The 6-minute walk test and other clinical endpoints in duchenne muscular dystrophy: reliability, concurrent validity, and minimal clinically important differences from a multicenter study.
ABSTRACT: An international clinical trial enrolled 174 ambulatory males ?5 years old with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (nmDMD). Pretreatment data provide insight into reliability, concurrent validity, and minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and other endpoints.Screening and baseline evaluations included the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed function tests (TFTs), quantitative strength by myometry, the PedsQL, heart rate-determined energy expenditure index, and other exploratory endpoints.The 6MWT proved feasible and reliable in a multicenter context. Concurrent validity with other endpoints was excellent. The MCID for 6MWD was 28.5 and 31.7 meters based on 2 statistical distribution methods.The ratio of MCID to baseline mean is lower for 6MWD than for other endpoints. The 6MWD is an optimal primary endpoint for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) clinical trials that are focused therapeutically on preservation of ambulation and slowing of disease progression.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Data is currently lacking anchoring a 30-meter longitudinal change in walking ability by 6-minute walk test (6MWT) in Duchenne muscular dystrophy as a minimal clinically important difference and "clinically meaningful" person-reported outcomes (PROs) at differing levels of ambulatory ability.<h4>Methods</h4>We describe correlation between measures, 1-year change in measures, and correlation of 1-year changes between measures for the six-minute walk test (6MWT), 10-meter run/walk velocity, PedsQL and POSNA Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) in 24 4-12 year old. ambulatory DMD and 36 typical controls, and determine if minimal clinically important differences (MCID) of PROs contribute to different estimates of 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) change at differing levels of ability.<h4>Results</h4>PedsQL total and physical function and PODCI global, transfer/mobility and sports/physical function PROs demonstrated significant differences between DMD and controls (p<0.00001). In DMD, 6MWD and 10-meter run/walk velocity were correlated with PODCI domain scores, with the transfer/mobility scale showing the strongest relationship (r=0.79 and r=0.76). In DMD, 6MWD distance and 10-meter run/walk velocity weakly correlated with PedsQL domain scores. In DMD, 6MWD, 10-meter run/walk velocity, and PODCI global and transfer and basic mobility demonstrated significant one-year change and exceeded the amount of change representing MCID. In DMD, 6MWD change highly correlated with change in PODCI global and PODCI transfer/mobility scores (r=0.76 and r=0.93). PODCI global and PODCI transfer/mobility scales provided the best estimates of 6MWT performance. A "meaningful" 4.5 point change in a low PODCI transfer / basic mobility score of 30 to 34.5 was associated with a 5.6m 6MWD change from 150.3 to 155.9m. At PODCI levels closer to normative levels for healthy controls, the change in 6MWD distance associated with a "meaningful" change in PODCI scores was almost 46m.<h4>Discussion</h4>At lower levels of function, smaller increases in 6MWD result in meaningful change in quality of life (QoL) instrument scores. At higher levels of function, larger increases may be necessary to achieve the same QoL change score.
Project description:Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) subjects ?5 years with nonsense mutations were followed for 48 weeks in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ataluren. Placebo arm data (N = 57) provided insight into the natural history of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and other endpoints.Evaluations performed every 6 weeks included the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed function tests (TFTs), and quantitative strength using hand-held myometry.Baseline age (?7 years), 6MWD, and selected TFT performance are strong predictors of decline in ambulation (?6MWD) and time to 10% worsening in 6MWD. A baseline 6MWD of <350 meters was associated with greater functional decline, and loss of ambulation was only seen in those with baseline 6MWD <325 meters. Only 1 of 42 (2.3%) subjects able to stand from supine lost ambulation.Findings confirm the clinical meaningfulness of the 6MWD as the most accepted primary clinical endpoint in ambulatory DMD trials.
