Vascularization pattern after ischemic stroke is different in control versus diabetic rats: relevance to stroke recovery.
ABSTRACT: Pre-existing diabetes mellitus worsens brain functionality in ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that type 2 diabetic rats exhibit enhanced dysfunctional cerebral neovascularization and when these rats are subjected to cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury develop hemorrhagic transformation and greater neurological deficits. However, our knowledge of vascular and functional plasticity during the recovery phase of diabetic stroke is limited. This study tested the hypothesis that vascular repair is impaired in the poststroke period in diabetes mellitus, and this is associated with poor sensorimotor and cognitive function. We further hypothesized that glycemic control prevents impaired vascularization and improves functional outcome in diabetes mellitus.Vascularization was assessed in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres in control, diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus plus metformin groups 14 days after ischemic reperfusion injury, as well as in respective sham controls. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-stained vasculature was achieved by confocal microscopy, and stereological parameters, including vascular volume and surface area, were measured. Astrogliosis was determined by glial fibrillary acidic protein staining. The relative rates of sensorimotor recovery, cognitive decline, and spontaneous activity were assessed.Vascular density in the peri-infarct area was significantly reduced in diabetes mellitus, whereas there was reparative neovascularization in control rats. Astroglial swelling and reactivity were more pronounced in diabetic stroke compared with control stroke. Diabetes mellitus blunted sensorimotor recovery and also exacerbated anxiety-like symptoms and cognitive deficits. Glycemic control started after stroke partially prevented these changes.Diabetes mellitus impairs poststroke reparative neovascularization and impedes the recovery. Glycemic control after stroke can improve neurovascular repair and improve functional outcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. Rising hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are associated with microvascular diabetes mellitus complication development; however, this relationship has not been established for stroke risk, a macrovascular complication. METHODS AND RESULTS:We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational cohort and nested case-control cohort studies assessing the association between rising HbA1c levels and stroke risk in adults (?18 years old) with and without type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Random-effects model meta-analyses were used to calculate pooled adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and their precision. The systematic review yielded 36 articles, of which 29 articles (comprising n=532 779 participants) were included in our meta-analysis. Compared to non-diabetes mellitus range HbA1c (<5.7%), diabetes mellitus range HbA1c (?6.5%) was associated with an increased risk of first-ever stroke with average HR (95% confidence interval) of 2.15 (1.76, 2.63), whereas pre-diabetes mellitus range HbA1c (5.7-6.5%) was not (average HR [95% confidence interval], 1.19 [0.87, 1.62]). For every 1% HbA1c increment (or equivalent), the average HR (95% confidence interval) for first-ever stroke was 1.12 (0.91, 1.39) in non-diabetes mellitus cohorts and 1.17 (1.09, 1.25) in diabetes mellitus cohorts. For every 1% HbA1c increment, both non-diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus cohorts had a higher associated risk of first-ever ischemic stroke with average HR (95% confidence interval) of 1.49 (1.32, 1.69) and 1.24 (1.11, 1.39), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:A rising HbA1c level is associated with increased first-ever stroke risk in cohorts with a diabetes mellitus diagnosis and increased risk of first-ever ischemic stroke in non-diabetes mellitus cohorts. These findings suggest that more intensive HbA1c glycemic control targets may be required for optimal ischemic stroke prevention.
