted LUR models often produced odds ratios somewhat larger in size than temporally adjusted models. The size of effect estimates was smaller for exposures based on simpler traffic density measures than the other exposure assessment methods.We generally confirmed that traffic-related air pollution was associated with adverse reproductive outcomes regardless of the exposure assessment method employed, yet the size of the estimated effect depended on how both temporal and spatial variations were incorporated into exposure assessment. The LUR model was not transferable even between two contiguous areas within the same large metropolitan area in Southern California.
Project description:Gene expression changes are linked to air pollutant exposures in in vitro and animal experiments. However, limited data are available on how these outcomes relate to ambient air pollutant exposures in humans. We performed an exploratory analysis testing whether gene expression levels were associated with air pollution exposures in a Los Angeles area cohort of elderly subjects with coronary artery disease. Candidate genes (35) were selected from published studies of gene expression-pollutant associations. Expression levels were measured weekly in 43 subjects (? 12 weeks) using quantitative PCR. Exposures included gaseous pollutants O3, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and CO; particulate matter (PM) pollutants elemental and black carbon (EC, BC); and size-fractionated PM mass. We measured organic compounds from PM filter extracts, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and determined the in vitro oxidative potential of particle extracts. Associations between exposures and gene expression levels were analyzed using mixed-effects regression models. We found positive associations of traffic-related pollutants (EC, BC, primary organic carbon, PM 0.25-2.5 PAH and/or PM 0.25 PAH, and NOx) with NFE2L2, Nrf2-mediated genes (HMOX1, NQO1, and SOD2), CYP1B1, IL1B, and SELP. Findings suggest that NFE2L2 gene expression links associations of traffic-related air pollution with phase I and II enzyme genes at the promoter transcription level.
Project description:Background Exposure to air pollution from solid fuel used in residential cookstoves is considered a leading environmental risk factor for disease globally, but evidence for this relationship is largely extrapolated from literature on smoking, secondhand smoke, and ambient fine particulate matter ( PM 2.5). Methods and Results We conducted a controlled human-exposure study (STOVES [the Subclinical Tests on Volunteers Exposed to Smoke] Study) to investigate acute responses in blood pressure following exposure to air pollution emissions from cookstove technologies. Forty-eight healthy adults received 2-hour exposures to 5 cookstove treatments (three stone fire, rocket elbow, fan rocket elbow, gasifier, and liquefied petroleum gas), spanning PM 2.5 concentrations from 10 to 500 μg/m3, and a filtered air control (0 μg/m3). Thirty minutes after exposure, systolic pressure was lower for the three stone fire treatment (500 μg/m3 PM 2.5) compared with the control (-2.3 mm Hg; 95% CI, -4.5 to -0.1) and suggestively lower for the gasifier (35 μg/m3 PM 2.5; -1.8 mm Hg; 95% CI , -4.0 to 0.4). No differences were observed at 3 hours after exposure; however, at 24 hours after exposure, mean systolic pressure was 2 to 3 mm Hg higher for all treatments compared with control except for the rocket elbow stove. No differences were observed in diastolic pressure for any time point or treatment. Conclusions Short-term exposure to air pollution from cookstoves can elicit an increase in systolic pressure within 24 hours. This response occurred across a range of stove types and PM 2.5 concentrations, raising concern that even low-level exposures to cookstove air pollution may pose adverse cardiovascular effects.
Project description:Evidence on the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity attributable to the interaction between ambient air pollution and temperature has been limited. This study aimed to examine the modification effect of temperature on the association of ambient air pollutants (including particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter <10 ?m (PM10) and <2.5 ?m (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO?), sulfur dioxide (SO?), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O?)) with risk of hospital admissions (HAs) for COPD, as well as the associated morbidity burden in urban areas of Chengdu, China, from 2015 to 2016. Based on the generalized additive model (GAM) with quasi-Poisson link, bivariate response surface model and stratification parametric model were developed to investigate the potential interactions between ambient air pollution and temperature on COPD HAs. We found consistent interactions between ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10 and SO?) and low temperature on COPD HAs, demonstrated by the stronger associations between ambient air pollutants and COPD HAs at low temperatures than at moderate temperatures. Subgroup analyses showed that the elderly (?80 years) and males were more vulnerable to this interaction. The joint effect of PM and low temperature had the greatest impact on COPD morbidity burden. Using WHO air quality guidelines as reference concentration, about 17.30% (95% CI: 12.39%, 22.19%) and 14.72% (95% CI: 10.38%, 19.06%) of COPD HAs were attributable to PM2.5 and PM10 exposures on low temperature days, respectively. Our findings suggested that low temperature significantly enhanced the effects of PM and SO? on COPD HAs in urban Chengdu, resulting in increased morbidity burden. This evidence has important implications for developing interventions to reduce the risk effect of COPD morbidity.
