Identification of two novel anti-fibrotic benzopyran compounds produced by engineered strains derived from Streptomyces xiamenensis M1-94P that originated from deep-sea sediments.
ABSTRACT: The benzopyran compound obtained by cultivating a mangrove-derived strain, Streptomyces xiamenensis strain 318, shows multiple biological effects, including anti-fibrotic and anti-hypertrophic scar properties. To increase the diversity in the structures of the available benzopyrans, by means of biosynthesis, the strain was screened for spontaneous rifampicin resistance (Rif), and a mutated rpsL gene to confer streptomycin resistance (Str), was introduced into the S. xiamenensis strain M1-94P that originated from deep-sea sediments. Two new benzopyran derivatives, named xiamenmycin C (1) and D (2), were isolated from the crude extracts of a selected Str-Rif double mutant (M6) of M1-94P. The structures of 1 and 2 were identified by analyzing extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibit the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (WI26), and 1 exhibits better anti-fibrotic activity than xiamenmycin. Our study presents the novel bioactive compounds isolated from S. xiamenensis mutant strain M6 constructed by ribosome engineering, which could be a useful approach in the discovery of new anti-fibrotic compounds.
Project description:Xiamenmycin A is an antifibrotic leading compound with a benzopyran skeleton that is isolated from mangrove-derived Streptomyces xiamenensis. As a promising small molecule for fibrotic diseases, less information is known about its metabolic characteristics in vivo. In this study, the time-course of xiamenmycin A in mouse plasma was investigated by relative quantification. After two types of administration of xiamenmycin A at a single dose of 10 mg/kg, the plasma concentrations were measured quantitatively by LC-MS/MS. The dynamic changes in the xiamenmycin A concentration showed rapid absorption and quick elimination in plasma post-administration. Four metabolites (M1-M4) were identified in blood by UPLC-QTOF-MS, and xiamenmycin B (M3) is the principal metabolite in vivo, as verified by comparison of the authentic standard sample. The structures of other metabolites were identified based on the characteristics of their MS and MS/MS data. The newly identified metabolites are useful for understanding the metabolism of xiamenmycin A in vivo, aiming at the development of an anti-fibrotic drug candidate for the therapeutic treatment of excessive fibrotic diseases.
Project description:Xiamenmycin (1) is a prenylated benzopyran derivative with anti-fibrotic activity. To investigate the genetic basis of xiamenmycin biosynthesis, we performed genome mining in the xiamenmycin-producing Streptomyces xiamenensis wild-type strain 318 to identify a candidate gene cluster. The complete gene cluster, consisting of five genes, was confirmed by a series of gene inactivations and heterologous expression. Based on bioinformatics analyses of each gene and feeding experiments, we found that the structure of an intermediate xiamenmycin B (3) accumulated in a ximA inactivation mutant, allowing us to propose a biosynthetic pathway. All five of the genes in the pathway were genetically and biochemically characterized. XimA was biochemically characterized as an ATP-dependent amide synthetase, catalyzing an amide bond formation in the presence of ATP as the final step in Xiamenmycin biosynthesis. The Km value of XimA was determined to be 474.38 µM for the substrate xiamenmycin B. These studies provide opportunities to use genetic and chemo-enzymatic methods to create new benzopyran derivatives as potential therapeutic agents.
Project description:Streptomyces xiamenensis 318, a moderate halophile isolated from a mangrove sediment, produces the anti-fibrotic compound xiamenmycin. The whole genome sequence of strain 318 was obtained through long-read single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing, high-throughput Illumina HiSeq and 454 pyrosequencing technologies. The assembled genome comprises a linear chromosome as a single contig of 5,961,401-bp, which is considerably smaller than other reported complete genomes of the genus Streptomyces. Based on the antiSMASH pipeline, a total of 21 gene clusters were predicted to be involved in secondary metabolism. The gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of xiamenmycin resides in a strain-specific 61,387-bp genomic island belonging to the left-arm region. A core metabolic network consisting of 104 reactions that supports xiamenmycin biosynthesis was constructed to illustrate the necessary precursors derived from the central metabolic pathway. In accordance with the finding of a putative ikarugamycin gene cluster in the genome, the targeted chemical profiling of polycyclic tetramate macrolactams (PTMs) resulted in the identification of ikarugamycin. A successful genome mining for bioactive molecules with different skeletons suggests that the naturally minimized genome of S. xiamenensis 318 could be used as a blueprint for constructing a chassis cell with versatile biosynthetic capabilities for the production of secondary metabolites.
