Cooperative effects of Janus and Aurora kinase inhibition by CEP701 in cells expressing Jak2V617F.
ABSTRACT: The Janus kinase 2 mutant V617F occurs with high frequency in myeloproliferative neoplasms. Further mutations affecting the Janus kinase family have been discovered mostly in leukaemias and in myeloproliferative neoplasms. Owing to their involvement in neoplasia, inflammatory diseases and in the immune response, Janus kinases are promising targets for kinase inhibitor therapy in these disease settings. Various quantitative assays including two newly developed screening assays were used to characterize the function of different small-molecule compounds in cells expressing Jak2V617F. A detailed comparative analysis of different Janus kinase inhibitors in our quantitative assays and the subsequent characterization of additional activities demonstrated for the first time that the most potent Jak2 inhibitor in our study, CEP701, also targets Aurora kinases. CEP701 shows a unique combination of both activities which is not found in other compounds also targeting Jak2. Furthermore, colony forming cell assays showed that Janus kinase 2 inhibitors preferentially suppressed the growth of erythroid colonies, whereas inhibitors of Aurora kinases preferentially blocked myeloid colony growth. CEP701 demonstrated a combined suppression of both colony types. Moreover, we show that combined application of a Janus and an Aurora kinase inhibitor recapitulated the effect observed for CEP701 but might allow for more flexibility in combining both activities in clinical settings, e.g. in the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms. The newly developed screening assays are high throughput compatible and allow an easy detection of new compounds with Janus kinase 2 inhibitory activity.
Project description:The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutant V617F and other JAK mutants are found in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and leukemias. Due to their involvement in neoplasia and inflammatory disorders, Janus kinases are promising targets for kinase inhibitor therapy. Several small-molecule compounds are evaluated in clinical trials for myelofibrosis, and ruxolitinib (INCB018424, Jakafi®) was the first Janus kinase inhibitor to receive clinical approval. In this review we provide an overview of JAK2V617F signaling and its inhibition by small-molecule kinase inhibitors. In addition, myeloproliferative neoplasms are discussed regarding the role of JAK2V617F and other mutant proteins of possible relevance. We further give an overview about treatment options with special emphasis on possible combination therapies.
Project description:Aberrant activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) caused by somatic mutation of JAK2 (JAK2V617F) or the thrombopoietin receptor (MPLW515L) plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), suggesting that inhibition of aberrant JAK2 activation would have a therapeutic benefit. Our novel JAK2 inhibitor, NS-018, was highly active against JAK2 with a 50% inhibition (IC(50)) of <1?n, and had 30-50-fold greater selectivity for JAK2 over other JAK-family kinases, such as JAK1, JAK3 and tyrosine kinase 2. In addition to JAK2, NS-018 inhibited Src-family kinases. NS-018 showed potent antiproliferative activity against cell lines expressing a constitutively activated JAK2 (the JAK2V617F or MPLW515L mutations or the TEL-JAK2 fusion gene; IC(50)=11-120?n), but showed only minimal cytotoxicity against most other hematopoietic cell lines without a constitutively activated JAK2. Furthermore, NS-018 preferentially suppressed in vitro erythropoietin-independent endogenous colony formation from polycythemia vera patients. NS-018 also markedly reduced splenomegaly and prolonged the survival of mice inoculated with Ba/F3 cells harboring JAK2V617F. In addition, NS-018 significantly reduced leukocytosis, hepatosplenomegaly and extramedullary hematopoiesis, improved nutritional status, and prolonged survival in JAK2V617F transgenic mice. These results suggest that NS-018 will be a promising candidate for the treatment of MPNs.
Project description:The discovery of the Janus kinase (JAK)2 V617F mutation in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms was a major milestone in understanding the biology of those disorders. Several groups simultaneously reported on the high incidence of this mutation in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms: almost all patients with polycythemia vera harbor the mutation and about 50% of patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis have the mutation, making the development of JAK2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors an attractive therapeutic goal. In addition, inhibition of JAK2 kinase may have a therapeutic role in other hematologic malignancies, such as chronic myeloid leukemia or lymphoma. A number of molecules that inhibit JAK2 kinase have been described in the literature, and several are being evaluated in a clinical setting. Here, we summarize current clinical experience with JAK2 inhibitors.