Project description:Background and Purpose- Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major comorbidity that exacerbates ischemic brain injury and worsens functional outcome after stroke. T2DM is known to aggravate white matter (WM) impairment, but the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that T2DM impedes poststroke WM recovery by suppressing both oligodendrogenesis and beneficial microglia/macrophage responses. Methods- Permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed in wild-type, homozygous diabetic db/db, and heterozygous db/+ mice. The adhesive removal, open field, and Morris water maze tests were used to assess neurobehavioral outcomes. Neuronal tissue loss, WM damage, oligodendrogenesis, and microglia/macrophage responses were evaluated up to 35 days after stroke. The functional integrity of WM was measured by electrophysiology. Primary microglia-oligodendrocyte cocultures were used for additional mechanistic studies. Results- T2DM exacerbated structural damage and impaired conduction of compound action potentials in WM 35 days after stroke. The deterioration in WM integrity correlated with poor sensorimotor performance. Furthermore, T2DM impaired the proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and the generation of new myelinating oligodendrocytes. T2DM also promoted a shift of microglia/macrophage phenotype toward the proinflammatory modality. Coculture studies confirmed that microglia/macrophage polarization toward the proinflammatory phenotype under high glucose conditions suppressed oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation. Conclusions- Deterioration of WM integrity and impairments in oligodendrogenesis after stroke are associated with poor long-term functional outcomes in experimental diabetes mellitus. High glucose concentrations may shift microglia/macrophage polarization toward a proinflammatory phenotype, significantly impairing oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation and WM repair.
Project description:Background and Purpose- The complexity and heterogeneity of stroke, as well as the associated comorbidities, may render neuroprotective drugs less efficacious in clinical practice. Therefore, the development of targeted therapies to specific patient subsets has become a high priority in translational stroke research. Ischemic stroke with type 2 diabetes mellitus has a nearly double mortality rate and worse neurological outcomes. In the present study, we tested our hypothesis that rFGF21 (recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 21) administration is beneficial for improving neurological outcomes of ischemic stroke with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods- Type 2 diabetes mellitus db/db and nondiabetic genetic control db/+ mice were subjected into permanent focal ischemia of distal middle cerebral artery occlusion, we examined the effects of poststroke administration with rFGF21 in systemic metabolic disorders, inflammatory gatekeeper PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?) activity at 3 days, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and microglia/macrophage activation at 7 days in the perilesion cortex, and last neurological function deficits, ischemic brain infarction, and white matter integrity up to 14 days after stroke of db/db mice. Results- After permanent focal ischemia, diabetic db/db mice presented confounding pathological features, including metabolic dysregulation, more severe brain damage, and neurological impairment, especially aggravated proinflammatory response and white matter integrity loss. However, daily rFGF21 treatment initiated at 6 hours after stroke for 14 days significantly normalized systemic metabolic disorders, rescued PPAR? activity decline, inhibited proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression, and M1-like microglia/macrophage activation in the brain. Importantly, rFGF21 also significantly reduced white matter integrity loss, ischemic brain infarction, and neurological function deficits up to 14 days after stroke. The potential mechanisms of rFGF21 may in part consist of potent systematic metabolic regulation and PPAR?-activation promotion-associated antiproinflammatory roles in the brain. Conclusions- Taken together, these results suggest rFGF21 might be a novel and potent candidate of the disease-modifying strategy for treating ischemic stroke with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common metabolic disease among the middle-aged and older population, which leads to an increase of stroke incidence and poor stroke recovery. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of DM on brain damage and on ischemic brain repair after stroke in aging animals.DM was induced in middle-aged rats (13 months) by administration of nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Rats with confirmed hyperglycemia status 30 days after nicotinamide-streptozotocin injection and age-matched non-DM rats were subjected to embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion.Middle-aged rats subjected to nicotinamide-streptozotocin injection became hyperglycemic and developed cognitive deficits 2 months after induction of DM. Histopathologic analysis revealed that there was sporadic vascular disruption, including cerebral microvascular thrombosis, blood-brain barrier leakage, and loss of paravascular aquaporin-4 in the hippocampi. Importantly, middle-aged DM rats subjected to stroke had exacerbated sensorimotor and cognitive deficits compared with age-matched non-DM ischemic rats during stroke recovery. Compared with age-matched non-DM ischemic rats, DM ischemic rats exhibited aggravated neurovascular disruption in the bilateral hippocampi and white matter, suppressed stroke-induced neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis, and impaired dendritic/spine plasticity. However, DM did not enlarge infarct volume.Our data suggest that DM exacerbates neurovascular damage and hinders brain repair processes, which likely contribute to the impairment of stroke recovery.