Project description:The pleiotropic transcriptional regulator AdpA positively controls morphological differentiation and regulates secondary metabolism in most Streptomyces species. Streptomyces xiamenensis 318 has a linear chromosome 5.96 Mb in size. How AdpA affects secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation in such a naturally minimized genomic background is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that AdpA Sx , an AdpA orthologue in S. xiamenensis, negatively regulates cell growth and sporulation and bidirectionally regulates the biosynthesis of xiamenmycin and polycyclic tetramate macrolactams (PTMs) in S. xiamenensis 318. Overexpression of the adpASx gene in S. xiamenensis 318 had negative effects on morphological differentiation and resulted in reduced transcription of putative ssgA, ftsZ, ftsH, amfC, whiB, wblA1, wblA2, wblE, and a gene encoding sporulation-associated protein (sxim_29740), whereas the transcription of putative bldD and bldA genes was upregulated. Overexpression of adpASx led to significantly enhanced production of xiamenmycin but had detrimental effects on the production of PTMs. As expected, the transcriptional level of the xim gene cluster was upregulated, whereas the PTM gene cluster was downregulated. Moreover, AdpA Sx negatively regulated the transcription of its own gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that AdpA Sx can bind the promoter regions of structural genes of both the xim and PTM gene clusters as well as to the promoter regions of genes potentially involved in the cell growth and differentiation of S. xiamenensis 318. We report that an AdpA homologue has negative effects on morphological differentiation in S. xiamenensis 318, a finding confirmed when AdpA Sx was introduced into the heterologous host Streptomyces lividans TK24.IMPORTANCE AdpA is a key regulator of secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation in Streptomyces species. However, AdpA had not been reported to negatively regulate morphological differentiation. Here, we characterized the regulatory role of AdpA Sx in Streptomyces xiamenensis 318, which has a naturally streamlined genome. In this strain, AdpA Sx negatively regulated cell growth and morphological differentiation by directly controlling genes associated with these functions. AdpA Sx also bidirectionally controlled the biosynthesis of xiamenmycin and PTMs by directly regulating their gene clusters rather than through other regulators. Our findings provide additional evidence for the versatility of AdpA in regulating morphological differentiation and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces.
Project description:An anti-fibrotic compound produced by Streptomycesn xiamenensis, found in mangrove sediments, was investigated for possible therapeutic effects against fibrosis. The compound, N-[[3,4-dihydro-3S-hydroxy-2S-methyl-2-(4'R-methyl-3'S-pentenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-6-yl]carbonyl]-threonine (1), was isolated from crude extracts and its structure, including the absolute configuration was determined by extensive spectroscopic data analyses, Mosher's method, Marfey's reagent and quantum mechanical calculations. In terms of biological effects, this compound inhibits the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (WI26), blocks adhesion of human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) to a monolayer of WI26 cells, and reduces the contractile capacity of WI26 cells in three-dimensional free-floating collagen gels. Altogether, these data indicate that we have identified a bioactive alkaloid (1) with multiple inhibitory biological effects on lung excessive fibrotic characteristics, that are likely involved in fibrosis, suggesting that this molecule might indeed have therapeutic potential against fibrosis.