Project description:The JAK2V617F constitutively activated tyrosine kinase is found in most patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. While examining the interaction between JAK2 and PRMT5, an arginine methyltransferase originally identified as JAK-binding protein 1, we found that JAK2V617F (and JAK2K539L) bound PRMT5 more strongly than did wild-type JAK2. These oncogenic kinases also acquired the ability to phosphorylate PRMT5, greatly impairing its ability to methylate its histone substrates, and representing a specific gain-of-function that allows them to regulate chromatin modifications. We readily detected PRMT5 phosphorylation in JAK2V617F-positive patient samples, and when we knocked down PRMT5 in human CD34+ cells using shRNA, we observed increased colony formation and erythroid differentiation. These results indicate that phosphorylation of PRMT5 contributes to the mutant JAK2-induced myeloproliferative phenotype.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Janus kinases (JAKs; JAK1 to JAK3 and tyrosine kinase 2) mediate cytokine signals in the regulation of hematopoiesis and immunity. JAK2 clinical mutations cause myeloproliferative neoplasms and leukemia, and the mutations strongly concentrate in the regulatory pseudokinase domain Janus kinase homology (JH) 2. Current clinical JAK inhibitors target the tyrosine kinase domain and lack mutation and pathway selectivity. OBJECTIVE:We sought to characterize mechanisms and differences for pathogenic and cytokine-induced JAK2 activation to enable design of novel selective JAK inhibitors. METHODS:We performed a systematic analysis of JAK2 activation requirements using structure-guided mutagenesis, cell-signaling assays, microscopy, and biochemical analysis. RESULTS:Distinct structural requirements were identified for activation of different pathogenic mutations. Specifically, the predominant JAK2 mutation, V617F, is the most sensitive to structural perturbations in multiple JH2 elements (C helix [?C], Src homology 2-JH2 linker, and ATP binding site). In contrast, activation of K539L is resistant to most perturbations. Normal cytokine signaling shows distinct differences in activation requirements: JH2 ATP binding site mutations have only a minor effect on signaling, whereas JH2 ?C mutations reduce homomeric (JAK2-JAK2) erythropoietin signaling and almost completely abrogate heteromeric (JAK2-JAK1) IFN-? signaling, potentially by disrupting a dimerization interface on JH2. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that therapeutic approaches targeting the JH2 ATP binding site and ?C could be effective in inhibiting most pathogenic mutations. JH2 ATP site targeting has the potential for reduced side effects by retaining erythropoietin and IFN-? functions. Simultaneously, however, we identified the JH2 ?C interface as a potential target for pathway-selective JAK inhibitors in patients with diseases with unmutated JAK2, thus providing new insights into the development of novel pharmacologic interventions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cancers result from the accumulation of somatic mutations, and their properties are thought to reflect the sum of these mutations. However, little is known about the effect of the order in which mutations are acquired. METHODS:We determined mutation order in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms by genotyping hematopoietic colonies or by means of next-generation sequencing. Stem cells and progenitor cells were isolated to study the effect of mutation order on mature and immature hematopoietic cells. RESULTS:The age at which a patient presented with a myeloproliferative neoplasm, acquisition of JAK2 V617F homozygosity, and the balance of immature progenitors were all influenced by mutation order. As compared with patients in whom the TET2 mutation was acquired first (hereafter referred to as "TET2-first patients"), patients in whom the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation was acquired first ("JAK2-first patients") had a greater likelihood of presenting with polycythemia vera than with essential thrombocythemia, an increased risk of thrombosis, and an increased sensitivity of JAK2-mutant progenitors to ruxolitinib in vitro. Mutation order influenced the proliferative response to JAK2 V617F and the capacity of double-mutant hematopoietic cells and progenitor cells to generate colony-forming cells. Moreover, the hematopoietic stem-and-progenitor-cell compartment was dominated by TET2 single-mutant cells in TET2-first patients but by JAK2-TET2 double-mutant cells in JAK2-first patients. Prior mutation of TET2 altered the transcriptional consequences of JAK2 V617F in a cell-intrinsic manner and prevented JAK2 V617F from up-regulating genes associated with proliferation. CONCLUSIONS:The order in which JAK2 and TET2 mutations were acquired influenced clinical features, the response to targeted therapy, the biology of stem and progenitor cells, and clonal evolution in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. (Funded by Leukemia and Lymphoma Research and others.).