Site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues in N(5)-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase.
ABSTRACT: N(5)-CAIR synthetase, an essential enzyme in microorganisms, converts 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) and bicarbonate to N(5)-CAIR with the aid of ATP. Previous X-ray crystallographic analyses of Aspergillus clavatus N(5)-CAIR synthetase postulated that R271, H273, and K353 were important for bicarbonate binding and for catalysis. As reported here, site-directed mutagenesis of these residues revealed that R271 and H273 are, indeed, critical for bicarbonate binding and catalysis whereas all K353 mutations, even ones conservative in nature, are inactive. Studies on the R271K mutant protein revealed cooperative substrate inhibition for ATP with a Ki of 1.2 mM. Kinetic investigation of the H273A mutant protein indicated that it was cooperative with respect to AIR; however, this effect was not seen in either the wild-type or any of the other mutant proteins. Cooperative ATP-dependent inhibition of wild-type N(5)-CAIR synthetase was also detected with ATP displaying a Ki of 3.3 mM. Taken together, these results indicate that N(5)-CAIR synthetase operates maximally within a narrow concentration of ATP.
Project description:N(5)-Carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase (N(5)-CAIR synthetase), a key enzyme in microbial de novo purine biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) to N(5)-CAIR. To date, this enzyme has been observed only in microorganisms, and thus, it represents an ideal target for antimicrobial drug development. Here we report the cloning, crystallization, and three-dimensional structural analysis of Aspergillus clavatus N(5)-CAIR synthetase solved in the presence of either Mg(2)ATP or MgADP and AIR. These structures, determined to 2.1 and 2.0 A, respectively, revealed that AIR binds in a pocket analogous to that observed for other ATP-grasp enzymes involved in purine metabolism. On the basis of these models, a site-directed mutagenesis study was subsequently conducted that focused on five amino acid residues located in the active site region of the enzyme. These investigations demonstrated that Asp 153 and Lys 353 play critical roles in catalysis without affecting substrate binding. All other mutations affected substrate binding and, in some instances, catalysis as well. Taken together, the structural and kinetic data presented here suggest a catalytic mechanism whereby Mg(2)ATP and bicarbonate first react to form the unstable intermediate carboxyphosphate. This intermediate subsequently decarboxylates to CO(2) and inorganic phosphate, and the amino group of AIR, through general base assistance by Asp 153, attacks CO(2) to form N(5)-CAIR.
Project description:N(5)-Carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase (N(5)-CAIR synthetase) converts 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR), MgATP, and bicarbonate into N(5)-CAIR, MgADP, and P(i). The enzyme is required for de novo purine biosynthesis in microbes yet is not found in humans suggesting that it represents an ideal and unexplored target for antimicrobial drug design. Here we report the X-ray structures of N(5)-CAIR synthetase from Escherichia coli with either MgATP or MgADP/P(i) bound in the active site cleft. These structures, determined to 1.6-A resolution, provide detailed information regarding the active site geometry before and after ATP hydrolysis. In both structures, two magnesium ions are observed. Each of these is octahedrally coordinated, and the carboxylate side chain of Glu238 bridges them. For the structure of the MgADP/P(i) complex, crystals were grown in the presence of AIR and MgATP. No electron density was observed for AIR, and the electron density corresponding to the nucleotide clearly revealed the presence of ADP and P(i) rather than ATP. The bound P(i) shifts by approximately 3 A relative to the gamma-phosphoryl group of ATP and forms electrostatic interactions with the side chains of Arg242 and His244. Since the reaction mechanism of N(5)-CAIR synthetase is believed to proceed via a carboxyphosphate intermediate, we propose that the location of the inorganic phosphate represents the binding site for stabilization of this reactive species. Using the information derived from the two structures reported here, coupled with molecular modeling, we propose a catalytic mechanism for N(5)-CAIR synthetase.
Project description:With the rapid rise of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, new strategies against S. aureus are urgently needed. De novo purine biosynthesis is a promising yet unexploited target, insofar as abundant evidence has shown that bacteria with compromised purine biosynthesis are attenuated. Fundamental differences exist within the process by which humans and bacteria convert 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) to 4-carboxy-5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (CAIR). In bacteria, this transformation occurs through a two-step conversion catalyzed by PurK and PurE; in humans, it is mediated by a one-step conversion catalyzed by class II PurE. Thus, these bacterial enzymes are potential targets for selective antibiotic development. Here, the first comprehensive structural and biochemical characterization of PurK and PurE from S. aureus is presented. Structural analysis of S. aureus PurK reveals a nonconserved phenylalanine near the AIR-binding site that occupies the putative position of the imidazole ring of AIR. Mutation of this phenylalanine to isoleucine or tryptophan reduced the enzyme efficiency by around tenfold. The K(m) for bicarbonate was determined for the first time for a PurK enzyme and was found to be ?18.8?mM. The structure of PurE is described in comparison to that of human class II PurE. It is confirmed biochemically that His38 is essential for function. These studies aim to provide foundations for future structure-based drug-discovery efforts against S. aureus purine biosynthesis.
