The effectiveness of a 'train the trainer' model of resuscitation education for rural peripheral hospital doctors in Sri Lanka.
ABSTRACT: Sri Lankan rural doctors based in isolated peripheral hospitals routinely resuscitate critically ill patients but have difficulty accessing training. We tested a train-the-trainer model that could be utilised in isolated rural hospitals.Eight selected rural hospital non-specialist doctors attended a 2-day instructor course. These "trained trainers" educated their colleagues in advanced cardiac life support at peripheral hospital workshops and we tested their students in resuscitation knowledge and skills pre and post training, and at 6- and 12-weeks. Knowledge was assessed through 30 multiple choice questions (MCQ), and resuscitation skills were assessed by performance in a video recorded simulated scenario of a cardiac arrest using a Resuci Anne Skill Trainer mannequin.Fifty seven doctors were trained. Pre and post training assessment was possible in 51 participants, and 6-week and 12-week follow up was possible for 43, and 38 participants respectively. Mean MCQ scores significantly improved over time (p<0.001), and a significant improvement was noted in "average ventilation volume", "compression count", and "compressions with no error", "adequate depth", "average depth", and "compression rate" (p<0.01). The proportion of participants with compression depth ?40mm increased post intervention (p<0.05) and at 12-week follow up (p<0.05), and proportion of ventilation volumes between 400-1000mls increased post intervention (p<0.001). A significant increase in the proportion of participants who "checked for responsiveness", "opened the airway", "performed a breathing check", who used the "correct compression ratio", and who used an "appropriate facemask technique" was also noted (p<0.001). A train-the-trainer model of resuscitation education was effective in improving resuscitation knowledge and skills in Sri Lankan rural peripheral hospital doctors. Improvement was sustained to 12 weeks for most components of resuscitation knowledge and skills. Further research is needed to identify which components of training are most effective in leading to sustained improvement in resuscitation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) remains essential to improve the outcome of patients in sudden cardiorespiratory arrest. Feedback on performance is a crucial component of the learning processes associated with simulation and has been shown to improve CPR quality during simulated cardiac arrest on mannequins. This study aims to evaluate skills acquisition using a new low-cost feedback device for CPR self-training when compared to standard training methods.<h4>Methods</h4>Thirty-nine pregraduated medical and biomedical engineering students were recruited for a longitudinal double-blinded randomized control study. For training Basic Life Support skills, the control group used a standard task-trainer and received feedback from an instructor. The intervention group used the same standard task-trainer, instrumented with the CPR Personal Trainer that provided automated performance feedback (with no instructor) on compression-related parameters. Students' knowledge and skills were assessed before and after training, through a theoretical knowledge test and 2 minutes of CPR practical performance.<h4>Results</h4>The theoretical tests showed an improvement both in the intervention and in the control group. For each compression-related parameters (hands position, recoil, rate, and depth), significant increase in scores is observed, between the pre- and the post-test, in both groups. The intervention and control groups presented identical mean differences for the total score (0.72 vs 0.72), with no statistical difference (<i>P</i>?=?0.754).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The proposed tool proved to be effective in the acquisition of compression-related skills, with similar outcomes as the traditional instructor-based method, corroborating the hypothesis that a low-cost tool with feedback for CPR self-training can provide an alternative or a complementary extension to traditional training methods. The system can also be considered cost-efficient as it reduces the permanent presence of an instructor for the chest compressions training, promoting regular training outside formal training courses.
