Flower colour modification of chrysanthemum by suppression of F3'H and overexpression of the exogenous Senecio cruentus F3'5'H gene.
ABSTRACT: Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium) is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. They are typically used as cut flowers or potted plants. Chrysanthemum can exhibit red, purple, pink, yellow and white flowers, but lack bright red and blue flowers. In this study, we identified two chrysanthemum cultivars, C × morifolium 'LPi' and C × morifolium 'LPu', that only accumulate flavonoids in their ligulate flowers. Next, we isolated seven anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, namely CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmDFR, CmANS, CmCHI and Cm3GT in these cultivars. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses showed that CmF3'H was the most important enzyme required for cyanidin biosynthsis. To rebuild the delphinidin pathway, we downregulated CmF3'H using RNAi and overexpressed the Senecio cruentus F3'5'H (PCFH) gene in chrysanthemum. The resultant chrysanthemum demonstrated a significantly increased content of cyanidin and brighter red flower petals but did not accumulate delphinidin. These results indicated that CmF3'H in chrysanthemum is important for anthocyanin accumulation, and Senecio cruentus F3'5'H only exhibited F3'H activity in chrysanthemum but did not rebuild the delphinidin pathway to form blue flower chrysanthemum.
Project description:Anthocyanins are a group of secondary metabolites that colour fruit and flowers orange, red, purple or blue depending on a number of factors, such as the basic structure, co-pigmentation, metal ion complexation and vacuolar pH. The biosynthesis of anthocyanin is regulated at the transcriptional level by a group of transcription factors, the MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) complex. In this study, the purple colouration in several kiwifruit (Actinidia) species was identified and characterised as red cyanidin-based and blue delphinidin-based anthocyanins. The differential pigmentation in the skin and flesh can be attributed to the differential ratio of cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives accumulated in the total anthocyanin profile. The expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes chalcone synthase (CHS), flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (F3GT), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) is crucial for anthocyanin accumulation. However, the balance of expression of the F3'H and F3'5'H genes appears responsible for the ratio of cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives, while a lack of CHS, F3GT and MYB110 expression is responsible for a lack of total anthocyanins. The transcriptional regulation of the F3'H and F3'5'H promoters by the R2R3 MYB transcription factor MYB110 is markedly different in tobacco transient assays. When kiwifruit MYB10 or MYB110 are over-expressed in Actinidia chinensis both cyanidin-based and delphinidin-based anthocyanins are elevated, but F3'H and F3'5'H genes are not strongly correlated with MYB expression. These results suggest that the core kiwifruit anthocyanin pathway genes are dependent on characterised MYB transcription factors, while other regulatory proteins are more directly responsible for the expression of the F3'H and F3'5'H genes.
Project description:Various colored cultivars of ornamental flowers have been bred by hybridization and mutation breeding; however, the generation of blue flowers for major cut flower plants, such as roses, chrysanthemums, and carnations, has not been achieved by conventional breeding or genetic engineering. Most blue-hued flowers contain delphinidin-based anthocyanins; therefore, delphinidin-producing carnation, rose, and chrysanthemum flowers have been generated by overexpression of the gene encoding flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), the key enzyme for delphinidin biosynthesis. Even so, the flowers are purple/violet rather than blue. To generate true blue flowers, blue pigments, such as polyacylated anthocyanins and metal complexes, must be introduced by metabolic engineering; however, introducing and controlling multiple transgenes in plants are complicated processes. We succeeded in generating blue chrysanthemum flowers by introduction of butterfly pea UDP (uridine diphosphate)-glucose:anthocyanin 3',5'-O-glucosyltransferase gene, in addition to the expression of the Canterbury bells F3'5'H. Newly synthesized 3',5'-diglucosylated delphinidin-based anthocyanins exhibited a violet color under the weakly acidic pH conditions of flower petal juice and showed a blue color only through intermolecular association, termed "copigmentation," with flavone glucosides in planta. Thus, we achieved the development of blue color by a two-step modification of the anthocyanin structure. This simple method is a promising approach to generate blue flowers in various ornamental plants by metabolic engineering.