Benign mesenchymal stromal cells in human sarcomas.
ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that at least some sarcomas arise through aberrant differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), but MSCs have never been isolated directly from human sarcoma specimens.We examined human sarcoma cell lines and primary adherent cultures derived from human sarcoma surgical samples for features of MSCs. We further characterized primary cultures as either benign or malignant by the presence of tumor-defining genetic lesions and tumor formation in immunocompromised mice.We show that a dedifferentiated liposarcoma cell line DDLS8817 posesses fat, bone, and cartilage trilineage differentiation potential characteristic of MSCs. Primary sarcoma cultures have the morphology, surface immunophenotype, and differentiation potential characteristic of MSCs. Surprisingly, many of these cultures are benign, as they do not form tumors in mice and lack sarcoma-defining genetic lesions. Consistent with the recently proposed pericyte origin of MSCs in normal human tissues, sarcoma-derived benign MSCs (SDBMSCs) express markers of pericytes and cooperate with endothelial cells in tube formation assays. In human sarcoma specimens, a subset of CD146-positive microvascular pericytes expresses CD105, an MSC marker, whereas malignant cells largely do not. In an in vitro coculture model, SDBMSCs as well as normal human pericytes markedly stimulate the growth of sarcoma cell lines.SDBMSCs/pericytes represent a previously undescribed stromal cell type in sarcoma that may contribute to tumor formation.
Project description:Human osteogenic progenitors are not precisely defined, being primarily studied as heterogeneous multipotent cell populations and termed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Notably, select human pericytes can develop into bone-forming osteoblasts. Here, we sought to define the differentiation potential of CD146+ human pericytes from skeletal and soft tissue sources, with the underlying goal of defining cell surface markers that typify an osteoblastogenic pericyte. CD146+CD31-CD45- pericytes were derived by fluorescence-activated cell sorting from human periosteum, adipose, or dermal tissue. Periosteal CD146+CD31-CD45- cells retained canonical features of pericytes/MSC. Periosteal pericytes demonstrated a striking tendency to undergo osteoblastogenesis in vitro and skeletogenesis in vivo, while soft tissue pericytes did not readily. Transcriptome analysis revealed higher CXCR4 signaling among periosteal pericytes in comparison to their soft tissue counterparts, and CXCR4 chemical inhibition abrogated ectopic ossification by periosteal pericytes. Conversely, enrichment of CXCR4+ pericytes or stromal cells identified an osteoblastic/non-adipocytic precursor cell. In sum, human skeletal and soft tissue pericytes differ in their basal abilities to form bone. Diversity exists in soft tissue pericytes, however, and CXCR4+ pericytes represent an osteoblastogenic, non-adipocytic cell precursor. Indeed, enrichment for CXCR4-expressing stromal cells is a potential new tactic for skeletal tissue engineering.
Project description:Brain perivascular cells have recently been identified as a novel mesodermal cell type in the human brain. These cells reside in the perivascular niche and were shown to have mesodermal and, to a lesser extent, tissue-specific differentiation potential. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely proposed for use in cell therapy in many neurological disorders; therefore, it is of importance to better understand the "intrinsic" MSC population of the human brain. We systematically characterized adult human brain-derived pericytes during in vitro expansion and differentiation and compared these cells with fetal and adult human brain-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) and adult human bone marrow-derived MSCs. We found that adult human brain pericytes, which can be isolated from the hippocampus and from subcortical white matter, are-in contrast to adult human NSCs-easily expandable in monolayer cultures and show many similarities to human bone marrow-derived MSCs both regarding both surface marker expression and after whole transcriptome profile. Human brain pericytes showed a negligible propensity for neuroectodermal differentiation under various differentiation conditions but efficiently generated mesodermal progeny. Consequently, human brain pericytes resemble bone marrow-derived MSCs and might be very interesting for possible autologous and endogenous stem cell-based treatment strategies and cell therapeutic approaches for treating neurological diseases.Perivascular mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) recently gained significant interest because of their appearance in many tissues including the human brain. MSCs were often reported as being beneficial after transplantation in the central nervous system in different neurological diseases; therefore, adult brain perivascular cells derived from human neural tissue were systematically characterized concerning neural stem cell and MSC marker expression, transcriptomics, and mesodermal and inherent neuroectodermal differentiation potential in vitro and in vivo after in utero transplantation. This study showed the lack of an innate neuronal but high mesodermal differentiation potential. Because of their relationship to mesenchymal stem cells, these adult brain perivascular mesodermal cells are of great interest for possible autologous therapeutic use.
Project description:A widely shared view reads that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells ("MSCs") are ubiquitous in human connective tissues, can be defined by a common in vitro phenotype, share a skeletogenic potential as assessed by in vitro differentiation assays, and coincide with ubiquitous pericytes. Using stringent in vivo differentiation assays and transcriptome analysis, we show that human cell populations from different anatomical sources, regarded as "MSCs" based on these criteria and assumptions, actually differ widely in their transcriptomic signature and in vivo differentiation potential. In contrast, they share the capacity to guide the assembly of functional microvessels in vivo, regardless of their anatomical source, or in situ identity as perivascular or circulating cells. This analysis reveals that muscle pericytes, which are not spontaneously osteochondrogenic as previously claimed, may indeed coincide with an ectopic perivascular subset of committed myogenic cells similar to satellite cells. Cord blood-derived stromal cells, on the other hand, display the unique capacity to form cartilage in vivo spontaneously, in addition to an assayable osteogenic capacity. These data suggest the need to revise current misconceptions on the origin and function of so-called "MSCs," with important applicative implications. The data also support the view that rather than a uniform class of "MSCs," different mesoderm derivatives include distinct classes of tissue-specific committed progenitors, possibly of different developmental origin.
