Morphine stimulates platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? signalling in mesangial cells in vitro and transgenic sickle mouse kidney in vivo.
ABSTRACT: Pain and renal dysfunction occur in sickle cell disease. Morphine used to treat pain also co-activates platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGFR-?), which can adversely affect renal disease. We examined the influence of morphine in mesangial cells in vitro and in mouse kidneys in vivo.> Mouse mesangial cells treated with 1 ?M morphine in vitro or kidneys of transgenic homozygous or hemizygous sickle or control mice (n=3 for each), treated with morphine (0.75, 1.4, 2.14, 2.8, 3.6, and 4.3 mg kg(-1) day(-1) in two divided doses during the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth weeks, respectively), were used. Western blotting, bromylated deoxy uridine incorporation-based cell proliferation assay, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescent microscopy, and blood/urine chemistry were used to analyse signalling, cell proliferation, opioid receptor (OP) expression, and renal function.Morphine stimulated phosphorylation of PDGFR-? and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) to the same extent as induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and promoted a two-fold increase in mesangial cell proliferation. The PDGFR-? inhibitor, AG1296, OP antagonists, and silencing of ?- and ?-OP abrogated morphine-induced MAPK/ERK phosphorylation and proliferation by ~100%. Morphine treatment of transgenic mice resulted in phosphorylation of PDGFR-?, MAPK/ERK, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) in the kidneys. Morphine inhibited micturition and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) clearance and increased BUN and urinary protein in sickle mice.Morphine stimulates mitogenic signalling leading to mesangial cell proliferation and promotes renal dysfunction in sickle mice.
Project description:Activated fibroblasts are deemed the main executors of organ fibrosis. However, regulation of the pathologic functions of these cells <i>in vivo</i> is poorly understood. PDGF receptor <i>?</i> (PDGFR<i>?</i>) is highly expressed in activated pericytes, a main source of fibroblasts. Studies using a PDGFR<i>?</i> promoter-driven Cre system to delete <i>?</i>v integrins in activated fibroblasts identified these integrins as core regulators of fibroblast activity across solid organs, including the kidneys. Here, we used the same PDGFR<i>?</i>-Cre line to isolate and study renal fibroblasts <i>ex vivo</i> We found that renal fibroblasts express three <i>?</i>v integrins, namely <i>?</i>v<i>?</i>1, <i>?</i>v<i>?</i>3, and <i>?</i>v<i>?</i>5. Blockade of <i>?</i>v<i>?</i>1 prevented direct binding of fibroblasts to the latency-associated peptide of TGF-<i>?</i>1 and prevented activation of the latent TGF-<i>?</i> complex. Continuous administration of a recently described potent small molecule inhibitor of <i>?</i>v<i>?</i>1, compound 8, starting the day of unilateral ureteral obstruction operation, inhibited collagen deposition in the kidneys of mice 14 days later. Compound 8 also effectively attenuated renal failure, as measured by BUN levels in mice fed an adenine diet known to cause renal injury followed by fibrosis. Inhibition of <i>?</i>v<i>?</i>1 integrin could thus hold promise as a therapeutic intervention in CKD characterized by renal fibrosis.
Project description:Tbx18 has been shown to be essential for ureteral development. However, it remains unclear whether it plays a direct role in kidney development. Here we addressed this by focusing on examining the pattern and contribution of Tbx18+ cells in the kidney and its role in kidney vascular development. Expression studies and genetic lineage tracing revealed that Tbx18 is expressed in renal capsule, vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes and glomerular mesangial cells in the kidney and that Tbx18-expressing progenitors contribute to these cell types. Examination of Tbx18(-/-) kidneys revealed large reduction in vasculature density and dilation of glomerular capillary loops. While SMA+ cells were reduced in the mutant, PDGFR?+ cells were seen in early capillary loop renal corpuscles in the mutant, but fewer than in the controls, and further development of the mesangium failed. Analysis of kidney explants cultured from E12.5 excluded the possibility that the defects observed in the mutant were caused by ureter obstruction. Reduced proliferation in glomerular tuft and increased apoptosis in perivascular mesenchyme were observed in Tbx18(-/-) kidneys. Thus, our analyses have identified a novel role of Tbx18 in kidney vasculature development.
