ABSTRACT: Empirical prediction models that weight food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) food items by their relation to nutrient biomarker concentrations may estimate nutrient exposure better than nutrient intakes derived from food composition databases. Carotenoids may especially benefit because contributing foods vary in bioavailability and assessment validity. Our objective was to develop empirical prediction models for the major plasma carotenoids and total carotenoids and evaluate their validity compared with dietary intakes calculated from standard food composition tables. 4180 nonsmoking women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) blood subcohort with previously measured plasma carotenoids were randomly divided into training (n = 2787) and testing (n = 1393) subsets. Empirical prediction models were developed in the training subset by stepwise selection from foods contributing ?0.5% to intake of the relevant carotenoid. Spearman correlations between predicted and measured plasma concentrations were compared to Spearman correlations between dietary intake and measured plasma concentrations for each carotenoid. Three to 12 foods were selected for the ?-carotene, ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, and total carotenoids prediction models. In the testing subset, Spearman correlations with measured plasma concentrations for the calculated dietary intakes and predicted plasma concentrations, respectively, were 0.31 and 0.37 for ?-carotene, 0.29 and 0.31 for ?-carotene, 0.36 and 0.41 for ?-cryptoxanthin, 0.28 and 0.31 for lutein/zeaxanthin, 0.22 and 0.23 for lycopene, and 0.22 and 0.27 for total carotenoids. Empirical prediction models may modestly improve assessment of some carotenoids, particularly ?-carotene and ?-cryptoxanthin.
Project description:The predictive ability of dietary assessment methods to estimate specific circulating plasma carotenoid concentrations has been compared between African Americans and whites in only one study to date.The predictive abilities of 24-h dietary recalls and a food-frequency questionnaire in reporting dietary carotenoids when measured against concentration biomarkers were assessed in African Americans and compared with the findings in whites.Data were collected from 250 generally healthy, nonsmoking white and African American participants aged 21-69 y, who completed 8 self-administered online 24-h dietary recalls and one National Cancer Institute diet-history questionnaire in the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Energetics Study. Mean intakes from 4-d dietary recalls were correlated with plasma xanthophyll concentrations (lutein + zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin) and hydrocarbon carotenoids (lycopene, ?-carotene, and ?-carotene).Adjusted correlations of plasma carotenoids with reported dietary intakes for African Americans in the 24-h dietary recall ranged from 0.03 for ?-carotene to 0.40 for ?-cryptoxanthin. For whites, the correlations ranged from 0.13 for lycopene to 0.51 for ?-cryptoxanthin.Despite stronger validity in reported energy intakes for African Americans than for whites in the 24-h dietary recall in the Energetics Study, both recalls and food-frequency dietary assessment methods yielded lower correlations in African Americans than in whites. This finding might be attributable to reporting differences in both dietary sources and food preparation or to racially related genetic variants influencing circulating concentrations. The current findings support the need to account for differences in race, age, sex, and body mass index in regression calibrations of dietary reports and measurement error adjustments.
