The FBI1/Akirin2 target gene, BCAM, acts as a suppressive oncogene.
ABSTRACT: Basal cell adhesion molecule (BCAM), known to be a splicing variant of Lutheran glycoprotein (LU), is an immunoglobulin superfamily membrane protein that acts as a laminin ?5 receptor. The high affinity of BCAM/LU for laminin ?5 is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of sickle red blood cells and to various developmental processes. However, the function of BCAM in carcinogenesis is poorly understood. Based on microarray expression analysis, we found that BCAM was one of the target genes of the oncogenic 14-3-3?-FBI1/Akirin2 complex, which acts as a transcriptional repressor and suppresses MAPK phosphatase-1 gene expression. To elucidate the detailed function of BCAM in malignant tumors, we established BCAM-expressing hepatoma K2 cells. These cells lost the malignant characteristics of parental cells, such as anchorage-independent growth, migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity. Moreover, luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that the 14-3-3?-FBI1/Akirin2 complex bound to the BCAM promoter and repressed transcription. Thus, these data indicate that BCAM is a suppressive oncoprotein, and that FBI1/Akirin2 is involved in tumorigenicity and metastasis of hepatoma through the downregulation of suppressive oncogenes.
Project description:Lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM) is a transmembrane adhesion molecule expressed by erythrocytes and endothelial cells that can interact with the extracellular matrix protein laminin-α5. In sickle cell disease, Lu/BCAM is thought to contribute to adhesion of sickle erythrocytes to the vascular wall, especially during vaso-occlusive crises. On healthy erythrocytes however, its function is unclear. Here we report that Lu/BCAM is activated during erythrocyte aging. We show that Lu/BCAM-mediated binding to laminin-α5 is restricted by interacting, in cis, with glycophorin-C-derived sialic acid residues. Following loss of sialic acid during erythrocyte aging, Lu/BCAM is released from glycophorin-C and allowed to interact with sialic acid residues on laminin-α5. Decreased glycophorin-C sialylation, as observed in individuals lacking exon 3 of glycophorin-C, the so-called Gerbich phenotype, was found to correlate with increased Lu/BCAM-dependent binding to laminin-α5. In addition, we identified the sialic acid-binding site within the third immunoglobulin-like domain within Lu/BCAM that accounts for the interaction with glycophorin-C and laminin-α5. Last, we present evidence that neuraminidase-expressing pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, can similarly induce Lu/BCAM-mediated binding to laminin-α5, by cleaving terminal sialic acid residues from the erythrocyte membrane. These results shed new light on the mechanisms contributing to increased adhesiveness of erythrocytes at the end of their lifespan, possibly facilitating their clearance. Furthermore, this work may contribute to understanding the pathology induced by neuraminidase-positive bacteria, because they are especially harmful to patients suffering from sickle cell disease and are associated with the occurrence of vaso-occlusive crises.
Project description:Human normal and sickle red blood cells (RBCs) adhere with high affinity to the alpha5 chain of laminin (LAMA5) via the basal cell adhesion molecule/Lutheran (BCAM/Lu) receptor, which is implicated in vasoocclusive episodes in sickle cell disease and activated through the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway. However, the effect of the cAMP pathway on the expression of active BCAM/Lu receptors at the single-molecule level is unknown. We established an in vitro technique, based on atomic force microscopy, which enables detection of single BCAM/Lu proteins on the RBC surface and measures the unbinding force between BCAM/Lu and LAMA5. We showed that the expression of active BCAM/Lu receptors is higher in homozygous sickle RBCs (SS-RBCs) than normal RBCs and that it is critically dependent on the cAMP signaling pathway on both normal and SS-RBCs. Of importance, we illustrated that A-kinase anchoring proteins are crucial for BCAM/Lu receptor activation. Furthermore, we found that SS-RBCs from hydroxyurea-treated patients show a lower expression of active BCAM/Lu receptors, a lower unbinding force to LAMA5, and insignificant stimulation by epinephrine as compared to SS-RBCs from untreated patients. To our knowledge, these findings may lead to novel antiadhesive targets for vasoocclusive episodes in sickle cell disease.