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Somatic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) occur in many myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the molecular pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2 is obscure, and the diagnosis of these neoplasms remains a challenge. METHODS:We performed exome sequencing of samples obtained from 151 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. The mutation status of the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) was assessed in an additional 1345 hematologic cancers, 1517 other cancers, and 550 controls. We established phylogenetic trees using hematopoietic colonies. We assessed calreticulin subcellular localization using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. RESULTS:Exome sequencing identified 1498 mutations in 151 patients, with medians of 6.5, 6.5, and 13.0 mutations per patient in samples of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelofibrosis, respectively. Somatic CALR mutations were found in 70 to 84% of samples of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2, in 8% of myelodysplasia samples, in occasional samples of other myeloid cancers, and in none of the other cancers. A total of 148 CALR mutations were identified with 19 distinct variants. Mutations were located in exon 9 and generated a +1 base-pair frameshift, which would result in a mutant protein with a novel C-terminal. Mutant calreticulin was observed in the endoplasmic reticulum without increased cell-surface or Golgi accumulation. Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms carrying CALR mutations presented with higher platelet counts and lower hemoglobin levels than patients with mutated JAK2. Mutation of CALR was detected in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Clonal analyses showed CALR mutations in the earliest phylogenetic node, a finding consistent with its role as an initiating mutation in some patients. CONCLUSIONS:Somatic mutations in the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone CALR were found in a majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2. (Funded by the Kay Kendall Leukaemia Fund and others.).
Project description:JAK2 (Janus kinase 2) initiates the intracellular signalling cascade downstream of cell surface receptor activation by cognate haemopoietic cytokines, including erythropoietin and thrombopoietin. The pseudokinase domain (JH2) of JAK2 negatively regulates the catalytic activity of the adjacent tyrosine kinase domain (JH1) and mutations within the pseudokinase domain underlie human myeloproliferative neoplasms, including polycythaemia vera and essential thrombocytosis. To date, the mechanism of JH2-mediated inhibition of JH1 kinase activation as well as the susceptibility of pathological mutant JAK2 to inhibition by the physiological negative regulator SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signalling 3) have remained unclear. In the present study, using recombinant purified JAK2JH1-JH2 proteins, we demonstrate that, when activated, wild-type and myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated mutants of JAK2 exhibit comparable enzymatic activity and inhibition by SOCS3 in in vitro kinase assays. SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering) showed that JAK2JH1-JH2 exists in an elongated configuration in solution with no evidence for interaction between JH1 and JH2 domains in cis. Collectively, these data are consistent with a model in which JAK2's pseudokinase domain does not influence the activity of JAK2 once it has been activated. Our data indicate that, in the absence of the N-terminal FERM domain and thus cytokine receptor association, the wild-type and pathological mutants of JAK2 are enzymatically equivalent and equally susceptible to inhibition by SOCS3.
Project description:Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) is an intracellular nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that belongs to the JAK family of kinases, which play an important role in survival, proliferation, and differentiation of a variety of cells. JAK2 inhibitors are potential drugs for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms. The three dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships have been studied on a series of JAK2 inhibitors by comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). The CoMFA model had a cross-validated coefficient q2 of 0.633, and the relation non-cross-validated coefficient r2 of 0.976. The F value is 225.030. The contributions of steric and electrostatic fields to the activity are 55.2% and 44.8%, respectively. For the CoMSIA study, the q2, r2, and F values of the model are 0.614, 0.929, and 88.771, respectively. The contributions of steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor, and hydrogen bond donor fields to the activity are 27.3%, 23.9%, 16.4%, 21.7%, and 10.7%, respectively. The CoMFA and CoMSIA models showed strong predictive ability, and the 3D contour plots give the basis on the structure modification of JAK2 inhibitors.
Project description:The critical role of Janus kinase-2 (JAK2) in regulation of myelopoiesis was established 2 decades ago, but identification of mutations in the pseudokinase domain of JAK2 in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and in other hematologic malignancies highlighted the role of JAK2 in human disease. These findings have revolutionized the diagnostics of MPNs and led to development of novel JAK2 therapeutics. However, the molecular mechanisms by which mutations in the pseudokinase domain lead to hyperactivation of JAK2 and clinical disease have been unclear. Here, we describe recent advances in the molecular characterization of the JAK2 pseudokinase domain and how pathogenic mutations lead to constitutive activation of JAK2.