Project description:Little is known about the effect of preventive diets on colonic nutrient concentrations. This study randomized 120 persons at increased risk of colon cancer to a Mediterranean versus a Healthy Eating diet for six months. The former targeted increases in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, monounsaturated, and n3 fats. The Healthy Eating diet was based on Healthy People 2010 recommendations. At baseline, dietary fat and carotenoid intakes were poorly associated (Spearman ? < 0.4) with serum and colon concentrations. Strong associations were observed between serum and colon measurements of ?-cryptoxanthin (? = 0.58; P < 0.001), ?-carotene (? = 0.48; P < 0.001), and ?-carotene (? = 0.45; P < 0.001). After six months, the Healthy Eating intervention increased serum lutein, ?-, and ?-carotene significantly (P < 0.05). In the Mediterranean arm, the significant increases were in serum lutein, ?-cryptoxanthin, ?-carotene, monounsaturated, and n3 fats. A significant group-by-time interaction (P = 0.03) was obtained for monounsaturated fats. Colonic increases in carotenoids and n3 fats were significant only in Healthy Eating arm, whereas the group-by-time interaction was significant for ?-carotene (P = 0.02) and ?-carotene (P = 0.03). Changes in colon concentrations were not significantly associated with reported dietary changes. Changes in colon and serum concentrations were strongly associated for ?-cryptoxanthin (? = 0.56; P < 0.001) and ?-carotene (? = 0.40; P < 0.001). The associations between colonic and serum concentrations suggest the potential use of using serum concentration as a target in dietary interventions aimed at reducing colon cancer risk.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Current literature on the roles of α-, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin in neurocognitive function has largely focused on preventing cognitive decline in older people, and less on neuro-development in children. We examined the relations of maternal plasma carotenoids concentrations with offspring cognitive development up to age 4.5 years in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort study.<h4>Methods</h4>Maternal plasma α-, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin concentrations at delivery were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Children's cognition was assessed at ages 2 (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development) and 4.5 (Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test) years. Associations were examined in 419 mother-offspring pairs using linear regressions adjusting for key confounders.<h4>Results</h4>Median and interquartile range of maternal plasma concentrations (mg/L) were: α-carotene 0.052 (0.032, 0.081), β-carotene 0.189 (0.134, 0.286), and β-cryptoxanthin 0.199 (0.123, 0.304). In 2 years old children, higher maternal carotenoids [per standard deviation (SD) log-concentration] were positively associated with neurocognitive functions: β-cryptoxanthin with higher scores in cognitive [β = 0.18, (0.08, 0.28) SD], receptive language [β = 0.17 (0.07, 0.27) SD], fine motor [β = 0.16 (0.05, 0.26) SD], and gross motor [β = 0.16 (0.06, 0.27) SD] scales; β-carotene with higher cognitive score [β = 0.17 (0.05, 0.29) SD]. No significant associations were observed with neurocognitive functions at age 4.5 years.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our study provides novel data suggesting a potential role of prenatal carotenoids, particularly β-cryptoxanthin, on early offspring cognitive and motor development. Whether the prenatal influences sustain beyond early childhood requires further investigation in longer term studies.
Project description:Emerging evidence indicates that carotenoids may have particular roles in infant nutrition and development, yet data on the profile and bioavailability of carotenoids from human milk remain sparse. Milk was longitudinally collected at 2, 4, 13, and 26 weeks postpartum from twenty mothers each in China, Mexico, and the USA in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study (n = 60 donors, n = 240 samples). Maternal and neonatal plasma was analyzed for carotenoids from the USA cohort at 4 weeks postpartum. Carotenoids were analyzed by HPLC and total lipids by Creamatocrit. Across all countries and lactation stages, the top four carotenoids were lutein (median 114.4 nmol/L), ?-carotene (49.4 nmol/L), ?-cryptoxanthin (33.8 nmol/L), and lycopene (33.7 nmol/L). Non-provitamin A carotenoids (nmol/L) and total lipids (g/L) decreased (p<0.05) with increasing lactation stage, except the provitamin A carotenoids ?- and ?-cryptoxanthin and ?-carotene did not significantly change (p>0.05) with lactation stage. Total carotenoid content and lutein content were greatest from China, yet lycopene was lowest from China (p<0.0001). Lutein, ?-cryptoxanthin, and ?-carotene, and lycopene concentrations in milk were significantly correlated to maternal plasma and neonatal plasma concentrations (p<0.05), with the exception that lycopene was not significantly associated between human milk and neonatal plasma (p>0.3). This enhanced understanding of neonatal exposure to carotenoids during development may help guide dietary recommendations and design of human milk mimetics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Carotenoids have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of many diseases, but associations with intakes or blood concentrations may arise from other constituents of fruit and vegetables. Use of genetic variation in ?-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1), a key enzyme in provitamin A carotenoid metabolism, as a surrogate for carotenoid exposure may aid in determining the role of carotenoids unconfounded by other carotenoid-containing food constituents, but important variants must be identified. OBJECTIVE:Our goal was to select BCMO1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that predict plasma carotenoid concentrations for use in future epidemiologic studies. DESIGN:We assessed the associations between 224 SNPs in BCMO1 ± 20 kb imputed from the 1000 Genomes Project EUR reference panel with plasma carotenoid and retinol concentrations by using 7 case-control data sets (n = 2344) within the Nurses' Health Study, randomly divided into training (n = 1563) and testing (n = 781) data sets. SNPs were chosen in the training data set through stepwise selection in multivariate linear regression models; ?-coefficients were used as weights in weighted gene scores. RESULTS:Two or 3 SNPs were selected as predictors of ?-carotene, ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin, and lutein/zeaxanthin. In the testing data set, the weighted gene scores were significantly associated with plasma concentrations of the corresponding carotenoid (P = 6.4 × 10?¹², 3.3 × 10?³, 0.02, and 1.8 × 10?¹?, respectively), and concentrations differed by 48%, 15%, 15%, and 36%, respectively, across extreme score quintiles. CONCLUSIONS:SNPs in BCMO1 are associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations. Given adequate sample size, the gene scores may be useful surrogates for carotenoid exposure in future studies.
