The high-affinity phosphodiesterase BcPde2 has impact on growth, differentiation and virulence of the phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea.
ABSTRACT: Components of the cAMP signaling pathway, such as the adenylate cyclase Bac and the protein kinase A (PKA) were shown to affect growth, morphogenesis and differentiation as well as virulence of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. While loss of Bac caused drastically reduced intracellular cAMP levels, deletion of the PKA resulted in extremely increased cAMP concentrations. To regulate the intracellular level of the second messenger cAMP, a balance between its biosynthesis through adenylate cyclase activity and its hydrolysis by phosphodiesterases (PDEs) is crucial. Here, we report the functional characterization of the two PDEs in the ascomycete B. cinerea, BcPde1 and BcPde2. While deletion of bcpde2 resulted in severely affected vegetative growth, conidiation, germination and virulence, the bcpde1 deletion strain displayed a wild-type-like phenotype. However, the double bcpde1/2 deletion mutant exhibited an even stronger phenotype. Localization studies revealed that BcPde2 accumulates at the plasma membrane, but is also localized in the cytoplasm. BcPde1 was shown to be distributed in the cytoplasm as well, but also accumulates in so far unknown mobile vesicles. Overexpression of bcpde1 in the ?bcpde2 background rescued the deletion phenotype, and in addition an increased transcript level of bcpde1 in the ?bcpde2 strain was observed, indicating redundant functions of both PDEs and an interdependent gene expression.
Project description:Based on intracellular second messenger cAMP, the cyclic AMP-protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathway transforms extracellular stimuli to activate effectors and downstream signaling components, mediating physiological processes in filamentous fungi. The concentration of intracellular cAMP was regulated by adenylate cyclase biosynthesis and cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDEs) hydrolysis, which mediate signal transduction and termination. In this study, we used a gene deletion and complementary strategy to characterize the functions of <i>AaPdel</i> and <i>AaPdeh</i> genes, which encoded low-affinity PDEs (Pdel) and high-affinity PDEs (Pdeh), respectively, in <i>Alternaria alternata. AaPdel</i>, but not <i>AaPdeh</i>, was found to be a key regulator in conidiation and pathogenesis in <i>A. alternata</i>. ?<i>AaPdel</i> showed defects in conidiation, producing approximately 65% reduced conidiation and forming lowly pigmented aberrant structures. In response to osmotic stress, ?<i>AaPdel</i> was more sensitive to non-ionic osmotic stress than ionic osmotic stress. Moreover, <i>AaPdel</i> deletion mutants had defects in vegetative growth and hyphal growth. Further analyses showed that the high chitin content of ?<i>AaPdel</i> might account for the sensitivity to Congo red. Based on the attenuated pathogenicity and lowly pigmented aberrant structures, the laccase activity analysis found that both <i>AaPdel</i> and <i>AaPdeh</i> were involved in laccase activity regulation. Our data further support the PKA-mediated cAMP signaling pathway, as we have found that <i>AaPdel</i> was involved in intracellular cAMP levels in <i>A. alternata.</i>
Project description:Botrytis cinerea is a pathogenic fungus that causes gray mold disease in a broad range of crops. The high intraspecific variability of B. cinerea makes control of this fungus very difficult. Here, we isolated a variant B05.10M strain from wild-type B05.10. The B05.10M strain showed serious defects in mycelial growth, spore and sclerotia production, and virulence. Using whole-genome resequencing and site-directed mutagenesis, a single nucleotide mutation in the adenylate cyclase (BAC) gene that results in an amino acid residue (from serine to proline, S1407P) was shown to be the cause of various defects in the B05.10M strain. When we further investigated the effect of S1407 on BAC function, the S1407P mutation in bac showed decreased accumulation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP), and the growth defect could be partially restored by exogenous cAMP, indicating that the S1407P mutation reduced the enzyme activity of BAC. Moreover, the S1407P mutation exhibited decreased spore germination rate and infection cushion formation, and increased sensitivity to cell wall stress, which closely related to fungal development and virulence. Taken together, our study indicates that the S1407 site of bac plays an important role in vegetative growth, sclerotial formation, conidiation and virulence in B. cinerea.
