Enhanced internalization of ErbB2 in SK-BR-3 cells with multivalent forms of an artificial ligand.
ABSTRACT: Targeting and down-regulation of ErbB2, a member of EGF receptor family, is regarded as one of the key aspect for cancer treatment because it is often overexpressed in breast and ovarian cancer cells. Although natural ligands for ErbB2 have not been found, unlike other ErbB receptors, EC-1, a 20-amino acid circular peptide, has been shown to bind to ErbB2 as an artificial ligand. Previously we showed EC-1 peptide did not induce the internalization of ErbB2 in SK-BR-3 cells. In this report, we designed divalent and multivalent forms of EC-1 peptide with the Fc portion of the human IgG and bionanocapsule modified with ZZ-tag on its surface to improve the interaction with ErbB2. These forms showed higher affinity to ErbB2 than that of EC-1 monomer. Furthermore, prominent endosomal accumulation of ErbB2 occurred in SK-BR-3 cells when stimulated with EC-Fc ligand multivalently displayed on the surface of the bionanocapsule, whereas SK-BR-3 cells as themselves displayed stringent mechanism against ErbB2 internalization without stimulation. The multivalent form of EC-1 peptide appeared to internalize ErbB2 more efficiently than divalent form did. This internalization was unaffected by the inhibition of clathrin association, but inhibited when the cholesterol was depleted which explained either caveolar or GPI-AP-early endocytic compartment (GEEC) pathway. Because of the lack of caveolin-1 expression, caveolar machinery may be lost in SK-BR-3 cell line. Therefore, it is suggested that the multivalent form of EC-1 induces the internalization of ErbB2 through the GEEC pathway.
Project description:The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor family member ErbB2 is commonly overexpressed in human breast cancer cells and correlates with poor prognosis. Geldanamycin (GA) induces the ubiquitylation, intracellular accumulation and degradation of ErbB2. Whether GA stimulates ErbB2 internalization is controversial. We found that ErbB2 was internalized constitutively at a rate that was not affected by GA in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells. Instead, GA treatment altered endosomal sorting, causing the transport of ErbB2 to lysosomes for degradation. In contrast to earlier work, we found that ErbB2 internalization occurred by a clathrin- and tyrosine-kinase-independent pathway that was not caveolar, because SK-BR-3 cells lack caveolae. Similar to cargo of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein-enriched early endosomal compartment (GEEC) pathway, internalized ErbB2 colocalized with cholera toxin B subunit, GPI-anchored proteins and fluid, and was often seen in short tubules or large vesicles. However, in contrast to the GEEC pathway in other cells, internalization of ErbB2 and fluid in SK-BR-3 cells did not require Rho-family GTPase activity. Accumulation of ErbB2 in vesicles containing constitutively active Arf6-Q67L occurred only without GA treatment; Arf6-Q67L did not slow transport to lysosomes in GA-treated cells. Further characterization of this novel clathrin-, caveolae- and Rho-family-independent endocytic pathway might reveal new strategies for the downregulation of ErbB2 in breast cancer.
Project description:The overexpressed ErbB2/HER2 receptor is a clinically validated cancer target whose surface localization and internalization mechanisms remain poorly understood. Downregulation of the overexpressed 185-kDa ErbB2 receptor is rapidly (2-6 hours) induced by the HSP90 chaperone inhibitor geldanamycin (GA), whereas its downregulation and lysosomal degradation are more slowly (24 hours) induced by the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib/PS341. In PS341-treated SK-BR-3 cells, overexpressed ErbB2 coprecipitates with the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl and also with the deubiquitinating enzyme USP9x; moreover, siRNA downregulation of USP9x enhances PS341-induced ErbB2 downregulation. Because polyubiquitin linkages via lysine 48 (K48) or 63 (K63) can differentially address proteins for 26S proteasomal degradation or endosome trafficking to the lysosome, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)/mass spectrometry (MS) and polyubiquitin linkage-specific antibodies were used to quantitatively track K48-linked and K63-linked ErbB2 polyubiquitination following either GA or PS341 treatment of SK-BR-3 cells. MRM/MS revealed that unlike the rapid, modest (4-fold to 8-fold), and synchronous GA induction of K48 and K63 polyubiquitinated ErbB2, PS341 produces a dramatic (20-fold to 40-fold) sequential increase in polyubiquitinated ErbB2 consistent with K48 polyubiquitination followed by K63 editing. Fluorescence microscopic imaging confirmed that PS341, but not GA, induces colocalization of K48-linked and K63-linked polyubiquitin with perinuclear lysosome-sequestered ErbB2. Thus, ErbB2 surface overexpression and recycling seem to depend on its polyubiquitination and deubiquitination; as well, the contrasting effects of PS341 and GA on ErbB2 receptor localization, polyubiquitination, and degradation point to alternate cytoplasmic trafficking likely regulated by different K48 and K63 polyubiquitin editing mechanisms.