Project description:We recently described a modified version of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) based partly on the American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines. This measure has shown reliability, validity and utility as a primary outcome measure in DMD clinical trials. Because loss of muscle function in DMD occurs against the background of normal childhood growth and development, younger children with DMD can show increase in distance walked during 6MWT over ~1 year despite progressive muscular impairment. In this study, we compare 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) data from DMD boys (n=17) and typically developing control subjects (n=22) to existing normative data from age- and sex-matched children and adolescents. An age- and height-based equation fitted to normative data by Geiger and colleagues was used to convert 6MWD to a percent-predicted (%-predicted) value in boys with DMD. Analysis of %-predicted 6MWD data represents a method to account for normal growth and development, and shows that gains in function at early ages represents stable rather than improving abilities in boys with DMD. Boys with DMD from 4-7 years of age maintain a stable 6MWD approximately 80% of that of typically developing peers, with the deficit progressing at a variable rate thereafter.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:ACT DMD was a 48-week trial of ataluren for nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (nmDMD). Patients received corticosteroids for ?6 months at entry and stable regimens throughout study. This post hoc analysis compares efficacy and safety for deflazacort and prednisone/prednisolone in the placebo arm. METHODS:Patients received deflazacort (n?=?53) or prednisone/prednisolone (n?=?61). Endpoints included change from baseline in 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed function tests, estimated age at loss of ambulation (extrapolated from 6MWD). RESULTS:Mean changes in 6MWD were -39.0?m (deflazacort; 95% confidence limit [CL], -68.85, -9.17) and -70.6?m (prednisone/prednisolone; 95% CL, -97.16, -44.02). Mean changes in 4-stair climb were 3.79 s (deflazacort; 95% CL, 1.54, 6.03) and 6.67 s (prednisone/prednisolone; 95% CL, 4.69, 8.64). CONCLUSIONS:This analysis, limited by its post hoc nature, suggests greater preservation of 6MWD and 4-stair climb with deflazacort vs. prednisone/prednisolone. A head-to-head comparison will better define these differences. Muscle Nerve 58: 639-645, 2018.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Tests of ambulatory function are common clinical trial endpoints in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Using these tests, the ImagingDMD study has generated a large data set that can describe the contemporary natural history of DMD in 5-12.9-year-olds. METHODS:Ninety-two corticosteroid-treated boys with DMD and 45 controls participated in this longitudinal study. Participants performed the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and timed function tests (TFT: 10-m walk/run, climbing 4 stairs, supine to stand). RESULTS:Boys with DMD had impaired functional performance even at 5-6.9 years old. Boys older than 7 had significant declines in function over 1 year for 10-m walk/run and 6MWT. Eighty percent of participants could perform all functional tests at 9 years old. TFTs appear to be slightly more responsive and predictive of disease progression than the 6MWT in 7-12.9 year olds. DISCUSSION:This study provides insight into the contemporary natural history of key functional endpoints in DMD. Muscle Nerve 58: 631-638, 2018.
Project description:The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is used as a clinical endpoint to evaluate drug efficacy in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) trials. A model was developed using digitized 6MWT data that estimated two slopes and two intercepts to characterize 6MWT improvement during development and 6MWT decline. Mean baseline 6MWT was 362 (±87) meters. The model predicted an improvement at a rate of 20 meters/year (95% confidence interval (CI) = 9.4-30) up until 10 years old (95% CI?=?6.78-13.1), and then a decline at a rate of 85 meters/year (95% CI?=?72-98). Interpatient slope variability for improvement and decline were similar at 21.9 percentage of coefficient of variation (%CV) and 23.3%CV, respectively. Model simulations using age demographics from a previous DMD natural history study could reasonably predict the trend in improvement and decline in the 6MWT. This model can be used to quantitate individual patient trajectories, identify prognostic factors for disease progression, and evaluate drug effect.