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Phalaenopsis represents an important cash crop worldwide. Abundant flower colors observed in Phalaenopsis orchids range from red-purple, purple, purple-violet, violet, and violet-blue. However, violet-blue orchids are less bred than are those of other colors. Anthocyanin, vacuolar pH and metal ions are three major factors influencing flower color. This study aimed to identify the factors causing the violet-blue color in Phalaenopsis flowers and to analyze whether delphinidin accumulation and blue pigmentation formation can be achieved by transient overexpression of heterologous F3'5'H in Phalaenopsis. RESULTS:Cyanidin-based anthocyanin was highly accumulated in Phalaenopsis flowers with red-purple, purple, purple-violet, and violet to violet-blue color, but no true-blue color and no delphinidin was detected. Concomitantly, the expression of PeF3'H (Phalaenopsis equestrsis) was high, but that of PhF3'5'H (Phalaenopsis hybrid) was low or absent in various-colored Phalaenopsis flowers. Transient overexpression of DgF3'5'H (Delphinium grandiflorum) and PeMYB2 in a white Phalaenopsis cultivar resulted a 53.6% delphinidin accumulation and a novel blue color formation. In contrast, transient overexpression of both PhF3'5'H and PeMYB2 did not lead to delphinidin accumulation. Sequence analysis showed that the substrate recognition site 6 (SRS6) of PhF3'5'H was consistently different from DgF3'5'Hs at positions 5, 8 and 10. Prediction of molecular docking of the substrates showed a contrary binding direction of aromatic rings (B-ring) with the SRS6 domain of DgF3'5'H and PhF3'5'H. In addition, the pH values of violet-blue and purple Phalaenopsis flowers ranged from 5.33 to 5.54 and 4.77 to 5.04, respectively. Furthermore, the molar ratio of metal ions (including Al3+, Ca2+ and Fe3+) to anthocyanin in violet-blue color Phalaenopsis was 190-, 49-, and 51-fold higher, respectively, than those in purple-color Phalaenopsis. CONCLUSION:Cyanidin-based anthocyanin was detected in violet-blue color Phalaenopsis and was concomitant with a high pH value and high molar ratio of Al3+, Ca2+ and Fe3+ to anthocyanin content. Enhanced expression of delphinidin is needed to produce true-blue Phalaenopsis.
Project description:The cyanidin (Cy), pelargonidin (Pg), and delphinidin (Dp) pathways are the three major branching anthocyanin biosynthesis pathways that regulate flavonoid metabolic flux and are responsible for red, orange, and blue flower colors, respectively. Different species have evolved to develop multiple regulation mechanisms that form the branched pathways. In the current study, five Senecio cruentus cultivars with different colors were investigated. We found that the white and yellow cultivars do not accumulate anthocyanin and that the blue, pink, and carmine cultivars mainly accumulate Dp, Pg, and Cy in differing densities. Subsequent transcriptome analysis determined that there were 43 unigenes encoding anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in the blue cultivar. We also combined chemical and transcriptomic analyses to investigate the major metabolic pathways that are related to the observed differences in flower pigmentation in the series of S. cruentus. The results showed that mutations of the ScbHLH17 and ScCHI1/2 coding regions abolish anthocyanin formation in the white and the yellow cultivars; the competition of the ScF3'H1, ScF3'5'H, and ScDFR1/2 genes for naringenin determines the differences in branching metabolic flux of the Cy, Dp, and Pg pathways. Our findings provide new insights into the regulation of anthocyanin branching and also supplement gene resources (including ScF3'5 'H, ScF3'H, and ScDFRs) for flower color modification of ornamentals.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. RESULTS: B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B09121 and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele. Flower petals of B09121 contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins (malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside) common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased. F3'5'H cDNAs were cloned from Clark and B09121 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of B09121 had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position 210. The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants. CONCLUSIONS: B09121 may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean and G. soja. B09121 may be a useful tool for studies of the structural and functional properties of F3'5'H genes as well as investigations on the role of flower color in relation to adaptation of G. soja to natural habitats.