Project description:Diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) is a consistently documented risk factor for ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).The purpose of this study was to assess the association between duration of diabetes and elevated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) with risk of stroke among diabetic patients with AF.We assessed this association in the ATRIA (Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation) California community-based cohort of AF patients (study years 1996 to 2003) where all events were clinician adjudicated. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the rate of ischemic stroke in diabetic patients according to time-varying measures of estimated duration of diabetes (?3 years compared with <3 years) and HbA1c values (?9.0% and 7.0% to 8.9% compared with <7.0%), focusing on periods where patients were not anticoagulated.There were 2,101 diabetic patients included in the duration analysis: 40% with duration <3 years and 60% with duration ?3 years at baseline. Among 1,933 diabetic patients included in the HbA1c analysis, 46% had HbA1c <7.0%, 36% between 7.0% and 8.9%, and 19% ?9.0% at baseline. Duration of diabetes ?3 years was associated with an increased rate of ischemic stroke compared with duration <3 years (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.74, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10 to 2.76). The increased stroke rate was observed in older (age ?75 years) and younger (age <75 years) individuals. Neither poor glycemic control (HbA1c ?9.0%, adjusted HR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.57 to 1.92) nor moderately increased HbA1c (7.0% to 8.9%, adjusted HR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.77 to 1.91) were significantly associated with an increased rate of ischemic stroke compared with patients who had HbA1c <7.0%.Duration of diabetes is a more important predictor of ischemic stroke than glycemic control in patients who have diabetes and AF.
Project description:Background: We investigated whether prestroke glycemic variability, represented by glycated albumin (GA), affects the initial stroke severity and infarct volume in diabetic patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: We evaluated a total of 296 acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes mellitus who were hospitalized within 48 h of stroke onset. GA was measured in all acute ischemic stroke patients consecutively during the study period. The primary outcome was the initial National Institute Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. The secondary outcome was infarct volume on diffusion-weighted imaging, which was performed within 24 h of stroke onset. Higher GA (?16.0%) was determined to reflect glycemic fluctuation prior to ischemic stroke. Results: The number of patients with higher GA was 217 (73.3%). The prevalence of a severe initial NIHSS score (>14) was higher in patients with higher GA than in those with lower GA (3.8% vs. 15.7%, p = 0.01). The proportion of participants in the highest quartile of infarct volume was higher in the higher GA group (11.4% vs. 36.4%, p < 0.001). A multivariable analysis showed that higher GA was significantly associated with a severe NIHSS score (odds ratio, [95% confidence interval], 7.99 [1.75-36.45]) and large infarct volume (3.76 [1.05-13.45]). Conclusions: Prestroke glucose variability estimated by GA was associated with an increased risk of severe initial stroke severity and large infarct volume in acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Emerging evidence suggests that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), currently the only FDA-approved medication for ischemic stroke, exerts important biological actions on the CNS besides its well-known thrombolytic effect. In this study, we investigated the role of tPA on primary neurons in culture and on brain recovery and plasticity after ischemic stroke in mice. Treatment with recombinant tPA stimulated axonal growth in culture, an effect independent of its protease activity and achieved through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. After permanent focal cerebral ischemia, tPA knockout mice developed more severe sensorimotor and cognitive deficits and greater axonal and myelin injury than wild-type mice, suggesting that endogenously expressed tPA promotes long-term neurological recovery after stroke. In tPA knockout mice, intranasal administration of recombinant tPA protein 6 hours poststroke and 7 more times at 2 d intervals mitigated white matter injury, improved axonal conduction, and enhanced neurological recovery. Consistent with the proaxonal growth effects observed in vitro, exogenous tPA delivery increased poststroke axonal sprouting of corticobulbar and corticospinal tracts, which might have contributed to restoration of neurological functions. Notably, recombinant mutant tPA-S478A lacking protease activity (but retaining the EGF-like domain) was as effective as wild-type tPA in rescuing neurological functions in tPA knockout stroke mice. These findings demonstrate that tPA improves long-term functional outcomes in a clinically relevant stroke model, likely by promoting brain plasticity through EGFR signaling. Therefore, treatment with the protease-dead recombinant tPA-S478A holds particular promise as a neurorestorative therapy, as the risk for triggering intracranial hemorrhage is eliminated and tPA-S478A can be delivered intranasally hours after stroke.