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:In the last few years some of the therapeutical approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are specifically targeting distinct groups of mutations, such as deletions eligible for skipping of individual exons. The aim of this observational study was to establish whether patients with distinct groups of mutations have different profiles of changes on the 6 minute walk test (6MWT) over a 12 month period. METHODS:The 6MWT was performed in 191 ambulant DMD boys at baseline and 12 months later. The results were analysed using a test for heterogeneity in order to establish possible differences among different types of mutations (deletions, duplications, point mutations) and among subgroups of deletions eligible to skip individual exons. RESULTS:At baseline the 6MWD ranged between 180 and 560,80 metres (mean 378,06, SD 74,13). The 12 month changes ranged between -325 and 175 (mean -10.8 meters, SD 69.2). Although boys with duplications had better results than those with the other types of mutations, the difference was not significant. Similarly, boys eligible for skipping of the exon 44 had better baseline results and less drastic changes than those eligible for skipping exon 45 or 53, but the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS:even if there are some differences among subgroups, the mean 12 month changes in each subgroup were all within a narrow Range: from the mean of the whole DMD cohort. This information will be of help at the time of designing clinical trials with small numbers of eligible patients.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM) occurs when symptoms of myotonic dystrophy present at birth. In this study we evaluated the relationship between physical function, muscle mass, and age to provide an assessment of the disease and help prepare for therapeutic trials. METHODS:CDM participants performed timed functional tests (TFTs), the first 2 minutes of 6-minute walk tests (2/6MWTs), and myometry tests, and also performed dual-energy X-ray absorption (DEXA) scans. Healthy controls (HCs) performed TFTs, 6MWTs, and myometry. RESULTS:Thirty-seven children with CDM and 27 HCs (age range 3-13 years) participated in the study. There were significant differences in the 10-meter walk (11.3 seconds in CDM vs. 6.8 seconds in HC) and 2MWT (91 meters in CDM vs. 193 meters in HCs). DEXA lean mass of the right arm correlated with grip strength (r?=?0.91), and lean mass of the right leg correlated with 6MWT (r?=?0.62). CONCLUSION:Children with CDM have significant limitations in strength and mobility. The tests performed were reliable, and lean muscle mass may serve as a useful biomarker. Muscle Nerve 56: 224-229, 2017.
Project description:We performed a 1-year longitudinal study of Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT), North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA), and timed function tests in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). Skeletal muscle dystrophin was quantified by immunoblot. We grouped deletions ending on exon 45 ("del 45-x", n?=?28) or 51 ("del x-51", n?=?10); isolated exon 48 deletion ("del 48", n?=?10); and other mutations (n?=?21). Only patients in the "del 45-x" or "other" groups became non-ambulatory (n?=?5, log-rank p?=?n.s.) or unable to run (n?=?22, p?<?0.001). All measures correlated positively with dystrophin quantity and negatively with age, and were significantly more impaired in the "del 45-x" and "other" groups. After one year, NSAA score decreased significantly (-0.9?±?1.6, p?<?0.001); in the "del 45-x" group, both NSAA (-1.3?±?1.7, p?=?0.001) and 6MWT (-12?±?31?m, p?=?0.059) decreased. We conclude that patients with "del x-51" or "del 48" mutations have mild or asymptomatic BMD, while "del 45-x" mutations cause comparatively severe weakness, and functional deterioration in 1 year. Furthermore, exon 51 skipping could be more effective than exon 45 skipping in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Project description:Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a neuromuscular disorder allelic to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), caused by in-frame mutations in the dystrophin gene, and characterized by a clinical progression that is both milder and more heterogeneous than DMD. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as biomarker of disease progression in dystrophinopathies. Correlation with clinically meaningful outcome measures such as North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) and 6?minute walk test (6MWT) is paramount for biomarker qualification. In this study, 51 molecularly confirmed BMD patients (aged 7-69 years) underwent muscle MRI and were evaluated with functional measures (NSAA and 6MWT) at the time of the MRI, and subsequently after one year. We confirmed a pattern of fatty substitution involving mainly the hip extensors and most thigh muscles. Severity of muscle fatty substitution was significantly correlated with specific DMD mutations: in particular, patients with an isolated deletion of exon 48, or deletions bordering exon 51, showed milder involvement. Fat infiltration scores correlated with baseline functional measures, and predicted changes after 1 year. We conclude that in BMD, skeletal muscle MRI not only strongly correlates with motor function, but also helps in predicting functional deterioration within a 12-month time frame.