Project description:Carotenoids have shown an interindividual variability that may be due to genetic factors. The only study that has reported heritability of serum ?- and ?-carotene has not considered the environmental component. This study aimed to estimate the contribution of both genetic and common environmental effects to the variance of carotenoid concentrations and to test whether their phenotypic correlations with cardiometabolic risk factors are explained by shared genetic and environmental effects. Plasma carotenoid concentrations (?-carotene, ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin, and total carotenoids) of 48 healthy subjects were measured. Heritability estimates of carotenoid concentrations were calculated using the variance component method. Lutein and lycopene showed a significant familial effect (p = 6 × 10-6 and 0.0043, respectively). Maximal heritability, genetic heritability, and common environmental effect were computed for lutein (88.3%, 43.8%, and 44.5%, respectively) and lycopene (45.2%, 0%, and 45.2%, respectively). Significant phenotypic correlations between carotenoid concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors were obtained for ?-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and zeaxanthin. Familial resemblances in lycopene concentrations were mainly attributable to common environmental effects, while for lutein concentrations they were attributable to genetic and common environmental effects. Common genetic and environmental factors may influence carotenoids and cardiometabolic risk factors, but further studies are needed to better understand the potential impact on disease development.
Project description:This study examined patterns of changes in plasma fatty acids and carotenoids when women were asked to follow a novel, Greek-Mediterranean exchange list diet. A total of 69 healthy, nonobese women ages 25 to 59 years were randomized either to continue their own usual diet or to follow a modified Mediterranean diet for 6 months. There were no significant changes in blood lipids, triacylglycerol, insulin, glucose, or C-reactive protein. Mean plasma carotenoids increased by 55%, which is consistent with a large increase in fruit and vegetable consumption. Likewise, changes in fat intakes were reflected in blood fatty acids, with a 25% increase in mean plasma monounsaturated fatty acids. Principal component analysis was conducted to examine the sources of interindividual variation for changes in carotenoid and fatty acid levels. Changes in the Mediterranean diet were clustered together in 4 components that accounted for 78% of the variance in plasma levels. Increases in plasma lutein, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene clustered together in a "vegetable" pattern, and increases in carotenoids found in fruit, beta-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin also clustered together but accounted for less of the variance. Increases in plasma monounsaturated fatty acids were clustered with a decrease in plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids, consistent with substitution in the type of oils consumed. The only association of fatty acid levels with carotenoids was that of lycopene, which clustered together with an increase in saturated fatty acids. The changes in blood levels indicate the exchange list diet was effective for targeting Mediterranean nutrient intakes using foods available in the United States.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A protective association of dietary carotenoids with cognitive function has been suggested, but most studies have been relatively small with limited periods of follow-up.<h4>Objectives</h4>We examined prospectively long-term intakes of carotenoids in relation to subjective cognitive function (SCF), a self-reported, validated indicator of cognitive dysfunction.<h4>Methods</h4>Among 49,493 female registered nurses with a mean age of 48 y in 1984, we used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the ORs and 95% CIs relating intakes of carotenoids to self-reported SCF in 2012 and 2014. Mean intakes of carotenoids were calculated from 7 repeated FFQs collected in 1984, 1986, and every 4 y afterwards until 2006. Self-reported SCF was assessed by a 7-item questionnaire on changes in memory and cognition; validity was supported by strong associations with Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype and concurrent cognitive function and cognitive decline measured by telephone-based neuropsychological tests. The mean values of scores assessed in 2012 and 2014 were categorized as "good" (0 points, 40.8%), "moderate" (0.5-2.5 points, 46.9%), and "poor" (3-7 points, 12.3%).