Project description:Several studies have suggested crosstalk between different clathrin-independent endocytic pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms and functional relevance of these interactions are unclear. Caveolins and cavins are crucial components of caveolae, specialized microdomains that also constitute an endocytic route. Here we show that specific caveolar proteins are independently acting negative regulators of clathrin-independent endocytosis. Cavin-1 and Cavin-3, but not Cavin-2 or Cavin-4, are potent inhibitors of the clathrin-independent carriers/GPI-AP enriched early endosomal compartment (CLIC/GEEC) endocytic pathway, in a process independent of caveola formation. Caveolin-1 (CAV1) and CAV3 also inhibit the CLIC/GEEC pathway upon over-expression. Expression of caveolar protein leads to reduction in formation of early CLIC/GEEC carriers, as detected by quantitative electron microscopy analysis. Furthermore, the CLIC/GEEC pathway is upregulated in cells lacking CAV1/Cavin-1 or with reduced expression of Cavin-1 and Cavin-3. Inhibition by caveolins can be mimicked by the isolated caveolin scaffolding domain and is associated with perturbed diffusion of lipid microdomain components, as revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies. In the absence of cavins (and caveolae) CAV1 is itself endocytosed preferentially through the CLIC/GEEC pathway, but the pathway loses polarization and sorting attributes with consequences for membrane dynamics and endocytic polarization in migrating cells and adult muscle tissue. We also found that noncaveolar Cavin-1 can act as a modulator for the activity of the key regulator of the CLIC/GEEC pathway, Cdc42. This work provides new insights into the regulation of noncaveolar clathrin-independent endocytosis by specific caveolar proteins, illustrating multiple levels of crosstalk between these pathways. We show for the first time a role for specific cavins in regulating the CLIC/GEEC pathway, provide a new tool to study this pathway, identify caveola-independent functions of the cavins and propose a novel mechanism for inhibition of the CLIC/GEEC pathway by caveolin.
Project description:ERBB2 receptor belongs to the ERBB tyrosine kinase receptor family. At variance to the other family members, ERBB2 is a constitutively active orphan receptor. Upon ligand binding and activation, ERBB receptors form homo- or hetero-dimers with the other family members, including ERBB2, promoting an intracellular signaling cascade. ERBB2 is the preferred dimerization partner and ERBB2 heterodimers signaling is stronger and longer acting compared to heterodimers between other ERBB members. The specific contribution of ERBB2 in heterodimer signaling is still undefined. Here we report the formation of circular dorsal ruffles (CDRs) upon treatment of the ERBB2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines SK-BR-3 and ZR751 with Trastuzumab, a therapeutic humanized monoclonal antibody directed against ERBB2. We found that in SK-BR-3 cells Trastuzumab leads to surface redistribution of ERBB2 and ERBB1 in CDRs, and that the ERBB2-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation and ERBB1 expression are both required for CDR formation. In particular, in these cells CDR formation requires activation of both the protein regulator of actin polymerization N-WASP, mediated by ERK1/2, and of the actin depolymerizing protein cofilin, mediated by ERBB1. Furthermore, we suggest that this latter event may be inhibited by the negative cell motility regulator p140Cap, as we found that p140Cap overexpression led to cofilin deactivation and inhibition of CDR formation. In conclusion, here we show for the first time an ERBB2-specific signaling contribution to an ERBB2/ERBB1 heterodimer, in the activation of a complex biological process such as the formation of CDRs.