Project description:Pericytes play a crucial role in angiogenesis and vascular maintenance. They can be readily identified in vivo and isolated as CD146(+)CD34(-) cells from various tissues. Whether these and other markers reliably identify pericytes in vitro is unclear. CD146(+)CD34(-) selected cells exhibit multilineage potential. Thus, their perivascular location might represent a stem cell niche. This has spurred assumptions that not only all pericytes are mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), but also that all MSCs can act as pericytes. Considering this hypothesis, we developed functional assays by confronting test cells with endothelial cultures based on matrigel assay, spheroid sprouting, and cord formation. We calibrated these assays first with commercial cell lines [CD146(+)CD34(-) placenta-derived pericytes (Pl-Prc), bone marrow (bm)MSCs and fibroblasts]. We then functionally compared the angiogenic abilities of CD146(+)CD34(-)selected bmMSCs with CD146(-) selected bmMSCs from fresh human bm aspirates. We show here that only CD146(+)CD34(-) selected Pl-Prc and CD146(+)CD34(-) selected bmMSCs maintain endothelial tubular networks on matrigel and improve endothelial sprout morphology. CD146(-) selected bmMSCs neither showed these abilities, nor did they attain pericyte function despite progressive CD146 expression once passaged. Thus, cell culture conditions appear to influence expression of this and other reported pericyte markers significantly without correlation to function. The newly developed assays, therefore, promise to close a gap in the in vitro identification of pericytes via function. Indeed, our functional data suggest that pericytes represent a subpopulation of MSCs in bm with a specialized role in vascular biology. However, these functions are not inherent to all MSCs.
Project description:Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in culture are derived from BM stromal cells or skeletal stem cells. Whereas MSCs have been exploited in clinical medicine, the identification of MSC-specific markers has been limited. Here, we report that a cell surface and secreted protein, Meflin, is expressed in cultured MSCs, fibroblasts and pericytes, but not other types of cells including epithelial, endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In vivo, Meflin is expressed by immature osteoblasts and chondroblasts. In addition, Meflin is found on stromal cells distributed throughout the BM, and on pericytes and perivascular cells in multiple organs. Meflin maintains the undifferentiated state of cultured MSCs and is downregulated upon their differentiation, consistent with the observation that Meflin-deficient mice exhibit increased number of osteoblasts and accelerated bone development. In the bone and BM, Meflin is more highly expressed in primitive stromal cells that express platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? and Sca-1 than the Sca-1-negative adipo-osteogenic progenitors, which create a niche for hematopoiesis. Those results are consistent with a decrease in the number of clonogenic colony-forming unit-fibroblasts within the BM of Meflin-deficient mice. These preliminary data suggest that Meflin is a potential marker for cultured MSCs and their source cells in vivo.
Project description:Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a dominant component of the tumor microenvironment with pro-tumorigenic properties. Despite this knowledge, their physiologic origins remain poorly understood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be recruited from the bone marrow to areas of tissue damage and inflammation, including prostate cancer. MSCs can generate and have many overlapping properties with CAFs in preclinical models.Multiparameter flow cytometry and multipotent differentiation assays used to define MSCs in primary prostate stromal cultures derived from young (<25?yrs) organ donors and prostate cancer patients compared with bone marrow-derived stromal cultures. Population doubling times, population doublings, cell size, and differentiation potential determined under multiple culture conditions, including normoxia, hypoxia, and a variety of media. TGF-? measured by ELISA.MSCs and stromal progenitors are not only present in normal and malignant prostate tissue, but are quickly selected for in primary stromal cultures derived from these tissues; becoming the dominant population within just a few passages. Growth potential inversely associated with TGF-? concentrations. All conditions generated populations with an average cell diameter >15?µm. All cultures tested had the ability to undergo osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation, but unlike bone marrow-derived MSCs, primary stromal cultures derived from normal prostate tissue lack adipogenic differentiation potential. In contrast, a subset of stromal cultures derived from prostate cancer patients retain the ability to differentiate into adipocytes; a property that is significantly suppressed under hypoxic conditions in both bone marrow- and prostate-derived MSCs.Primary prostate stromal cultures are highly enriched in cells with an MSC or stromal progenitor phenotype. The use of primary cultures such as these to study CAFs raises interesting implications when considering their overlapping properties. The lack of adipogenesis in stromal cultures derived from normal prostates suggests they have a lineage-restricted progenitor phenotype. The retention of adipogenic differentiation in cultures from a subset of prostate cancer patients suggests the active recruitment of less committed progenitors or MSCs from the bone marrow as a function of disease progression. This recruitment can potentially be exploited for prognostic purposes or a cell-based platform for the systemic delivery of cytotoxic agents to sites of prostate cancer.