Project description:Lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM) is a membrane bound glycoprotein. This study was performed to investigate the role and downstream signaling pathway of Lu/BCAM in human bladder tumorigenesis.Five human bladder cancer (E6, RT4, TSGH8301, TCCSUP and J82), one stable mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH-Lu) expressing Lu/BCAM transgene and sixty human uroepithelial carcinoma specimens were analyzed by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IFA) staining, Western blotting and promoter luciferase assay for Lu/BCAM, respectively. The tumorigenicity of Lu/BCAM was demonstrated by focus formation, colony-forming ability, tumour formation, cell adhesion and migration.H-ras V12 was revealed to up-regulate Lu/BCAM at both transcriptional and translation levels. Lu/BCAM expression was detected on the membrane of primary human bladder cancer cells. Over-expression of Lu/BCAM in NIH-Lu stable cells increased focus number, colony formation and cell adhesion accompanied with F-actin rearrangement and decreased cell migration compared with parental NIH3T3 fibroblasts. In the presence of laminin ligand, Lu/BCAM overexpression further suppressed cell migration accompanied with increased cell adhesion. We further revealed that laminin-Lu/BCAM-induced cell adhesion and F-actin rearrangement were through increased Erk phosphorylation with an increase of RhoA and a decrease of Rac1 activity. Similarly, high Lu/BCAM expression was detected in the tumors of human renal pelvis, ureter and bladder, and was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage (p = 0.02). Patients with high Lu/BCAM expression showed a trend toward larger tumor size (p = 0.07) and lower disease-specific survival (p = 0.08), although not reaching statistical significance.This is the first report showing that Lu/BCAM, in the presence of its ligand laminin, is oncogenic in human urothelial cancers and may have potential as a novel therapeutic target.
Project description:The protein toxin Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) is a major virulence factor of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. It belongs to a family of single chain AB-toxins, which enter mammalian cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Recently, we identified the Lutheran (Lu) adhesion glycoprotein/basal cell adhesion molecule (BCAM) as a cellular receptor for CNF1. Here, we identified the Ig-like domain 2 of Lu/BCAM as main interaction site of the toxin by direct protein-protein interaction and competition studies. Using surface plasmon resonance, we showed a high affinity CNF-Lu/BCAM interaction with a KD of 2.8 nM. Furthermore, we performed small-angle X-ray scattering to define the molecular envelope of the Lu/BCAM-CNF1 complex, suggesting a 6:1 ratio of Lu/BCAM to CNF1 in the receptor-toxin complex. This study leads to a deeper understanding of the interaction between CNF1 and Lu/BCAM, and presents novel opportunities for the development of future anti-toxin strategies.
Project description:Lu (Lutheran) blood group and BCAM (basal cell adhesion molecule) antigens both reside on two gp (glycoprotein) isoforms, Lu and Lu(v13), that differ by the size of their cytoplasmic tail. They are receptors of laminin-10/11 and are expressed in RBCs (red blood cells), epithelial cells of multiple tissues and vascular endothelial cells. To gain more insights into the biological function of Lu/BCAM gps, we looked for potential partners of their cytoplasmic tail. We isolated Ubc9 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9) protein by screening a human kidney library using the yeast two-hybrid system. Lu/Ubc9 interaction was validated by GST (glutathione S-transferase) pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Endogenous Ubc9 formed a complex with endogenous or recombinant Lu gp in A498 and MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) epithelial cells respectively. Replacement of Lys(585) by alanine in the Lu gp abolished in vitro and ex vivo interactions of Lu gp with Ubc9 protein. Lu K585A mutant transfected in MDCK cells exhibited a normal basolateral membrane expression but was overexpressed at the surface of polarized MDCK cells as compared with wild-type Lu. Pulse-chase experiments showed extended half-life of Lu K585A gp at the plasma membrane, suggesting an impaired endocytosis of this mutant leading to protein accumulation at the membrane. Furthermore, we showed that the ability of MDCK-Lu K585A cells to spread on immobilized laminin was dramatically decreased. Our results support a physiological role for the direct interaction between Lu gp and Ubc9 protein and reveal a role for this enzyme in regulating the stability of Lu gp at the cell membrane.