Project description:The receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 is a breast cancer biomarker whose posttranslational modifications (PTMs) are a key indicator of its activation. Quantifying the expression and PTMs of biomarkers such as ErbB2 by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry has several limitations, including minimal coverage and extensive assay development time. Therefore, we assessed the utility of two high resolution, full scan mass spectrometry approaches, MS1 Filtering and SWATH MS2, for targeted ErbB2 proteomics. Endogenous ErbB2 immunoprecipitated from SK-BR-3 cells was in-gel digested with trypsin, chymotrypsin, Asp-N, or trypsin plus Asp-N in triplicate. Data-dependent acquisition with an AB SCIEX TripleTOF 5600 and MS1 Filtering data processing was used to assess peptide and PTM coverage as well as the reproducibility of enzyme digestion. Data-independent acquisition (SWATH) was also performed for MS2 quantitation. MS1 Filtering and SWATH MS2 allow quantitation of all detected analytes after acquisition, enabling the use of multiple proteases for quantitative assessment of target proteins. Combining high resolution proteomics with multiprotease digestion enabled quantitative mapping of ErbB2 with excellent reproducibility, improved amino acid sequence and PTM coverage, and decreased assay development time compared to typical SRM assays. These results demonstrate that high resolution quantitative proteomic approaches are an effective tool for targeted biomarker quantitation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>One-third of breast cancers display amplifications of the ERBB2 gene encoding the HER2 kinase receptor. Trastuzumab, a humanized antibody directed against an epitope on subdomain IV of the extracellular domain of HER2 is used for therapy of HER2-overexpressing mammary tumors. However, many tumors are either natively resistant or acquire resistance against Trastuzumab. Antibodies directed to different epitopes on the extracellular domain of HER2 are promising candidates for replacement or combinatorial therapy. For example, Pertuzumab that binds to subdomain II of HER2 extracellular domain and inhibits receptor dimerization is under clinical trial. Alternative antibodies directed to novel HER2 epitopes may serve as additional tools for breast cancer therapy. Our aim was to generate novel anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cells, either alone or in combination with tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?).<h4>Methods</h4>Mice were immunized against SK-BR-3 cells and recombinant HER2 extracellular domain protein to produce monoclonal antibodies. Anti-HER2 antibodies were characterized with breast cancer cell lines using immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation, western blot techniques. Antibody epitopes were localized using plasmids encoding recombinant HER2 protein variants. Antibodies, either alone or in combination with TNF-?, were tested for their effects on breast cancer cell proliferation.<h4>Results</h4>We produced five new anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies, all directed against conformational epitope or epitopes restricted to the native form of the extracellular domain. When tested alone, some antibodies inhibited modestly but significantly the growth of SK-BR-3, BT-474 and MDA-MB-361 cells displaying ERBB2 amplification. They had no detectable effect on MCF-7 and T47D cells lacking ERBB2 amplification. When tested in combination with TNF-?, antibodies acted synergistically on SK-BR-3 cells, but antagonistically on BT-474 cells. A representative anti-HER2 antibody inhibited Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation leading to cyclin D1 accumulation and growth arrest in SK-BR-3 cells, independently from TNF-?.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Novel antibodies against extracellular domain of HER2 may serve as potent anti-cancer bioactive molecules. Cell-dependent synergy and antagonism between anti-HER2 antibodies and TNF-? provide evidence for a complex interplay between HER2 and TNF-? signaling pathways. Such complexity may drastically affect the outcome of HER2-directed therapeutic interventions.
Project description:Over-expression or amplification of ERBB2 is observed in multifarious carcinomas. However, the molecular mechanism of ERBB2 downregulation in ERBB2-positive cancers remains obscure. This experiment investigated the suppressive role of miR-3622b-5p in ERBB2-positive breast and gastric cancers. The luciferase activity of ERBB2 3'-untranslated region-based reporters constructed in HEK-293T, SK-BR-3 and MCF-10A cells suggested that ERBB2 was the target gene of miR-3622b-5p. Over-expressed miR-3622b-5p reduced the protein level of ERBB2, weakened the activation of mTORC1/S6, and induced the apoptosis of ERBB2-positive cancer cells. MiR-3622b-5p was significantly down-regulated in breast and gastric cancer tissues. This down-regulation in ERBB2-positive breast and gastric cancer tissues was more obvious than that in ERBB2-negative breast and gastric cancer tissues. MiR-3622b-5p turned ERBB2-positive cancer cells more vulnerable to the apoptosis induced by cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. Taken together, miR-3622b-5p is involved in the proliferation and apoptosis of human ERBB2-positive cancer cells via targeting ERBB2/mTORC1 signaling pathway.