Project description:N5-Carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide mutase (N5-CAIR mutase or PurE) from Escherichia coli catalyzes the reversible interconversion of N5-CAIR to carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide (CAIR) with direct CO2 transfer. Site-directed mutagenesis, a pH-rate profile, DFT calculations, and X-ray crystallography together provide new insight into the mechanism of this unusual transformation. These studies suggest that a conserved, protonated histidine (His45) plays an essential role in catalysis. The importance of proton transfers is supported by DFT calculations on CAIR and N5-CAIR analogues in which the ribose 5'-phosphate is replaced with a methyl group. The calculations suggest that the nonaromatic tautomer of CAIR (isoCAIR) is only 3.1 kcal/mol higher in energy than its aromatic counterpart, implicating this species as a potential intermediate in the PurE-catalyzed reaction. A structure of wild-type PurE cocrystallized with 4-nitroaminoimidazole ribonucleotide (NO2-AIR, a CAIR analogue) and structures of H45N and H45Q PurEs soaked with CAIR have been determined and provide the first insight into the binding of an intact PurE substrate. A comparison of 19 available structures of PurE and PurE mutants in apo and nucleotide-bound forms reveals a common, buried carboxylate or CO2 binding site for CAIR and N5-CAIR in a hydrophobic pocket in which the carboxylate or CO2 interacts with backbone amides. This work has led to a mechanistic proposal in which the carboxylate orients the substrate for proton transfer from His45 to N5-CAIR to form an enzyme-bound aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) and CO2 intermediate. Subsequent movement of the aminoimidazole moiety of AIR reorients it for addition of CO2 at C4 to generate isoCAIR. His45 is now in a position to remove a C4 proton to produce CAIR.
Project description:Human glutathione synthetase (hGS) catalyzes the second ATP-dependent step in the biosynthesis of glutathione (GSH) and is negatively cooperative to the ?-glutamyl substrate. The hGS active site is composed of three highly conserved catalytic loops, notably the alanine rich A-loop. Experimental and computational investigations of the impact of mutation of Asp458 are reported, and thus the role of this A-loop residue on hGS structure, activity, negativity cooperativity and stability is defined. Several Asp458 hGS mutants (D458A, D458N and D458R) were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis and their activities determined (10%, 15% and 7% of wild-type hGS, respectively). The Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) was determined for all three substrates (glycine, GAB and ATP): glycine K(m) increased by 30-115-fold, GAB K(m) decreased by 8-17-fold, and the ATP K(m) was unchanged. All Asp458 mutants display a change in cooperativity from negative cooperativity to non-cooperative. All mutants show similar stability as compared to wild-type hGS, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The findings indicate that Asp458 is essential for hGS catalysis and that it impacts the allostery of hGS.
Project description:Tryptophyl-tRNA synthetase is irreversibly inactivated by Procion Brown MX-5BR with an apparent dissociation constant (KD) of 8.8 microM and maximum rate of inactivation k3 0.192 s-1. The specificity of the interaction is supported by two previously reported observations. Firstly, Brown MX-5BR inactivation of tryptophyl-tRNA synthetase is inhibited by substrates, and secondly, the animated derivative of Brown MX-5BR is a competitive inhibitor of tryptophyl-tRNA synthetase with a Ki of 2 X 10(-4) M with respect to both tryptophan and ATP. Tryptic digestion of the dye-affinity-labelled enzyme and subsequent resolution of the peptides by h.p.l.c. yielded one major dye-peptide peak. Amino acid sequence analysis resulted in the identification of the dye-binding domain centred on lysine-178. Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase is also inactivated by Procion Brown MX-5BR, and this inactivation is prevented by ATP but not by tyrosine. The interaction of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase with hydroxylated Brown MX-5BR exhibited non-competitive kinetics with respect to the amino acid-binding site and competitive kinetics against ATP with a Ki of 6 X 10(-6) M.
