In GERD patients, mucosal repair associated genes are upregulated in non-inflamed oesophageal epithelium.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies addressing the effects of acid reflux and PPI therapy on gene expression in oesophageal epithelium concentrated on inflamed tissue. We aimed to determine changes in gene expression in non-inflamed oesophageal epithelium of GERD patients. Therefore, we included 20 GERD patients with pathological total 24-hr acid exposure of 6-12% and SAP > or = 95%. Ten patients discontinued PPI treatment (PPI-), 10 took pantoprazole 40 mg bid (PPI+). Ten age/sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Biopsies were taken from non-inflamed mucosa 6 cm and 16 cm proximal to the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ). Gene expression profiling of biopsies from 6 cm was performed on Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays (Affymetrix). Genes exhibiting a fold change >1.4 (t-test P-value < 1(E)- 4) were considered differentially expressed. Results were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. In PPI- patients, 92 microarray probesets were deregulated. The majority of the corresponding genes were associated with cell-cell contacts, cytoskeletal reorganization and cellular motility, suggesting facilitation of a migratory phenotype. Genes encoding proteins with anti-apoptotic or anti-proliferative functions or stress-protective functions were also deregulated. No probesets were deregulated in PPI+ patients. QPCR analysis of 20 selected genes confirmed most of the deregulations in PPI- patients, and showed several deregulated genes in PPI+ patients as well. In the biopsies taken at 16 cm QPCR revealed no deregulations of the selected genes. We conclude that upon acid exposure, oesophageal epithelial cells activate a process globally known as epithelial restitution: up-regulation of anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and migration associated genes. Possibly this process helps maintaining barrier function.
Project description:Cough may be a manifestation of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The utility of acid suppression in GERD-related cough is uncertain.To assess the impact of high-dose acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) on chronic cough in subjects with rare or no heartburn.Subjects were nonsmokers without history of asthma, with chronic cough for >8 weeks. All subjects underwent a baseline 24-h pH/impedance study, methacholine challenge test and laryngoscopy. Subjects were randomised to either 40 mg of esomeprazole twice daily or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Cough-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (CQLQ). Secondary outcomes were response on Fisman Cough Severity/Frequency scores and change in laryngeal findings.Forty subjects were randomised (22 PPI, 18 placebo) and completed the study. There was no difference between PPI and placebo in CQLQ (mean improvement 9.8 vs. 5.9 respectively, P = 0.3), or Fisman Cough Severity/Frequency scores. Proportion of patients who improved by >1 s.d. on the CQLQ was 27.8% (five of 18) and 31.8% (seven of 22) in the placebo and PPI groups respectively.In subjects with chronic cough and rare or no heartburn, high-dose proton pump inhibitor does not improve cough-related quality of life or symptoms.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A novel transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) procedure using the EsophyX system with SerosaFuse fasteners was designed to reconstruct a full-thickness valve at the gastroesophageal junction through tailored delivery of multiple fasteners during a single-device insertion. The safety and efficacy of TIF for treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were evaluated in a prospective multicenter trial. METHODS: Patients (n = 86) with chronic GERD treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) were enrolled. Exclusion criteria included an irreducible hiatal hernia > 2 cm. RESULTS: The TIF procedure (n = 84) reduced all hiatal hernias (n = 49) and constructed valves measuring 4 cm (2-6 cm) and 230 degrees (160 degrees -300 degrees ). Serious adverse events consisted of two esophageal perforations upon device insertion and one case of postoperative intraluminal bleeding. Other adverse events were mild and transient. At 12 months, aggregate (n = 79) and stratified Hill grade I tight (n = 21) results showed 73% and 86% of patients with >or=50% improvement in GERD health-related quality of life (HRQL) scores, 85% discontinuation of daily PPI use, and 81% complete cessation of PPIs; 37% and 48% normalization of esophageal acid exposure; 60% and 89% hiatal hernia reduction; and 62% and 80% esophagitis reduction, respectively. More than 50% of patients with Hill grade I tight valves had a normalized cardia circumference. Resting pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) was improved significantly (p < 0.001), by 53%. EsophyX-TIF cured GERD in 56% of patients based on their symptom reduction and PPI discontinuation. CONCLUSION: The 12-month results showed that EsophyX-TIF was safe and effective in improving quality of life and for reducing symptoms, PPI use, hiatal hernia, and esophagitis, as well as increasing the LES resting pressure and normalizing esophageal pH and cardia circumference in chronic GERD patients.
Project description:About one-third of patients with suspected gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) do not respond symptomatically to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Many of these patients do not suffer from GERD, but may have underlying functional heartburn or atypical chest pain. Other causes of failure to respond to PPIs include inadequate acid suppression, non-acid reflux, oesophageal hypersensitivity, oesophageal dysmotility and psychological comorbidities. Functional oesophageal tests can exclude cardiac and structural causes, as well as help to confi rm or exclude GERD. The use of PPIs should only be continued in the presence of acid reflux or oesophageal hypersensitivity for acid reflux-related events that is proven on functional oesophageal tests.