Project description:The aim of this study was to assess the possible mismatch of obstetrical skills between the training offered in Ecuadorian medical schools and the tasks required for compulsory rural service.Primary care, rural health centres in Southern Ecuador.A total of 92 recent graduated medical doctors during their compulsory rural year.A web-based survey was developed with 21 obstetrical skills. The questionnaire was sent to all rural doctors who work in Loja province, Southern Ecuador, at the Ministry of Health (n=92).'importance of skills in rural practice' with a five-point Likert-type scale (1= strongly disagree; 5= strongly agree); and 'clerkship experience' using a nominal scale divided in five levels: level 1 (not seen, not performed) to level 5 (performed 10 times or more). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) was used to observe associations.A negative correlation was found in the skills: 'episiotomy and repair', 'umbilical vein catheterisation', 'speculum examination', 'evaluation of cervical dilation during active labour', 'neonatal resuscitation' and 'vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery'. For instance 'Episiotomy and repair' is important (strongly agree and agree) to 100% of respondents, but in practice, only 38.9% of rural doctors performed the task three times and 8.3% only once during the internship, similar pattern is seen in the others.In this study we have noted the gap between the medical needs of populations in rural areas and training provided during the clerkship experiences of physicians during their rural service year. It is imperative to ensure that rural doctors are appropriately trained and skilled in the performance of routine obstetrical duties. This will help to decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality in rural Ecuador.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Knowledge and skills decline within months post simulation-based training in neonatal resuscitation. To empower 'Millennial' learners to take control of their own learning, a single-player, unguided web-based Neonatal Resuscitation Game was designed. The present study investigates the effectiveness of the game on retention of resuscitation knowledge and skills. METHODS:The study evaluated 162 healthcare professionals who attended simulation-based training in neonatal resuscitation. Following standard simulation-based training, participants were assigned to either a gaming group (Gamers) with access to the web-based Neonatal Resuscitation Game or a control group (Controls) with no access to the game. Although Gamers were given access, game utilization was completely voluntary and at will. Some Gamers chose to utilize the web-based game (Players) and others did not (Non-players). Knowledge and skills in neonatal resuscitation were assessed upon completion of training and 6?months post-training using a multiple-choice question test and a manikin-based skills test. Changes in scores were compared statistically between Gamers vs Controls, Players vs Controls, and Players vs Controls + Non-players using two-sample t-tests. RESULTS:At the final assessment, declines in knowledge scores were seen in all groups. Mean change from baseline in knowledge and skill performance scores at 6?months, adjusted for baseline skill performance and MCQ test scores, did not differ significantly between Players vs Controls and Players vs Controls + Non-players. CONCLUSION:The web-based game in its current format may not be effective in facilitating retention of knowledge and technical skills in neonatal resuscitation.
Project description:Retention of resuscitation skills is usually assessed at a predefined moment, which enables participants to prepare themselves, possibly introducing bias. In this multicenter study, we evaluated the retention of knowledge and skills in pediatric basic life support (PBLS) amongst 58 pediatricians and pediatric residents with an unannounced examination. Practical PBLS skills were assessed with a validated scoring instrument, theoretical knowledge with a 10-item multiple-choice test (MCQ). Participants self-assessed their PBLS capabilities using five-point Likert scales. Background data were collected with a questionnaire. Of our participants, 21% passed the practical PBLS exam: 29% failed on compressions/ventilations, 31% on other parts of the algorithm, 19% on both. Sixty-nine percent passed the theoretical test. Participants who more recently completed a PBLS course performed significantly better on the MCQ (p?=?0.03). This association was less clear-cut for performance on the practical exam (p?=?0.11). Older, attending pediatricians with more years of experience in pediatrics performed less well than their younger colleagues (p?<?0.05). Fifty-one percent of the participants considered themselves competent in PBLS. No correlation was found between self-assessed PBLS capabilities and actual performance on the practical exam (p?=?0.25).Retention of PBLS skills appears to be poor amongst pediatricians and residents, whereas PBLS knowledge is retained somewhat better. What is Known: • Pediatricians and pediatric residents are not always competent in pediatric basic life support (PBLS) in daily practice. Poor retention of skills supposedly accounts for this incompetence. Without regular exposure, resuscitation skills usually deteriorate within 3 to 6 months after training. • Examination of resuscitation skills usually takes place after training. Also, in most studies evaluating retention of skills, participants are tested at a predefined moment. Inasmuch as participants are able to prepare themselves, these assessments do not reflect the ad hoc resuscitation capabilities of pediatricians and residents. What is New: • In this study, pediatricians and pediatric residents had to complete an unannounced PBLS exam at variable time intervals from last certification. Retention of PBLS skills was rather poor (pass rate 21%). • The PBLS skills of older, attending pediatricians with many working years in pediatrics appeared to be inferior to those of their younger colleagues.