Project description:The oncogenic tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB2 is a prognostic factor and target for breast cancer therapeutics. In contrast with the other ErbB receptors, ErbB2 is hardly internalized by ligand induced mechanisms, indicating a prevalent surface expression. Elevated levels of ErbB2 in tumor cells are associated with its defective endocytosis and down regulation. Here we show that caveolin-1 expression in breast cancer derived SKBR-3 cells (SKBR-3/Cav-1) facilitates ligand induced ErbB2 endocytosis using an artificial peptide ligand EC-eGFP. Similarly, stimulation with humanized anti ErbB2 antibody Trastuzumab (Herceptin) was found to be internalized and co-localized with caveolin-1 in SKBR-3/Cav-1 cells. Internalized EC-eGFP and Trastuzumab in SKBR-3/Cav-1 cells were then delivered via caveolae to the caveolin-1 containing early endosomes. Consequently, attenuated Fc receptor mediated ADCC functions were observed when exposed to Trastuzumab and EC-Fc (EC-1 peptide conjugated to Fc part of human IgG). On the other hand, this caveolae dependent endocytic synergy was not observed in parental SKBR-3 cells. Therefore, caveolin-1 expression in breast cancer cells could be a predictive factor to estimate how cancer cells are likely to respond to Trastuzumab treatment.
Project description:Eps15 is an endocytic adaptor protein that stimulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Among other interactions, Eps15 binds ubiquitin via UIM domains, recruiting ubiquitinated cargo into clathrin-coated vesicles. In EGF-treated cells, Eps15 also localizes to endosomes. The basis of this localization is not known.We show that accumulation of ubiquitinated cargo can recruit Eps15 to endosomes via UIM domain interactions. First, treatment of SK-Br-3 breast cancer cells, which overexpress the EGFR family member ErbB2, with geldanamycin to promote receptor ubiquitination and endosomal transport, recruited FLAG-Eps15 to endosomes. Two in-frame ubiquitin constructs, PM-GFP-Ub (retained in endosomes after endocytosis), and GFP-FYVE-Ub?GG (targeted directly to endosomes) also recruited Eps15 to endosomes, as did slowing endosome maturation with constitutively-active Rab5-Q79L. Endosomal recruitment required the UIM domains, but not the N-terminal EH domains or central coiled-coil domains, of Eps15. Silencing of the endosomal Eps15 binding partner Hrs did not affect recruitment of Eps15 to ubiquitin-enriched endosomes. In fact, Hrs silencing itself modestly recruited Eps15 to endosomes, probably by accumulating endogenous ubiquitinated cargo. Eps15 silencing did not affect lysosomal degradation of ubiquitinated ErbB2; however, GFP-FYVE-Ub?GG overexpression inhibited internalization of EGFR and transferrin receptor.We show for the first time that ubiquitin is sufficient for Eps15 recruitment to endosomes. We speculate that Eps15 recruitment to ubiquitin-rich endosomes may reduce the level of Eps15 at the plasma membrane, slowing endocytosis to allow time for processing of ubiquitinated cargo in endosomes.
Project description:: T cell activation is immediately followed by internalization of the T cell receptor (TCR). TCR endocytosis is required for T cell activation, but the mechanisms supporting removal of TCR from the cell surface remain incompletely understood. Here we report that TCR endocytosis is linked to the clathrin-independent carrier (CLIC) and GPI-enriched endocytic compartments (GEEC) endocytic pathway. We show that unlike the canonical clathrin cargo transferrin or the adaptor protein Lat, internalized TCR accumulates in tubules shaped by the small GTPase Cdc42 and the Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain containing protein GRAF1 in T cells. Preventing GRAF1-positive tubules to mature into endocytic vesicles by expressing a constitutively active Cdc42 impairs the endocytosis of TCR, while having no consequence on the uptake of transferrin. Together, our data reveal a link between TCR internalization and the CLIC/GEEC endocytic route supported by Cdc42 and GRAF1.