Project description:A substantial proportion of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have only a partial response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. Prokinetic drugs may improve reflux symptoms by enhancing oesophageal motility and gastric emptying.To evaluate the effect of revexepride, a novel prokinetic 5-hydroxytryptamine type 4 (5-HT4 ) receptor agonist, compared with placebo, in patients with GERD who have a partial response to PPIs.A phase 2b, double-blind, parallel-group study was conducted, in which patients were randomised to one of three revexepride treatment groups (0.1, 0.5 and 2.0 mg three times daily) or placebo (1:1:1:1 ratio). Daily e-diary data captured patients' symptoms over an 8-week treatment period. The primary efficacy outcome was the weekly percentage of regurgitation-free days in the second half of the study (weeks 5-8).In total, 480 patients were randomised and 477 received treatment (mean age 47.9 years; 61% women). The mean percentage of regurgitation-free days increased from baseline (range, 15.0-18.8%) to week 8 (62.3-70.5%) in all four study arms; however, there were no statistically significant differences in this change between placebo and the three treatment arms. No dose-dependent relationship in treatment effect was observed for any of the study endpoints. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was revexepride dose-dependent. Only one serious TEAE occurred and none resulted in death.Revexepride was no more effective than placebo in controlling regurgitation in patients with GERD symptoms partially responsive to PPIs. Revexepride was well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01472939.
Project description:As a major cellular defence mechanism, the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway regulates expression of genes involved in detoxification and stress response. Here we hypothesise that Nrf2 is involved in oesophageal barrier function and plays a protective role against gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD).Human oesophageal biopsy samples, mouse surgical models and Nrf2(-/-) mice were used to assess the role of the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway in oesophageal barrier function. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured with mini-Ussing chambers. HE staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine tissue morphology, while gene microarray, immunohistochemistry, western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis were used to assess gene expression.Nrf2 was expressed in normal oesophageal epithelium and activated in GERD of both humans and mice. Nrf2 deficiency and gastro-oesophageal reflux in mice, alone or in combination, reduced TEER and increased intercellular space in oesophageal epithelium. Nrf2 target genes and gene sets associated with oxidoreductase activity, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy production were downregulated in the oesophageal epithelium of Nrf2(-/-) mice. Consistent with the antioxidative function of Nrf2, a DNA oxidative damage marker (8OHdG) dramatically increased in oesophageal epithelial cells of Nrf2(-/-) mice compared with those of wild-type mice. Interestingly, ATP biogenesis, Cox IV (a mitochondrial protein) and Claudin 4 (Cldn4) expression were downregulated in the oesophageal epithelium of Nrf2(-/-) mice, suggesting that energy-dependent tight junction integrity was subject to Nrf2 regulation. ChIP analysis confirmed the binding of Nrf2 to Cldn4 promoter.Nrf2 deficiency impairs oesophageal barrier function through disrupting energy-dependent tight junction.
Project description:Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) twice daily dosing is a standard therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) but there is no data on its response rate or the predictors of PPI-partial response GERD. Aims were to determine the prevalence of PPI-partial response GERD in SSc and to define its predictors. A prospective study was conducted in SSc patients with GERD. The patients were treated with omeprazole 20?mg bid for 4 weeks. The severity of symptom-grading by visual analogue scale (VAS) and frequency of symptoms by frequency scale for symptoms of GERD (FSSG) were assessed at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment. PPI-partial response GERD was defined as less than 50% improvement in the VAS for severity of symptom as well as acid reflux score by FSSG after treatment. According to the sample size calculation, 243 SSc-GERD patients were enrolled; of whom 166 (68.3%) had the diffuse cutaneous SSc. PPI-partial response GERD was found in 131 SSc patients (prevalence 53.9%; 95%CI 47.4-60.3). The multivariate analysis revealed that esophageal dysphagia was an only predictor the PPI-partial response GERD (OR 1.82; 95%CI 1.01-3.29) while neither SSc subset nor severity of skin tightness were significantly associated with PPI-partial response GERD. Half of the SSc patients were PPI-partial response GERD. Esophageal dysphagia was the only predictor of PPI-partial response GERD in SSc patients. Screening for dysphagia before starting GERD treatment is helpful for assessment the risk of PPI refractoriness GERD in SSc patients.