Project description:Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Structural genes of the phenyl-propanoid pathway which encode flavonoid 3'- and 3',5'-hydroxylases (F3'H and F3'5'H) have long been invoked to explain the biosynthesis of cyanidin- and delphinidin-based anthocyanin pigments in the so-called red cultivars of grapevine. The relative proportion of the two types of anthocyanins is largely under genetic control and determines the colour variation among red/purple/blue berry grape varieties and their corresponding wines. RESULTS:Gene fragments of VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H, that were isolated from Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' using degenerate primers designed on plant homologous genes, translated into 313 and 239 amino acid protein fragments, respectively, with up to 76% and 82% identity to plant CYP75 cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Putative function was assigned on the basis of sequence homology, expression profiling and its correlation with metabolite accumulation at ten different ripening stages. At the onset of colour transition, transcriptional induction of VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H was temporally coordinated with the beginning of anthocyanin biosynthesis, the expression being 2-fold and 50-fold higher, respectively, in red berries versus green berries. The peak of VvF3'5'H expression was observed two weeks later concomitantly with the increase of the ratio of delphinidin-/cyanidin-derivatives. The analysis of structural genomics revealed that two copies of VvF3'H are physically linked on linkage group no. 17 and several copies of VvF3'5'H are tightly clustered and embedded into a segmental duplication on linkage group no. 6, unveiling a high complexity when compared to other plant flavonoid hydroxylase genes known so far, mostly in ornamentals. CONCLUSION:We have shown that genes encoding flavonoid 3'- and 3',5'-hydroxylases are expressed in any tissues of the grape plant that accumulate flavonoids and, particularly, in skin of ripening red berries that synthesise mostly anthocyanins. The correlation between transcript profiles and the kinetics of accumulation of red/cyanidin- and blue/delphinidin-based anthocyanins indicated that VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H expression is consistent with the chromatic evolution of ripening bunches. Local physical maps constructed around the VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H loci should help facilitate the identification of the regulatory elements of each isoform and the future manipulation of grapevine and wine colour through agronomical, environmental and biotechnological tools.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cyclamen is a popular and economically significant pot plant crop in several countries. Molecular breeding technologies provide opportunities to metabolically engineer the well-characterized flavonoid biosynthetic pathway for altered anthocyanin profile and hence the colour of the flower. Previously we reported on a genetic transformation system for cyclamen. Our aim in this study was to change pigment profiles and flower colours in cyclamen through the suppression of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase, an enzyme in the flavonoid pathway that plays a determining role in the colour of anthocyanin pigments. RESULTS: A full-length cDNA putatively identified as a F3'5'H (CpF3'5'H) was isolated from cyclamen flower tissue. Amino acid and phylogeny analyses indicated the CpF3'5'H encodes a F3'5'H enzyme. Two cultivars of minicyclamen were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with an antisense CpF3'5'H construct. Flowers of the transgenic lines showed modified colour and this correlated positively with the loss of endogenous F3'5'H transcript. Changes in observed colour were confirmed by colorimeter measurements, with an overall loss in intensity of colour (C) in the transgenic lines and a shift in hue from purple to red/pink in one cultivar. HPLC analysis showed that delphinidin-derived pigment levels were reduced in transgenic lines relative to control lines while the percentage of cyanidin-derived pigments increased. Total anthocyanin concentration was reduced up to 80% in some transgenic lines and a smaller increase in flavonol concentration was recorded. Differences were also seen in the ratio of flavonol types that accumulated. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first report of genetic modification of the anthocyanin pathway in the commercially important species cyclamen. The effects of suppressing a key enzyme, F3'5'H, were wide ranging, extending from anthocyanins to other branches of the flavonoid pathway. The results illustrate the complexity involved in modifying a biosynthetic pathway with multiple branch points to different end products and provides important information for future flower colour modification experiments in cyclamen.