Project description:Ambient air pollution, including particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, represents important environmental exposures that adversely affect human health. Because of their heritable and reversible nature, epigenetic modifications provide a plausible link between the environment and alterations in gene expression that might lead to disease. Epidemiologic evidence supports that environmental exposures in childhood affect susceptibility to disease later in life, supporting the belief that epigenetic changes can affect ongoing development and promote disease long after the environmental exposure has ceased. Indeed, allergic disorders often have their roots in early childhood, and early exposure to PM has been strongly associated with the subsequent development of asthma. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on the genetic and epigenetic regulation of responses to ambient air pollutants, specifically respirable PM, and their association with the development of allergic disorders. Understanding these epigenetic biomarkers and how they integrate with genetic influences to translate the biologic effect of particulate exposure is critical to developing novel preventative and therapeutic strategies for allergic disorders.
Project description:Air pollution is linked to brain inflammation, which accelerates tumorigenesis and neurodegeneration. The molecular mechanisms that connect air pollution with brain pathology are largely unknown but seem to depend on the chemical composition of airborne particulate matter (PM). We sourced ambient PM from Riverside, California, and selectively exposed rats to coarse (PM2.5-10: 2.5-10?µm), fine (PM<2.5: <2.5?µm), or ultrafine particles (UFPM: <0.15?µm). We characterized each PM type via atomic emission spectroscopy and detected nickel, cobalt and zinc within them. We then exposed rats separately to each PM type for short (2 weeks), intermediate (1-3 months) and long durations (1 year). All three metals accumulated in rat brains during intermediate-length PM exposures. Via RNAseq analysis we then determined that intermediate-length PM2.5-10 exposures triggered the expression of the early growth response gene 2 (EGR2), genes encoding inflammatory cytokine pathways (IL13-R?1 and IL-16) and the oncogene RAC1. Gene upregulation occurred only in brains of rats exposed to PM2.5-10 and correlated with cerebral nickel accumulation. We hypothesize that the expression of inflammation and oncogenesis-related genes is triggered by the combinatorial exposure to certain metals and toxins in Los Angeles Basin PM2.5-10.
Project description:Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated the effects of air pollution on the risk of Parkinson disease (PD).We investigated the associations of long-term residential concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) < 10 ?m in diameter (PM10) and < 2.5 ?m in diameter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in relation to PD risk.Our nested case-control analysis included 1,556 self-reported physician-diagnosed PD cases identified between 1995 and 2006 and 3,313 controls frequency-matched on age, sex, and race. We geocoded home addresses reported in 1995-1996 and estimated the average ambient concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 using a national fine-scale geostatistical model incorporating roadway information and other geographic covariates. Air pollutant exposures were analyzed as both quintiles and continuous variables, adjusting for matching variables and potential confounders.We observed no statistically significant overall association between PM or NO2 exposures and PD risk. However, in preplanned subgroup analyses, a higher risk of PD was associated with higher exposure to PM10 (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.45; p-trend = 0.02) among women, and with higher exposure to PM2.5 (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.29; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.76; p-trend = 0.04) among never smokers. In post hoc analyses among female never smokers, both PM2.5 (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.17; p-trend = 0.05) and PM10 (ORQ5 vs. Q1 = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.29, 4.26; p-trend = 0.01) showed positive associations with PD risk. Analyses based on continuous exposure variables generally showed similar but nonsignificant associations.Overall, we found limited evidence for an association between exposures to ambient PM10, PM2.5, or NO2 and PD risk. The suggestive evidence that exposures to PM2.5 and PM10 may increase PD risk among female never smokers warrants further investigation. Citation: Liu R, Young MT, Chen JC, Kaufman JD, Chen H. 2016. Ambient air pollution exposures and risk of Parkinson disease. Environ Health Perspect 124:1759-1765;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP135.