Project description:Tumors evolve from initial tumorigenic events into increasingly aggressive behaviors in a process usually driven by subpopulations of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) may act as the cell-of-origin for sarcomas, and CSCs that present MSC features have been identified in sarcomas due to their ability to grow as self-renewed floating spheres (tumorspheres). Accordingly, we previously developed sarcoma models using human MSCs transformed with relevant oncogenic events. To study the evolution/emergence of CSC subpopulations during tumor progression, we compared the tumorigenic properties of bulk adherent cultures and tumorsphere-forming subpopulations both in the sarcoma cell-of-origin models (transformed MSCs) and in their corresponding tumor xenograft-derived cells. Tumor formation assays showed that the tumorsphere cultures from xenograft-derived cells, but not from the cell-of-origin models, were enriched in CSCs, providing evidence of the emergence of bona fide CSCs subpopulations during tumor progression. Relevant CSC-related factors, such as ALDH1 and SOX2, were increasingly upregulated in CSCs during tumor progression, and importantly, the increased levels and activity of ALDH1 in these subpopulations were associated with enhanced tumorigenicity. In addition to being a CSC marker, our findings indicate that ALDH1 could also be useful for tracking the malignant potential of CSC subpopulations during sarcoma evolution.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been used in human and equine regenerative medicine, and interest in exploiting their potential has increased dramatically over the years. Despite significant effort to characterize equine MSCs, the actual origin of these cells and how much of their native phenotype is maintained in culture have not been determined. In this study, we investigated the relationship between MSCs, derived from adipose tissue (AT) and bone marrow (BM), and pericytes in the horse. Both pericyte (CD146, NG2, and ?SMA) and MSC (CD29, CD90, and CD73) markers were detected in equine AT and colocalized around blood vessels. Importantly, as assessed by flow cytometry, both pericyte (CD146, NG2, and ?SMA) and MSC (CD29, CD44, CD90, and CD105) markers were present in a majority (?90%) of cells in cultures of AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs; however, levels of pericyte markers were variable within each of those populations. Moreover, the expression of pericyte markers was maintained for at least eight passages in both AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs. Hematopoietic (CD45) and endothelial (CD144) markers were also detected at low levels in MSCs by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Finally, in coculture experiments, AT-MSCs closely associated with networks produced by endothelial cells, resembling the natural perivascular location of pericytes in vivo. Our results indicate that equine MSCs originate from perivascular cells and moreover maintain a pericyte-like phenotype in culture. Therefore, we suggest that, in addition to classical MSC markers, pericyte markers such as CD146 could be used when assessing and characterizing equine MSCs.
Project description:Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are cultured cells that can give rise to mature mesenchymal cells under appropriate conditions and secrete a number of biologically relevant molecules that may play an important role in regenerative medicine. Evidence indicates that pericytes (PCs) correspond to mesenchymal stem cells in vivo and can give rise to MSCs when cultured, but a comparison between the gene expression profiles of cultured PCs (cPCs) and MSCs is lacking. We have devised a novel methodology to isolate PCs from human adipose tissue and compared cPCs to MSCs obtained through traditional methods. Freshly isolated PCs expressed CD34, CD140b, and CD271 on their surface, but not CD146. Both MSCs and cPCs were able to differentiate along mesenchymal pathways in vitro, displayed an essentially identical surface immunophenotype, and exhibited the ability to suppress CD3(+) lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Microarray expression data of cPCs and MSCs formed a single cluster among other cell types. Further analyses showed that the gene expression profiles of cPCs and MSCs are extremely similar, although MSCs differentially expressed endothelial cell (EC)-specific transcripts. These results confirm, using the power of transcriptomic analysis, that PCs give rise to MSCs and suggest that low levels of ECs may persist in MSC cultures established using traditional protocols.
Project description:Cell-based bone regeneration is generally pursued based on single cell type approaches, for which human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs) are frequently used, owing to their easy accessibility and relatively large yield. In view of multiple cell types involved in physiological bone regeneration, this study aimed to evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of AT-MSCs upon co-culture with endothelial cells or macrophages in a direct or indirect in vitro co-culture set-up. Our hypotheses were that 1) endothelial cells and macrophages stimulate AT-MSCs proliferation and osteogenic differentiation and that 2) these two cell types will more profoundly affect osteogenic differentiation of AT-MSCs in a direct compared to an indirect co-culture set-up, because of the possibility for both cell-cell interactions and effects of secreted soluble factors in the former. Osteogenic differentiation of AT-MSCs was stimulated by endothelial cells, particularly in direct co-cultures. Although initial numbers of AT-MSCs in co-culture with endothelial cells were 50% compared to monoculture controls, equal levels of mineralization were achieved. Macrophages showed a variable effect on AT-MSCs behavior for indirect co-cultures and a negative effect on osteogenic differentiation of AT-MSCs in direct co-cultures, the latter likely due to species differences of the cell types used. The results of this study demonstrate potential for cell combination strategies in bone regenerative therapies.