Project description:The cAMP-PKA pathway consists of an extracellular ligand-sensitive G protein-coupled receptor, a G protein signal transmitter, and the effector, adenylate cyclase, of which the product, cAMP, acts as an intracellular second messenger. cAMP activates PKA by dissociating the regulatory subunit from the catalytic subunit. Yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) contain a glucose/sucrose-sensitive seven-transmembrane domain receptor, Gpr1, that was proposed to activate adenylate cyclase through the G(alpha) protein Gpa2. Consistently, we show here that adenylate cyclase binds only to active, GTP-bound Gpa2. Two related kelch-repeat proteins, Krh1/Gpb2 and Krh2/Gpb1, are associated with Gpa2 and were suggested to act as G(beta) mimics for Gpa2, based on their predicted seven-bladed beta-propeller structure. However, we find that although Krh1 associates with both GDP and GTP-bound Gpa2, it displays a preference for GTP-Gpa2. The strong down-regulation of PKA targets by Krh1 and Krh2 does not require Gpa2 but is strictly dependent on both the catalytic and the regulatory subunits of PKA. Krh1 directly interacts with PKA by means of the catalytic subunits, and Krh1/2 stimulate the association between the catalytic and regulatory subunits in vivo. Indeed, both a constitutively active GPA2 allele and deletion of KRH1/2 lower the cAMP requirement of PKA for growth. We propose that active Gpa2 relieves the inhibition imposed by the kelch-repeat proteins on PKA, thereby bypassing adenylate cyclase for direct regulation of PKA. Importantly, we show that Krh1/2 also enhance the association between mouse R and C subunits, suggesting that Krh control of PKA has been evolutionarily conserved.
Project description:The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe responds to environmental glucose by activating adenylate cyclase. The resulting cAMP signal activates protein kinase A (PKA). PKA inhibits glucose starvation-induced processes, such as conjugation and meiosis, and the transcription of the fbp1 gene that encodes the gluconeogenic enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. We previously identified a collection of git genes required for glucose repression of fbp1 transcription, including pka1/git6, encoding the PKA catalytic subunit, git2/cyr1, encoding adenylate cyclase, and six "upstream" genes required for adenylate cyclase activation. The git8 gene, identical to gpa2, encodes the alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric guanine-nucleotide binding protein (Galpha) while git5 encodes a Gbeta subunit. Multicopy suppression studies with gpa2(+) previously indicated that S. pombe adenylate cyclase activation may resemble that of the mammalian type II enzyme with sequential activation by Galpha followed by Gbetagamma. We show here that an activated allele of gpa2 (gpa2(R176H), carrying a mutation in the coding region for the GTPase domain) fully suppresses mutations in git3 and git5, leading to a refinement in our model. We describe the cloning of git3 and show that it encodes a putative seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor. A git3 deletion confers the same phenotypes as deletions of other components of the PKA pathway, including a germination delay, constitutive fbp1 transcription, and starvation-independent conjugation. Since the git3 deletion is fully suppressed by the gpa2(R176H) allele with respect to fbp1 transcription, git3 appears to encode a G protein-coupled glucose receptor responsible for adenylate cyclase activation in S. pombe.
Project description:Neurons undergo long term, activity dependent changes that are mediated by activation of second messenger cascades. In particular, calcium-dependent activation of the cyclic-AMP/Protein kinase A signaling cascade has been implicated in several developmental processes including cell survival, axonal outgrowth, and axonal refinement. The biochemical link between calcium influx and the activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway is primarily mediated through adenylate cyclases. Here, dual imaging of intracellular calcium concentration and PKA activity was used to assay the role of different classes of calcium-dependent adenylate cyclases (ACs) in the activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Surprisingly, depolarization-induced calcium-dependent PKA transients persist in barrelless mice lacking AC1, the predominant calcium-dependent adenylate cyclase in RGCs, as well as in double knockout mice lacking both AC1 and AC8. Furthermore, in a subset of RGCs, depolarization-induced PKA transients persist during the inhibition of all transmembrane adenylate cyclases. These results are consistent with the existence of a soluble adenylate cyclase that plays a role in calcium-dependent activation of the cAMP/PKA cascade in neurons.
Project description:Schizosaccharomyces pombe senses environmental glucose through a cAMP-signaling pathway, activating cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). This requires nine git (glucose insensitive transcription) genes that encode adenylate cyclase, the PKA catalytic subunit, and seven "upstream" proteins required for glucose-triggered adenylate cyclase activation, including three heterotrimeric G-protein subunits and its associated receptor. We describe here the cloning and characterization of the git1+ gene. Git1 is distantly related to a small group of uncharacterized fungal proteins, including a second S. pombe protein that is not functionally redundant with Git1, as well as to members of the UNC-13/Munc13 protein family. Mutations in git1+ demonstrate functional roles for the two most highly conserved regions of the protein, the C2 domain and the MHD2 Munc homology domain. Cells lacking Git1 are viable, but display phenotypes associated with cAMP-signaling defects, even in strains expressing a mutationally activated G alpha-subunit, which activates adenylate cyclase. These cells possess reduced basal cAMP levels and fail to mount a cAMP response to glucose. In addition, Git1 and adenylate cyclase physically interact and partially colocalize in the cell. Thus, Git1 is a critical component of the S. pombe glucose/cAMP pathway.