Project description:The production of secondary metabolites, while important for bioengineering purposes, presents a paradox in itself. Though widely existing in plants and bacteria, they have no definite physiological roles. Yet in both native habitats and laboratories, their production appears robust and follows apparent metabolic switches. We show in this work that the enzyme-catalysed process may improve the metabolic stability of the cells. The latter can be responsible for the overall metabolic behaviours such as dynamic metabolic landscape, metabolic switches and robustness, which can in turn affect the genetic formation of the organism in question. Mangrove-derived Streptomyces xiamenensis 318, with a relatively compact genome for secondary metabolism, is used as a model organism in our investigation. Integrated studies via kinetic metabolic modelling, transcriptase measurements and metabolic profiling were performed on this strain. Our results demonstrate that the secondary metabolites increase the metabolic fitness of the organism via stabilizing the underlying metabolic network. And the fluxes directing to NADH, NADPH, acetyl-CoA and glutamate provide the key switches for the overall and secondary metabolism. The information may be helpful for improving the xiamenmycin production on the strain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mortality due to tuberculosis (TB) has increased due to the development of drug resistance, the mechanisms of which have not been fully elucidated. Our research group identified a low expression of lipF gene in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates with drug resistance. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of lipase F (LipF) expression on mycobacterial drug resistance. RESULTS:The effects of expressing lipF from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mycobacterium smegmatis on resistance to antituberculosis drugs were determined with resazurin microtiter assay plate and growth kinetics. Functionality of ectopic LipF was confirmed. LipF expression reduced the rifampicin (RIF) and streptomycin (STR) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) from 3.12??g/mL to 1.6??g/mL and 0.25??g/mL to 0.06??g/mL respectively, moreover a reduced M. smegmatis growth in presence of RIF and STR compared with that of a control strain without LipF expression (p?<?0.05 and p?<?0.01) was shown. CONCLUSIONS:LipF expression was associated with increased RIF and STR sensitivity in mycobacteria. Reduced LipF expression may contribute to the development of RIF and STR resistance in Mycobacterium species. Our findings provide information pertinent to understanding mycobacterial drug resistance mechanisms.
Project description:Nonreplicating or dormant cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis constitute a challenge to tuberculosis (TB) therapy because of their tolerance or phenotypic resistance to most drugs. Here, we propose a simple model for testing drugs against nongrowing cells that exploits the 18b strain of M. tuberculosis, a streptomycin (STR)-dependent mutant. Optimal conditions were established that allowed 18b cells to replicate in the presence of STR and to survive, but not multiply, following withdrawal of STR. In the presence of the antibiotic, M. tuberculosis 18b was susceptible to the currently approved TB drugs, isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF), and to the experimental drugs TMC207, PA-824, meropenem (MER), benzothiazinone (BTZ), and moxifloxacin (MOXI). After STR depletion, the strain displayed greatly reduced susceptibility to the cell wall inhibitors INH and BTZ but showed increased susceptibility to RIF and PA-824, while MOXI and MER appeared equipotent under both conditions. The same potency ranking was found against nonreplicating M. tuberculosis 18b after in vivo treatment of chronically infected mice with five of these drugs. Despite the growth arrest, strain 18b retains significant metabolic activity in vitro, remaining positive in the resazurin reduction assay. Upon adaption to a 96-well format, this assay was shown to be suitable for high-throughput screening with strain 18b to find new inhibitors of dormant M. tuberculosis.
Project description:Treatment of Buruli ulcer, or Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, has shifted from surgical excision and skin grafting to antibiotic therapy usually with 8 weeks of daily rifampin (RIF) and streptomycin (STR). Although the results have been highly favorable, administration of STR requires intramuscular injection and carries the risk of side effects, such as hearing loss. Therefore, an all-oral, potentially less toxic, treatment regimen has been sought and encouraged by the World Health Organization. A combination of RIF plus clarithromycin (CLR) has been successful in patients first administered RIF+STR for 2 or 4 weeks. Based on evidence of efficacy of clofazimine (CFZ) in humans and mice with tuberculosis, we hypothesized that the combination of RIF+CFZ would be effective against M. ulcerans in the mouse footpad model of M. ulcerans disease because CFZ has similar MIC against M. tuberculosis and M. ulcerans. For comparison, mice were also treated with the gold standard of RIF+STR, the proposed RIF+CLR alternative regimen, or CFZ alone. Treatment was initiated after development of footpad swelling, when the bacterial burden was 4.64±0.14log10 CFU. At week 2 of treatment, the CFU counts had increased in untreated mice, remained essentially unchanged in mice treated with CFZ alone, decreased modestly with either RIF+CLR or RIF+CFZ, and decreased substantially with RIF+STR. At week 4, on the basis of footpad CFU counts, the combination regimens were ranked as follows: RIF+STR>RIF+CLR>RIF+CFZ. At weeks 6 and 8, none of the mice treated with these regimens had detectable CFU. Footpad swelling declined comparably with all of the combination regimens, as did the levels of detectable mycolactone A/B. In mice treated for only 6 weeks and followed up for 24 weeks, there were no relapses in RIF+STR treated mice, one (5%) relapse in RIF+CFZ-treated mice, but >50% in RIF+CLR treated mice. On the basis of these results, RIF+CFZ has potential as a continuation phase regimen for treatment of M. ulcerans disease.