Recoil effects of a motional scatterer on single-photon scattering in one dimension.
ABSTRACT: The scattering of a single photon with sufficiently high energy can cause a recoil of a motional scatterer. We study its backaction on the photon's coherent transport in one dimension by modeling the motional scatterer as a two-level system, which is trapped in a harmonic potential. While the reflection spectrum is of a single peak in the Lamb-Dicke limit, multi-peaks due to phonon excitations can be observed in the reflection spectrum as the trap becomes looser or the mass of the two-level system becomes smaller.
Project description:Photon's effective mass is an important parameter of an optical cavity mode, which determines the strength of light-matter interaction. Here, we propose a novel method for controlling the photon's effective mass by using coupled photonic cavities and designing the angular dependence of the coupling strength. This can be implemented by employing a high-contrast grating (HCG) as the coupling reflector in a system of two coupled vertical cavities, and engineering both the HCG reflection phase and amplitude response. Several examples of HCG-based coupled cavities with novel features are discussed, including a case capable of dynamically controlling the photon's effective mass to a large extent while keeping the resonance frequency same. We believe that full-control and dynamical-tuning of the photon's effective mass may enable new possibilities for cavity quantum electrodynamics studies or conventional/polariton laser applications. For instance, one can dynamically control the condensate formation in polariton lasers by modifying the polariton mass.
Project description:We present a new method of spin-motion coupling for trapped ions using microwaves and a magnetic field gradient oscillating close to the ions' motional frequency. We demonstrate and characterize this coupling experimentally using a single ion in a surface-electrode trap that incorporates current-carrying electrodes to generate the microwave field and the oscillating magnetic field gradient. Using this method, we perform resolved-sideband cooling of a single motional mode to its ground state.
Project description:Quantum interfaces between photons and atomic ensembles have emerged as powerful tools for quantum technologies. Efficient storage and retrieval of single photons requires long-lived collective atomic states, which is typically achieved with immobilized atoms. Thermal atomic vapours, which present a simple and scalable resource, have only been used for continuous variable processing or for discrete variable processing on short timescales where atomic motion is negligible. Here we develop a theory based on motional averaging to enable room temperature discrete variable quantum memories and coherent single-photon sources. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to scalable quantum memories with a proof-of-principle experiment with room temperature atoms contained in microcells with spin-protecting coating, placed inside an optical cavity. The experimental conditions correspond to a few photons per pulse and a long coherence time of the forward scattered photons is demonstrated, which is the essential feature of the motional averaging.
Project description:The application of residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) in studies of RNA structure and dynamics can be complicated by the presence of couplings between collective helix motions and overall alignment and by the inability to modulate overall alignment of the molecule by changing the ordering medium. Here, we show for a 27-nt TAR RNA construct that variable levels of helix elongation can be used to alter both overall alignment and couplings to collective helix motions in a semi-predictable manner. In the absence of elongation, a four base-pair helix II capped by a UUCG apical loop exhibits a higher degree of order compared to a six base-pair helix I (theta(I)/theta(II)=0.56+/-0.1). The principal S(zz) direction is nearly parallel to the axis of helix II but deviates by approximately 40 degrees relative to the axis of helix I. Elongating helix I by three base-pairs equalizes the alignment of the two helices and pushes the RNA into the motional coupling limit such that the two helices have comparable degrees of order (theta(I)/theta(II)=0.92+/-0.04) and orientations relative to S(zz) ( approximately 17 degrees ). Increasing the length of elongation further to 22 base-pairs pushes the RNA into the motional decoupling limit in which helix I dominates alignment (theta(II)/theta(I)=0.45+/-0.05), with S(zz) orientated nearly parallel to its helix axis. Many of these trends can be rationalized using PALES simulations that employ a previously proposed three-state dynamic ensemble of TAR. Our results provide new insights into motional couplings, offer guidelines for assessing their extent, and suggest that variable degrees of helix elongation can allow access to independent sets of RDCs for characterizing RNA structural dynamics.