<h4>Results</h4>Higher intake of total carotenoids was associated with substantially lower odds of moderate or poor cognitive function after controlling for other dietary and nondietary risk factors and total energy intake. Comparing the top with the bottom quintile of total carotenoids, the multivariable ORs were 0.86 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.93; P-trend < 0.001) for moderate SCF and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.75; P-trend < 0.001) for poor SCF. This lower OR was also seen for carotenoids consumed 28 y before SCF assessment. Similar associations were found for total β-carotene, dietary β-carotene, α-carotene, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, and β-cryptoxanthin. The significant associations for β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein + zeaxanthin persisted after mutual adjustment for each other.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings support a long-term beneficial role of carotenoid consumption on cognitive function in women.
Project description:Objective:This research is aimed at determining the vascular health characteristics of carotenoids by evaluating their effect on excessive inflammatory response in endothelial and monocyte cells, the main factors of atherosclerosis. Methods:Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) or U937 monocytes were treated with escalating concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1??M) of five most common carotenoids in human plasma, i.e., ?-carotene, ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and lycopene prior to stimulation with 2?mM fructose. We examined the monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells (ECs) and relevant endothelial adhesion molecules. Chemokine and proinflammatory cytokine production as well as intracellular oxidative stress were also assessed in fructose-stimulated ECs and monocytes. Results:Carotenoids repressed monocyte adhesion to fructose-stimulated ECs dose dependently via decreasing primarily the expression of endothelial VCAM-1. In ECs and monocytes, three carotenoids, i.e., ?-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and lycopene, suppressed the fructose-induced expression of chemokines MCP-1, M-CSF, and CXCL-10 and inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-1?, with CXCL-10 being the most repressed inflammatory mediator. ?-Cryptoxanthin, lutein, and lycopene dramatically downregulated the fructose-induced CXCL-10 expression in vascular cells. The reduction in the inflammatory response was associated with a slight but significant decrease of intracellular oxidative stress. Conclusions:Our results show that carotenoids have a variety of anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerosis activities, which can help prevent or reduce fructose-induced inflammatory vascular diseases.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Current evidence on the relationship between carotenoids and chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are limited and controversial.<h4>Methods</h4>Data were obtained from the Nutrition and Health Examination Survey (NHANES) database and the NHANES Linked Mortality File, both from a nationally representative sample. Dietary intake was assessed through 24-h dietary recall, and information was available both on dietary and serum α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein/zeaxanthin (combined) through the NHANES cycles used. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate the risk for all-cause mortality associated with carotene intakes and serum levels, adjusting for potential confounding factors.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 6,095 CKD participants, 1,924 subjects died (mean follow-up time, 8.1 years). After eliminating all the confounding factors, we found that high levels of total carotene (HR = 0.85, 95% CI, 0.75-0.97, P = 0.011) intakes at baseline were significantly associated with a lower risk of death. And the serum concentrations of carotenoid were also showing that a-carotene (HR = 0.77, 95%CI, 0.65-0.92, <i>P</i> = 0.002), beta-cryptoxanthin (HR = 0.83, 95%CI, 0.70-0.98, <i>P</i> = 0.019), lycopene (HR = 0.77, 95% CI, 0.65-0.91, P = 0.002), and lutein + zeaxanthin (HR = 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.96, P = 0.002) was significantly associated with decreased all-cause mortality of CKD patients. The associations remained similar in the sensitivity analyses.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Findings suggest that high-level carotene dietary intake and the serum concentration were associated with a lower risk of mortality in the CKD population.