Project description:Biotin-dependent carboxylases are widely distributed in nature and have important functions in many cellular processes. These enzymes share a conserved biotin carboxylase (BC) component, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin using bicarbonate as the donor. Despite the availability of a large amount of biochemical and structural information on BC, the molecular basis for its catalysis is currently still poorly understood. We report here the crystal structure at 2.0 A resolution of wild-type Escherichia coli BC in complex with its substrates biotin, bicarbonate, and Mg-ADP. The structure suggests that Glu(296) is the general base that extracts the proton from bicarbonate, and Arg(338) is the residue that stabilizes the enolate biotin intermediate in the carboxylation reaction. The B domain of BC is positioned closer to the active site, leading to a 2-A shift in the bound position of the adenine nucleotide and bringing it near the bicarbonate for catalysis. One of the oxygen atoms of bicarbonate is located in the correct position to initiate the nucleophilic attack on ATP to form the carboxyphosphate intermediate. This oxygen is also located close to the N1' atom of biotin, providing strong evidence that the phosphate group, derived from decomposition of carboxyphosphate, is the general base that extracts the proton on this N1' atom. The structural observations are supported by mutagenesis and kinetic studies. Overall, this first structure of BC in complex with substrates offers unprecedented insights into the molecular mechanism for the catalysis by this family of enzymes.
Project description:The enzyme aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) carboxylase catalyzes the synthesis of the purine intermediate, 4-carboxy-5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (CAIR). Previously, we have shown that the compound 4-nitro-5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (NAIR) is a slow, tight binding inhibitor of the enzyme with a Ki of 0.34 nM. The structural attributes and the slow, tight binding characteristics of NAIR implicated this compound as a transition state or reactive intermediate analog. However, it is unclear what molecular features of NAIR contribute to the mimetic properties for either of the two proposed mechanisms of AIR carboxylase. In order to gain additional information regarding the mechanism for the potent inhibition of AIR carboxylase by NAIR, a series of heterocyclic analogs were prepared and evaluated. We find that all compounds are weaker inhibitors than NAIR and that CAIR analogs are not alternative substrates for the enzyme. Surprisingly, rather subtle changes in the structure of NAIR can lead to profound changes in binding affinity. Computational investigations of enzyme intermediates and these inhibitors reveal that NAIR displays an electrostatic potential surface similar to a proposed reaction intermediate. The result indicates that AIR carboxylase is likely sensitive to the electrostatic surface of reaction intermediates and thus compounds which mimic these surfaces should possess tight binding characteristics. Given the evolutionary relationship between AIR carboxylase and N(5)-CAIR mutase, we believe that this concept extends to the mutase enzyme as well. The implications of this hypothesis for the design of selective inhibitors of the N(5)-CAIR mutase are discussed.
Project description:Biotin carboxylase (BC) activity is shared among biotin-dependent carboxylases and catalyzes the Mg-ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin using bicarbonate as the CO(2) donor. BC has been studied extensively over the years by structural, kinetic, and mutagenesis analyses. Here we report three new crystal structures of Escherichia coli BC at up to 1.9 Å resolution, complexed with different ligands. Two structures are wild-type BC in complex with two ADP molecules and two Ca(2+) ions or two ADP molecules and one Mg(2+) ion. One ADP molecule is in the position normally taken by the ATP substrate, whereas the other ADP molecule occupies the binding sites of bicarbonate and biotin. One Ca(2+) ion and the Mg(2+) ion are associated with the ADP molecule in the active site, and the other Ca(2+) ion is coordinated by Glu-87, Glu-288, and Asn-290. Our kinetic studies confirm that ATP shows substrate inhibition and that this inhibition is competitive against bicarbonate. The third structure is on the R16E mutant in complex with bicarbonate and Mg-ADP. Arg-16 is located near the dimer interface. The R16E mutant has only a 2-fold loss in catalytic activity compared with the wild-type enzyme. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments showed that the mutation significantly destabilized the dimer, although the presence of substrates can induce dimer formation. The binding modes of bicarbonate and Mg-ADP are essentially the same as those to the wild-type enzyme. However, the mutation greatly disrupted the dimer interface and caused a large re-organization of the dimer. The structures of these new complexes have implications for the catalysis by BC.
Project description:The genome of the major intestinal archaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii contains a complex gene system coding for carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPSase) composed of both full-length and reduced-size synthetase subunits. These ammonia-metabolizing enzymes could play a key role in controlling ammonia assimilation in M. smithii, affecting the metabolism of gut bacterial microbiota, with an impact on host obesity. In this study, we isolated and characterized the small (41 kDa) CPSase homolog from M. smithii. The gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified in one step. Chemical cross-linking and size exclusion chromatography indicated a homodimeric/tetrameric structure, in accordance with a dimer-based CPSase activity and reaction mechanism. This small enzyme, MS-s, synthesized carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, bicarbonate, and ammonia and catalyzed the same ATP-dependent partial reactions observed for full-length CPSases. Steady-state kinetics revealed a high apparent affinity for ATP and ammonia. Sequence comparisons, molecular modeling, and kinetic studies suggest that this enzyme corresponds to one of the two synthetase domains of the full-length CPSase that catalyze the ATP-dependent phosphorylations involved in the three-step synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate. This protein represents the smallest naturally occurring active CPSase characterized thus far. The small M. smithii CPSase appears to be specialized for carbamoyl phosphate metabolism in methanogens.