Project description:We wanted to assess newborn life support (NLS) knowledge and guideline adherence, and provide strategies to improve (neonatal) resuscitation guideline adherence. Pediatricians completed 17 multiple-choice questions (MCQ). They performed a simulated NLS scenario, using a high-fidelity manikin. The literature was systematically searched for publications regarding guideline adherence. Forty-six pediatricians participated: 45 completed the MCQ, 34 performed the scenario. Seventy-one percent (median, IQR 56-82) of the MCQ were answered correctly. Fifty-six percent performed inflation breaths ? 60 s, 24% delivered inflation breaths of 2-3 s, and 85% used adequate inspiratory pressures. Airway patency was ensured 83% (IQR 76-92) of the time. Median events/min, compression rate, and percentage of effective compressions were 138/min (IQR 130-145), 120/min (IQR 114-120), and 38% (IQR 24-48), respectively. Other adherence percentages were temperature management 50%, auscultation of initial heart rate 100%, pulse oximeter use 94%, oxygen increase 74%, and correct epinephrine dose 82%. Ten publications were identified and used for our framework. The framework may inspire clinicians, educators, researchers, and guideline developers in their attempt to improve resuscitation guideline adherence. It contains many feasible strategies to enhance professionals' knowledge, skills, self-efficacy, and team performance, as well as recommendations regarding equipment, environment, and guideline development/dissemination.Conclusion: NLS guideline adherence among pediatricians needs improvement. Our framework is meant to promote resuscitation guideline adherence. What is Known: • Inadequate newborn life support (NLS) may contribute to (long-term) pulmonary and cerebral damage. • Video-based assessment of neonatal resuscitations has shown that deviations from the NLS guideline occur frequently; this assessment method has its audiovisual shortcomings. What is New: • The resuscitation quality metrics provided by our high-fidelity manikin suggest that the adherence of Dutch general pediatricians to the NLS guideline is suboptimal. • We constructed a comprehensive framework, containing multiple strategies to improve (neonatal) resuscitation guideline adherence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neonatal mortality accounts for 45% of under-5 mortality worldwide, with 98% of newborn deaths occurring in developing countries. The Dominican Republic (DR) demonstrates one of the highest neonatal mortality rates in Latin America despite broad access to care. Strategies to support professional capacity building and strengthen the local health care system are needed to improve neonatal outcomes in the DR. RATIONALE:Helping babies breathe (HBB) and essential care for every baby (ECEB) are evidence-based newborn resuscitation and essential care training programs that have been shown to improve providers' confidence, knowledge, and clinical skills. Lack of professional support and infrequent resuscitation skills practice are commonly cited as barriers to skill retention after HBB training, while establishment of program mentoring and regular skills refreshers are associated with retention of clinical knowledge and skills and improved clinical performance and outcomes. Global partnerships to facilitate implementation of a comprehensive newborn resuscitation and essential care training program with ongoing clinical and program mentorship in the DR should have a lasting impact on workforce capacity, quality of care, and clinical outcomes. METHODS:A multidisciplinary, international group of clinicians partnered with the Ministry of Health to design and implement a comprehensive newborn health initiative in the DR. A train-the-trainer model structured the regional rollout of a combined HBB/ECEB program with integrated quality improvement (QI) initiatives and systems for ongoing program monitoring, reinforcement, and mentorship. Cognitive, affective, behavioral, and clinical outcomes are being measured. RESULTS:Seventeen local champions representing six hospitals participated in the HBB/ECEB master trainer course and design of a QI tool for site-specific clinical performance monitoring. One hundred seventy-eight and 171 providers participated in HBB and ECEB courses, respectively, at pilot sites during the following year. Participants completed prior training need assessment, pre-/post-knowledge assessments and course evaluations. Program mentorship and monitoring of continuing education and clinical performance are ongoing. The Ministry of Health has assumed responsibility for program sustainability and current scale-up, including integration of maternal resuscitation training. CONCLUSION:International partnerships facilitated the collaborative implementation of scalable, locally sustainable newborn resuscitation and essential care training in the DR, mobilizing local resources and empowering the workforce to capably pursue improved care of an exceedingly vulnerable community.
Project description:This article is a companion to a systematic review, entitled, Associations between cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge, self-efficacy, training history and willingness to perform CPR and CPR psychomotor skills: a systematic review (Riggs et al., 2019). The data tables described in this article summarise the impact that specific training interventions, number of times trained, and retention testing intervals have on laypeople's CPR psychomotor skills, as reported by peer-reviewed journal articles. The psychomotor skills included are: compression rate, compression depth, duration of interruptions to compressions, chest recoil, hand placement, proportion of adequate or 'correct' compressions, ventilation volume, compression-to-ventilation ratio, duty cycle and overall skills. The data tables described in this article are available as a supplementary file to this article.