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylases (F3'5'Hs) and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylases (F3'Hs) competitively control the synthesis of delphinidin and cyanidin, the precursors of blue and red anthocyanins. In most plants, F3'5'H genes are present in low-copy number, but in grapevine they are highly redundant. RESULTS:The first increase in F3'5'H copy number occurred in the progenitor of the eudicot clade at the time of the ? triplication. Further proliferation of F3'5'Hs has occurred in one of the paleologous loci after the separation of Vitaceae from other eurosids, giving rise to 15 paralogues within 650 kb. Twelve reside in 9 tandem blocks of ~35-55 kb that share 91-99% identity. The second paleologous F3'5'H has been maintained as an orphan gene in grapevines, and lacks orthologues in other plants. Duplicate F3'5'Hs have spatially and temporally partitioned expression profiles in grapevine. The orphan F3'5'H copy is highly expressed in vegetative organs. More recent duplicate F3'5'Hs are predominately expressed in berry skins. They differ only slightly in the coding region, but are distinguished in the structure of the promoter. Differences in cis-regulatory sequences of promoter regions are paralleled by temporal specialisation of gene transcription during fruit ripening. Variation in anthocyanin profiles consistently reflects changes in the F3'5'H mRNA pool across different cultivars. More F3'5'H copies are expressed at high levels in grapevine varieties with 93-94% of 3'5'-OH anthocyanins. In grapevines depleted in 3'5'-OH anthocyanins (15-45%), fewer F3'5'H copies are transcribed, and at lower levels. Conversely, only two copies of the gene encoding the competing F3'H enzyme are present in the grape genome; one copy is expressed in both vegetative and reproductive organs at comparable levels among cultivars, while the other is transcriptionally silent. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that expansion and subfunctionalisation of F3'5'Hs have increased the complexity and diversification of the fruit colour phenotype among red grape varieties.
Project description:Fruit color is an important commercial characteristic of eggplant (<i>Solanum melongena</i> L.), which affects both the profits of growers and consumer choice. Two eggplant inbred lines were discovered: "Z," which is a light purple color under the fruit calyx, with purple on the fruit apex; and "L," fruits of which are green under the calyx and at the apex. To determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of fruit peel color under the calyx on that at the fruit apex, we conducted a combined transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses of the Z and L inbred eggplant lines. Transcriptome analysis of peel samples from three fruit regions (under the calyx, the apex, and the middle surface) of each line was conducted by RNA sequencing, and generated a total of 791,512,404 clean reads from 18 samples (three biological replicates). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs; n = 424) were identified in comparisons of peel samples from the three sites of L line fruits. Gene ontology analysis showed that "catalytic activity" was extremely significantly enriched. Further, DEGs (n = 8) were enriched in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway "flavonoid biosynthesis." Levels of <i>CHI</i>, <i>LDOX</i>, <i>F3'5'H</i>, and <i>dihydroflavonol reductase</i> were higher in the Z line than the L line. In addition, metabolome analysis showed that, 10 differentially accumulated metabolites were detected between peel samples from the apex of L and Z line fruit. The most significant DAM was delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside (Z line content, 34.89 μg/g vs<i>.</i> L line content 0.01 μg/g). Combined transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses indicated that <i>DFR</i> and <i>F3'5'H</i> were closely related to content of the metabolites, cyanidin and delphinidin, and that some downstream metabolites differed significantly between the L and Z lines. Content levels of delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were markedly down-regulated in the L line. Altogether, increased <i>CHI</i> levels could up-regulate the downstream genes, <i>LDOX, F3'5'H</i>, and <i>DFR</i>, which further lead to increasing the content of delphindin. Thus, the uniform purple color was presented at the apex of fruits in Z plants. These findings not only identify key candidate genes, but will also improve understanding of the genetics and the efficiency of breeding for eggplant fruit color.