Project description:The Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) is a protein toxin which is a major virulence factor of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Here, we identified the Lutheran (Lu) adhesion glycoprotein/basal cell adhesion molecule (BCAM) as cellular receptor for CNF1 by co-precipitation of cell surface molecules with tagged toxin. The CNF1-Lu/BCAM interaction was verified by direct protein-protein interaction analysis and competition studies. These studies revealed amino acids 720 to 1014 of CNF1 as the binding site for Lu/BCAM. We suggest two cell interaction sites in CNF1: first the N-terminus, which binds to p37LRP as postulated before. Binding of CNF1 to p37LRP seems to be crucial for the toxin's action. However, it is not sufficient for the binding of CNF1 to the cell surface. A region directly adjacent to the catalytic domain is a high affinity interaction site for Lu/BCAM. We found Lu/BCAM to be essential for the binding of CNF1 to cells. Cells deficient in Lu/BCAM but expressing p37LRP could not bind labeled CNF1. Therefore, we conclude that LRP and Lu/BCAM are both required for toxin action but with different functions.
Project description:Tumor cell migration depends on the interactions of adhesion proteins with the extracellular matrix. Lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM) promotes tumor cell migration by binding to laminin ?5 chain, a subunit of laminins 511 and 521. Lu/BCAM is a type I transmembrane protein with a cytoplasmic domain of 59 (Lu) or 19 (Lu(v13)) amino acids. Here, using an array of techniques, including site-directed mutagenesis, immunoblotting, FRET, and proximity-ligation assays, we show that both Lu and Lu(v13) form homodimers at the cell surface of epithelial cancer cells. We mapped two small-XXX-small motifs in the transmembrane domain as potential sites for monomers docking and identified three cysteines in the cytoplasmic domain as being critical for covalently stabilizing dimers. We further found that Lu dimerization and phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic domain were concomitantly needed to promote cell migration. We conclude that Lu is the critical isoform supporting tumor cell migration on laminin 521 and that the Lu:Lu(v13) ratio at the cell surface may control the balance between cellular firm adhesion and migration.
Project description:Under chronic or severe liver injury, liver progenitor cells (LPCs) of biliary origin are known to expand and contribute to the regeneration of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. This regeneration process is called ductular reaction (DR), which is accompanied by dynamic remodeling of biliary tissue. Although the DR shows apparently distinct mode of biliary extension depending on the type of liver injury, the key regulatory mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Lutheran (Lu)/Basal cell adhesion molecule (BCAM) regulates the morphogenesis of DR depending on liver disease models. Lu+ and Lu- biliary cells isolated from injured liver exhibit opposite phenotypes in cell motility and duct formation capacities in vitro. By overexpression of Lu, Lu- biliary cells acquire the phenotype of Lu+ biliary cells. Lu-deficient mice showed severe defects in DR. Our findings reveal a critical role of Lu in the control of phenotypic heterogeneity of DR in distinct liver disease models.
Project description:Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) was identified in 1983 as a protein toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. Since then, numerous studies have investigated its particularities. For instance, it is associated with the single chain AB-toxin family, and can be divided into different functional and structural domains, e.g., catalytic and transmembrane domain and interaction sites. A few years ago, the identification of the Lutheran (Lu) adhesion glycoprotein/basal cell adhesion molecule (BCAM) as a cellular receptor for CNF1 provided new insights into the adhesion process of CNF1. Very recently, the Ig-like domain 2 of Lu/BCAM was confirmed as the main interaction site using protein-protein interaction and competition studies with various different mutants. Here, I present in silico approaches that precisely explain the impact of these mutations, leading to a better explanation of these experimental studies. These results can be used in the development of future antitoxin strategies.
Project description:Collapse and sudden death in physical training are the most serious complications of sickle cell trait (SCT). There is evidence that erythrocytes in SCT patients aggregate during strenuous exercise, likely because of adhesive interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and endothelial cells, and because of their irregular viscoelastic properties. This results in inflammation, blood flow impairment, and vaso-occlusive events. However, the exact role of stress conditions and how they lead to these complications is virtually unknown. Using single-molecule atomic force microscopy experiments, we found that epinephrine, a hormone that is secreted under stressful conditions, increases both the frequency and strength of adhesion events between basal cell adhesion molecule (BCAM/Lu) and ECM laminin, and between intercellular adhesion molecule-4 (ICAM-4) and endothelial ?(v)?(3), compared with nonstimulated SCT erythrocytes. Increases in adhesion frequency provide significant evidence of the role of epinephrine in BCAM/Lu-laminin and ICAM-4-?(v)?(3) bonding, and suggest mechanisms of vaso-occlusion during physical exertion in SCT.