Project description:The main aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of ischemic stroke among diabetic patients registered in the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR) database. A cross-sectional sample of 62,681 diabetic patients aged ?25 years was used to calculate ischemic stroke prevalence and its risk factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the roles of different risk factors. The prevalence of ischemic stroke was 4.42% and was higher in the older age group with longer diabetes duration. Poor glycemic control and the presence of chronic diabetes complications were associated with a high risk of ischemic stroke. History of smoking and type 2 diabetes were more frequent among stroke patients. Obesity significantly decreased the risk for ischemic stroke. Regression analysis for ischemic stroke risk factors proved that age ?45 years, male gender, hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes duration ?10 years, insulin use, and hyperlipidemia were significant independent risk factors for ischemic stroke. We conclude that ischemic stroke is prevalent among diabetic individuals, particularly among those with type 2 diabetes. Good glycemic, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia control, in addition to smoking cessation, are the cornerstones to achieve a significant reduction in ischemic stroke risk.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular events, including ischemic stroke. Moreover, ischemic stroke appears to be more severe in these patients and to be associated with less favorable outcomes. However, strict glycemic control does not appear to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. On the other hand, newer glucose-lowering agents (glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors) reduced the risk of cardiovascular events in recent randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Semaglutide also reduced the risk of ischemic stroke. These benefits are independent of glucose lowering and might be due to the favorable effects of these agents on body weight and blood pressure. Pioglitazone also reduced the risk of recurrent stroke in patients with insulin resistance or type 2 DM but the unfavorable safety profile limits its use. In contrast, sulfonylureas and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors have a neutral effect on cardiovascular morbidity and might be less attractive options in this high-risk population.
Project description:The relation between diabetes mellitus, glycemic control, and ischemic and bleeding events is poorly described in outpatients with stable coronary artery disease receiving modern secondary prevention.The multicenter CORONOR (Suivi d'une cohorte de patients Coronariens stables en région Nord-pas-de-Calais) registry enrolled 4184 outpatients with stable coronary artery disease, including 1297 patients (31%) with diabetes mellitus. A recent glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was available for 1146 diabetic patients, and 48% had HbA1c ?7%. We analyzed 5-year ischemic (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) and bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium ?3) outcomes, according to diabetic status and glycemic control. When compared with nondiabetic patients, the ischemic risk was higher in diabetic patients with HbA1c ?7% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-1.93) but not in diabetic patients with HbA1c <7% (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.83-1.36). Diabetic patients with HbA1c ?7% were at higher risk than diabetic patients with HbA1c <7% (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.09-1.98). When compared with nondiabetic patients, the bleeding risk was higher in diabetic patients, with HbA1c <7% (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.04-2.67) and in those with HbA1c ?7% (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.07-2.86). No difference in bleeding risk was observed between diabetic patients with HbA1c ?7% versus those with HbA1c <7%. Similar results were obtained when adjusted for baseline characteristics.The 5-year increased risk of ischemic events in patients with stable coronary artery disease with diabetes mellitus was restricted to those with HbA1c ?7%. By contrast, the increase in bleeding risk associated with diabetes mellitus was observed in patients with HbA1c ?7% and in patients with HbA1c <7%. The level of HbA1c should be taken into account for future research and may help physicians to manage prolonged antithrombotic therapies in this high-risk subgroup.