Project description:The HIV-1 TAR RNA represents a well-known paradigm to study the role of dynamics and conformational change in RNA function. This regulatory RNA changes conformation in response to binding of Tat protein and of a variety of peptidic and small molecule ligands, indicating that its conformational flexibility and intrinsic dynamics play important roles in molecular recognition. We have used (13)C NMR relaxation experiments to examine changes in the motional landscape of HIV-1 TAR in the presence of three ligands of different affinity and specificity. The ligands are argininamide, a linear peptide mimic of the Tat basic domain and a cyclic peptide that potently inhibits Tat-dependent activation of transcription. All three molecules induce the same motional characteristics within the three nucleotides bulge that represents the Tat-binding site. However, the cyclic peptide has a unique motional signature in the apical loop, which represents a binding site for the essential host co-factor cyclin T1. These results suggest that all peptidic mimics of Tat induce the same dynamics in TAR within this protein binding site. However, the new cyclic peptide mimic of Tat represents a new class of ligands with a unique effect on the dynamics and the structure of the apical loop.
Project description:Radiation pressure has recently been used to effectively couple the quantum motion of mechanical elements to the fields of optical or microwave light. Integration of all three degrees of freedom-mechanical, optical and microwave-would enable a quantum interconnect between microwave and optical quantum systems. We present a platform based on silicon nitride nanomembranes for integrating superconducting microwave circuits with planar acoustic and optical devices such as phononic and photonic crystals. Using planar capacitors with vacuum gaps of 60?nm and spiral inductor coils of micron pitch we realize microwave resonant circuits with large electromechanical coupling to planar acoustic structures of nanoscale dimensions and femtoFarad motional capacitance. Using this enhanced coupling, we demonstrate microwave backaction cooling of the 4.48?MHz mechanical resonance of a nanobeam to an occupancy as low as 0.32. These results indicate the viability of silicon nitride nanomembranes as an all-in-one substrate for quantum electro-opto-mechanical experiments.
Project description:The quantum noise of the vacuum limits the achievable sensitivity of quantum sensors. In non-classical measurement schemes the noise can be reduced to overcome this limitation. However, schemes based on squeezed or Schrödinger cat states require alignment of the relative phase between the measured interaction and the non-classical quantum state. Here we present two measurement schemes on a trapped ion prepared in a motional Fock state for displacement and frequency metrology that are insensitive to this phase. The achieved statistical uncertainty is below the standard quantum limit set by quantum vacuum fluctuations, enabling applications in spectroscopy and mass measurements.
Project description:The Ramsey interferometer is a prime example of precise control at the quantum level. It is usually implemented using internal states of atoms, molecules or ions, for which powerful manipulation procedures are now available. Whether it is possible to control external degrees of freedom of more complex, interacting many-body systems at this level remained an open question. Here we demonstrate a two-pulse Ramsey-type interferometer for non-classical motional states of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an anharmonic trap. The control sequences used to manipulate the condensate wavefunction are obtained from optimal control theory and are directly optimized to maximize the interferometric contrast. They permit a fast manipulation of the atomic ensemble compared to the intrinsic decay processes and many-body dephasing effects. This allows us to reach an interferometric contrast of 92% in the experimental implementation.
Project description:Rigid spinning: Site-directed spin-labeling studies using a rigid nitroxide spin label (Ç) reveal that both length and sequence of a single-stranded junction (J1/2) modulate nanosecond motional ordering of the substrate-recognition duplex (P1) of the 120 kD group I ribozyme. The studies demonstrate an approach for experimental measurements of nanosecond dynamics in high-molecular-weight RNA complexes.
Project description:Trapping or cooling molecules has rallied a long-standing effort for its impact in exploring new frontiers in physics and in finding new phase of matter for quantum technologies. Here we demonstrate a system for light-trapping molecules and stimulated Raman scattering based on optically self-nanostructured molecular hydrogen in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre. A lattice is formed by a periodic and ultra-deep potential caused by a spatially modulated Raman saturation, where Raman-active molecules are strongly localized in a one-dimensional array of nanometre-wide sections. Only these trapped molecules participate in stimulated Raman scattering, generating high-power forward and backward Stokes continuous-wave laser radiation in the Lamb-Dicke regime with sub-Doppler emission spectrum. The spectrum exhibits a central line with a sub-recoil linewidth as low as ?14?kHz, more than five orders of magnitude narrower than conventional-Raman pressure-broadened linewidth, and sidebands comprising Mollow triplet, motional sidebands and four-wave mixing.