Project description:Background.:Variable adherence to standardized case definitions, clinical procedures, specimen collection techniques, and laboratory methods has complicated the interpretation of previous multicenter pneumonia etiology studies. To circumvent these problems, a program of clinical standardization was embedded in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study. Methods.:Between March 2011 and August 2013, standardized training on the PERCH case definition, clinical procedures, and collection of laboratory specimens was delivered to 331 clinical staff at 9 study sites in 7 countries (The Gambia, Kenya, Mali, South Africa, Zambia, Thailand, and Bangladesh), through 32 on-site courses and a training website. Staff competency was assessed throughout 24 months of enrollment with multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations, a video quiz, and checklist evaluations of practical skills. Results.:MCQ evaluation was confined to 158 clinical staff members who enrolled PERCH cases and controls, with scores obtained for >86% of eligible staff at each time-point. Median scores after baseline training were ?80%, and improved by 10 percentage points with refresher training, with no significant intersite differences. Percentage agreement with the clinical trainer on the presence or absence of clinical signs on video clips was high (?89%), with interobserver concordance being substantial to high (AC1 statistic, 0.62-0.82) for 5 of 6 signs assessed. Staff attained median scores of >90% in checklist evaluations of practical skills. Conclusions.:Satisfactory clinical standardization was achieved within and across all PERCH sites, providing reassurance that any etiological or clinical differences observed across the study sites are true differences, and not attributable to differences in application of the clinical case definition, interpretation of clinical signs, or in techniques used for clinical measurements or specimen collection.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global health challenge. Pharmacists play a key role in the health care setting to support the quality use of medicines. The education and training of pharmacy students have the potential to impact on patterns of antibiotic use in community and hospital settings. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare antibiotic use and knowledge of antibiotics and AMR among undergraduate pharmacy students in Australian and Sri Lankan universities. METHODS:A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Australian and Sri Lankan universities that offer a pharmacy degree. A paper-based survey was utilised in Sri Lanka and an identical survey distributed online among pharmacy students in Australia. Descriptive and comparative data analyses were performed. RESULTS:476 pharmacy students from 14 universities in Australia and 466 students from 6 universities in SL completed the survey. Participants commonly reported previous antibiotic use [Australia (88%) and Sri Lanka (86%)]. The majority of students [Australia (89%) and Sri Lanka (77%)] reported they obtained antibiotics with a prescription. Australian pharmacy students correctly reported regarding optimal antibiotic use for certain disease conditions when compared to Sri Lankan students (P<0.05). A greater antibiotic knowledge level regarding AMR was found among Australian students compared to Sri Lankan students (p<0.05). CONCLUSION:This study provides an understanding about antibiotic consumption and knowledge on AMR among pharmacy students in a developed country, Australia and a developing country, Sri Lanka. These findings identify possible misconceptions about antibiotics and a lower level of knowledge of AMR amongst Sri Lankan undergraduate pharmacy students. Future research should focus on implementation of a strategic education plan for undergraduate pharmacy students in Sri Lankan universities. The curricula of pharmacy courses in Australian universities may inform such a plan.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Alternative and innovative strategies such as mHealth and eLearning are becoming a necessity for delivery of rehabilitation services. For example, older adults who require a wheelchair receive little, if any, training for proficiency with mobility skills. This substantive service gap is due in part to restricted availability of clinicians and challenges for consumers to attend appointments. A research team of occupational therapists and computer scientists engaged clinicians, consumers, and care providers using a participatory action design approach. A tablet-based application, Enhancing Participation In the Community by improving Wheelchair Skills (EPIC Wheels), was developed to enable in-chair home training, online expert trainer monitoring, and trainee-trainer communication via secure voice messaging. OBJECTIVE:Prior to undertaking a randomized controlled trial (RCT), a pilot study was conducted to determine the acceptability and feasibility of administering an mHealth wheelchair skills training program safely and effectively with two participants of different skill levels. The findings were used to determine whether further enhancements to the program were indicated. METHODS:The program included two in-person sessions with an expert trainer and four weeks of independent home training. The EPIC Wheels application included video instruction and demonstration, self-paced training activities, and interactive training games. Participants were provided with a 10-inch Android tablet, mounting apparatus, and mobile Wi-Fi device. Frequency and duration of tablet interactions were monitored and uploaded daily to an online trainer interface. Participants completed a structured evaluation survey and provided feedback post-study. The trainer provided feedback on the training protocol and trainer interface. RESULTS:Both participants perceived the program to be comprehensive, useful, and easily navigated. The trainer indicated usage data was comprehensive and informative for monitoring participant progress and adherence. The application performed equally well with multiple devices. Some initial issues with log-in requests were resolved via tablet-specific settings. Inconsistent Internet connectivity, resulting in delayed data upload and voice messaging, was specific to individual Wi-Fi devices and resolved by standardizing configuration. Based on the pilot results, the software was updated to make content download more robust. Additional features were also incorporated such as check marks for completed content, a more consumer-friendly aesthetic, and achievement awards. The trainer web interface was updated to improve usability and provides both a numerical and visual summary of participant data. CONCLUSIONS:The EPIC Wheels pilot study provided useful feedback on the feasibility of a tablet-based home program for wheelchair skills training among older adults, justifying advancement to evaluation in an RCT. The program may be expanded for use with other rehabilitation interventions and populations, particularly for those living in rural or remote locations. Future development will consider integration of built-in tablet sensors to provide performance feedback and enable interactive training activities. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01644292; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01644292 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6XyvYyTUf).