Project description:Four randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the short-term efficacy and safety of transoral esophagogastric fundoplication (TF) performed with the EsophyX® device in eliminating troublesome gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in well-selected patient populations. The aim of this study was to assess the durability of these outcomes at 3 years post-procedure.The TF EsophyX versus Medical PPI Open Label trial was conducted in seven US sites. Between June and August 2012, we enrolled patients with small (<2 cm) or absent hiatal hernias who suffered from troublesome GERD symptoms while on PPI therapy for at least 6 months and had abnormal esophageal acid exposure (EAE). Randomization was to TF group (n = 40) or to PPI group (n = 23). Following evaluation at 6 months, all remaining PPI patients (n = 21) elected to undergo crossover to TF. Fifty-two patients were assessed at 3 years for (1) GERD symptom resolution using three GERD-specific quality of life questionnaires, (2) healing of esophagitis using endoscopy, (3) EAE using 48-h Bravo testing, and (4) discontinuation of PPI use. Two patients who underwent revisional procedures by year 3 were included in the final analysis.At 3-year follow-up, elimination of troublesome regurgitation and all atypical symptoms was reported by 90 % (37/41) and 88 % (42/48) of patients, respectively. The mean Reflux Symptom Index score improved from 22.2 (9.2) on PPIs at screening to 4 (7.1) off PPIs 3 years post-TF, p < 0.0001. The mean total % time pH <4 improved from 10.5 (3.5) to 7.8 (5.7), p = 0.0283. Esophagitis was healed in 86 % (19/22) of patients. At the end of study, 71 % (37/52) of patients had discontinued PPI therapy. All outcome measures remained stable between 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-ups.This study demonstrates that TF can be used to achieve long-term control of chronic GERD symptoms, healing of esophagitis, and improvement in EAE.
Project description:Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly used to lessen symptoms in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, the effects of PPI therapy on the gastrointestinal microbiota in GERD patients remain unclear. We examined the association between the PPI usage and the microbiota present in gastric mucosal and fecal samples from GERD patients and healthy controls (HCs) using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. GERD patients taking PPIs were further divided into short-term and long-term PPI user groups. We showed that PPI administration lowered the relative bacterial diversity of the gastric microbiota in GERD patients. Compared to the non-PPI-user and HC groups, higher abundances of Planococcaceae, Oxalobacteraceae, and Sphingomonadaceae were found in the gastric microbiota from the PPI-user group. In addition, the Methylophilus genus was more highly abundant in the long-term PPI user group than in the short-term PPI-user group. Despite the absence of differences in alpha diversity, there were significant differences in the fecal bacterial composition of between GERD patients taking PPIs and those not taking PPIs. There was a higher abundance of Streptococcaceae, Veillonellaceae, Acidaminococcaceae, Micrococcaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae present in the fecal microbiota from the PPI-user group than those from the non-PPI-user and HC groups. Additionally, a significantly higher abundance of Ruminococcus was found in GERD patients on long-term PPI medication than that on short-term PPI medication. Our study indicates that PPI administration in patients with GERD has a significant effect on the abundance and structure of the gastric mucosal microbiota but only on the composition of the fecal microbiota.
Project description:Non-Erosive Reflux Disease (NERD) is one of the most prominent and common forms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We performed transcriptomic analysis (RNA sequencing) of esophageal biopsies from patients with NERD and healthy controls to increase understanding of complex cellular and molecular pathways in NERD. Overall design: Patients with persistent symptoms suggestive of GERD (acid regurgitation and/or heart burn) and no previously antisecretory or prokinetic therapy were advised to undergo 24 h pH monitor and endoscopy in sequence. NERD was defined as abnormal 24 h pH parameters and normal endoscopic performance. Healthy voluntary controls were those with absence of GERD symptoms and normal endoscopic appearance. In each subject, specimen was taken at 5 cm above the squamo-columnar junction, from macroscopically intact mucosa, prior to any antisecretory and/or prokinetic therapy. In total, mucosal biopsies from patients with NERD (n=9) and healthy controls (n=6) underwent RNA sequencing.
Project description:Electrical stimulation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) at 2 years. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of LES stimulation in the same cohort at 3 years.GERD patients with partial response to PPI, with % 24-h esophageal pH < 4.0 for >5 %, with hiatal hernia <3 cm and with esophagitis ?LA grade C were treated with LES stimulation in an open-label 2-year trial. All patients were on fixed stimulation parameter of 20 Hz, 220 ?s, 5 mA delivered in twelve, 30-min sessions. After completing the 2-year open-label study, they were offered enrollment into a multicenter registry trial and were evaluated using GERD-HRQL, symptom diaries and pH testing at their 3-year follow-up.Fifteen patients completed their 3-year evaluation [mean (SD) age = 56.1 (9.7) years; men = 8] on LES stimulation. At 3 years, there was a significant improvement in their median (IQR) GERD-HRQL on electrical stimulation compared to both their on PPI [9 (6-10) vs. 1 (0-2), p = 0.001] and off PPI [22 (21-24) vs. 1 (0-2), p < 0.001]. Median 24-h distal esophageal acid exposure was significantly reduced from [10.3 (7.5-11.6) % at baseline vs. 3 (1.9-4.5) %, p < 0.001] at 3 years. Seventy-three % (11/15) patients had normalized their distal esophageal acid exposure at 3 years. Remaining four patients had improved their distal esophageal acid exposure by 39-48 % from baseline. All but four patients reported cessation of regular PPI use (>50 % of days with PPI use); three had normal esophageal pH at 3 years. There were no unanticipated device- or stimulation-related adverse events or untoward sensation reported during the 2- to 3-year follow-up.LES-EST is safe and effective for treating patients with GERD over long-term, 3-year duration. There was a significant and sustained improvement in esophageal acid exposure and reduction in GERD symptoms and PPI use. Further, no new GI side effects or adverse events were reported.