Project description:Noradrenaline (NA)-stimulated beta-adrenoreceptors activate adenylate cyclase via excitatory G-proteins (Gs). Activated adenylate cyclase in turn promotes the production of cAMP. Critical roles of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) in divergent cellular functions have been shown, including memory, learning and neural plasticity. Ocular dominance plasticity (ODP) is strongly expressed in early postnatal life and usually absent in the mature visual cortex. Here, we asked whether the activation of cAMP-dependent PKA could restore ODP to the aplastic visual cortex of adult cats. Concurrent with brief monocular deprivation, each of the following cAMP-related drugs was directly and continuously infused in the adult visual cortex: cholera toxin (a Gs-protein stimulant), forskolin (a Gs-protein-independent activator of adenylate cyclase) and dibutyryl cAMP (a cAMP analogue). We found that the ocular dominance distribution became W-shaped, the proportion of binocular cells being significantly lower than that in respective controls. We concluded that the activation of cAMP cascades rapidly restores ODP to the adult visual cortex, though moderately. The finding further extends the original hypothesis that the NA-beta-adrenoreceptors system is a neurochemical mechanism of cortical plasticity.
Project description:Aspergillus flavus is one of the most important opportunistic pathogens of crops and animals. The carcinogenic mycotoxin, aflatoxins produced by this pathogen cause a health problem to human and animals. Since cyclic AMP signaling controls a range of physiological processes, like fungal development and infection when responding to extracellular stimuli in fungal pathogens, in this study, we investigated the function of adenylate cyclase, a core component of cAMP signaling, in aflatoxins biosynthesis and virulence on plant seeds in A. flavus. A gene replacement strategy was used to generate the deletion mutant of acyA that encodes the adenylate cyclase. Severe defects in fungal growth, sporulation and sclerotia formation were observed in the acyA deletion mutant. The defect in radical growth could be partially rescued by exogenous cAMP analog. The acyA mutant was also significantly reduced in aflatoxins production and virulence. Similar to the former studies in other fungi, The acyA mutant showed enhancing tolerance to oxidative stress, but more sensitive to heat stress. Overall, the pleiotropic defects of the acyA deletion mutant indicates that the cAMP-PKA pathway is involved in fungal development, aflatoxins biosynthesis and plant seed invasion in A. flavus.
Project description:The Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbp1 gene is transcriptionally repressed by protein kinase A (PKA) that is activated by extracellular glucose via a cAMP-signaling pathway. We previously used an fbp1-ura4 reporter that places uracil biosynthesis under the control of the glucose-sensing pathway to identify mutations in genes of the cAMP pathway. More recently, this reporter has been used in high throughput screens for small molecule inhibitors of heterologously-expressed cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) that hydrolyse cAMP to 5' AMP. Here we show that strains lacking the adenylyl cyclase gene respond to either exogenous cAMP or cGMP to activate PKA, thus regulating fbp1-ura4 expression and other PKA-regulated processes such as conjugation and the nuclear export of an Rst2-GFP fusion protein. Expression of cGMP-specific PDEs or ones that hydrolyse both cAMP and cGMP increases the amount of exogenous cGMP required to activate PKA in order to repress fbp1-ura4 expression, creating conditions that allow detection of inhibitors of these PDEs. As proof of this concept, we screened a collection of compounds previously identified as inhibitors of cAMP-specific PDE4 or PDE7 enzymes for their ability to inhibit the mammalian cGMP-specific PDE5A enzyme. We identified compound BC76, which inhibits PDE5A in an in vitro enzyme assay with an IC(50) of 232nM. Further yeast-based assays show that BC76 inhibits PDE1, PDE4, PDE5, PDE8, PDE10 and PDE11, thus demonstrating the utility of this system for detecting and characterising inhibitors of either cAMP- or cGMP-metabolising PDEs.
Project description:Activation of protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase; PKA) triggers insulin secretion in the beta-cell. Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), a bacterial exotoxin with adenylate cyclase activity, and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, both dose-dependently increased insulin secretion in the presence, but not the absence, of glucose in insulin-secreting betaTC3 cells. The stimulation of cAMP release by either agent was dose-dependent but glucose-independent. Omission of extracellular Ca(2+) totally abolished the effects of ACT on insulin secretion and cytosolic cAMP accumulation. ACT and forskolin caused rapid and dramatic increases in cytosolic Ca(2+), which were blocked by nifedipine and the omission of extracellular Ca(2+). Omission of glucose completely blocked the effects of forskolin and partially blocked the effects of ACT on cytosolic Ca(2+). PKA alpha, beta and gamma catalytic subunits (Calpha, Cbeta and Cgamma respectively) were identified in betaTC6 cells by confocal microscopy. Glucose and glucagon-like polypeptide-1 (GLP-1) caused translocation of Calpha to the nucleus and of Cbeta to the plasma membrane and the nucleus, but did not affect the distribution of Cgamma. In conclusion, glucose and GLP-1 amplify insulin secretion via cAMP production and PKAbeta activation.