Project description:Kidney fibrosis is characterized by expansion and activation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGFR-?) positive mesenchymal cells. To study the consequences of PDGFR-ß activation, we developed a model of primary renal fibrosis using transgenic mice with PDGFR-? activation specifically in renal mesenchymal cells, driving their pathological proliferation and phenotypic switch towards myofibroblasts. This resulted in progressive mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis, mesangial sclerosis and interstitial fibrosis with progressive anemia due to loss of erythropoietin production by fibroblasts. Fibrosis induced secondary tubular epithelial injury at later stages, coinciding with microinflammation and aggravated the progression of hypertensive and obstructive nephropathy. Inhibition of PDGFR activation reversed fibrosis more effectively in the tubulointerstitium compared to glomeruli. Gene expression signatures in mice with PDGFR-? activation resembled those found in patients. In conclusion, PDGFR-? activation alone is sufficient to induce progressive renal fibrosis and failure mimicking key aspects of chronic kidney disease in humans. Our data provide direct proof that fibrosis per se can drive chronic organ damage and establish a model of primary fibrosis allowing specific studies targeting fibrosis progression and regression.
Project description:Kidney fibrosis is characterized by expansion and activation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGFR-?)-positive mesenchymal cells. To study the consequences of PDGFR-? activation, we developed a model of primary renal fibrosis using transgenic mice with PDGFR-? activation specifically in renal mesenchymal cells, driving their pathological proliferation and phenotypic switch toward myofibroblasts. This resulted in progressive mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis, mesangial sclerosis, and interstitial fibrosis with progressive anemia due to loss of erythropoietin production by fibroblasts. Fibrosis induced secondary tubular epithelial injury at later stages, coinciding with microinflammation, and aggravated the progression of hypertensive and obstructive nephropathy. Inhibition of PDGFR activation reversed fibrosis more effectively in the tubulointerstitium compared to glomeruli. Gene expression signatures in mice with PDGFR-? activation resembled those found in patients. In conclusion, PDGFR-? activation alone is sufficient to induce progressive renal fibrosis and failure, mimicking key aspects of chronic kidney disease in humans. Our data provide direct proof that fibrosis per se can drive chronic organ damage and establish a model of primary fibrosis allowing specific studies targeting fibrosis progression and regression.
Project description:Kidney fibrosis is characterized by expansion and activation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β) positive mesenchymal cells. To study the consequences of PDGFR-ß activation, we developed a model of primary renal fibrosis using transgenic mice with PDGFR-β activation specifically in renal mesenchymal cells, driving their pathological proliferation and phenotypic switch towards myofibroblasts. This resulted in progressive mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis, mesangial sclerosis and interstitial fibrosis with progressive anemia due to loss of erythropoietin production by fibroblasts. We used microarrays to compare wildtype animals (Foxd1_wt Pdgfrb_wt) to animals with constitutive mesenchymal PDGFR-β activation (Foxd1_mt Pdgfrb V536A) in the kidney to identify target genes of PDGFR-β signaling. Overall design: To generate mice with a renal mesenchymal cell-specific, constitutively active PDGFR-β (Foxd1_mt Pdgfrb V536A), we used mice in which one wt Pdgfrb allele was substituted by a conditional knock-in of Pdgfrb with an activating point mutation (V536A) in the juxtamembrane domain of PDGFR-β, behind a floxed STOP cassette. Expression of the mutated Receptor occurs after Cre-recombinase excision. Cre-recombinase expression occurs under the FoxD1-promoter, which is active in renal mesenchymal precursors during development. Foxd1_mt Pdgfrb V536A mice were compared to wildtype littermates Foxd1_wt Pdgfrb_wt.
Project description:Wnt/beta-catenin signaling mediates renal fibrosis in several model systems including diabetic nephropathy. Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) is an endogenous inhibitor of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, but whether DKK-1 modulates diabetic nephropathy is unknown. Here, we studied whether DKK-1 participates in high glucose (HG)-induced expression of profibrotic factors and renal damage. In vitro, HG increased expression of DKK1, receptor Kremen-2, TGF-beta1, and fibronectin in mesangial cells. Loss and gain of DKK1 function modulated HG-mediated c-Jun, TGF-beta1, and fibronectin expression. DKK1 mediated HG-induced phosphorylation of Ser45-beta-catenin and reduction of nuclear beta-catenin levels, but not phosphorylation of ERK kinase. Wnt3a protein and the beta-catenin (Delta45) mutation increased nuclear beta-catenin but abrogated HG-induced DKK1 and fibronectin expression. Exogenous DKK1 antisense oligonucleotide attenuated the increase in both serum DKK1 and urinary protein excretion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Knocking down DKK1 inhibited mesangial expression of TGF-beta1 and fibronectin and reduced both the glomerular volume and deposition of mesangial matrix in diabetic kidneys. Taken together, DKK1 mediates HG-induced destabilization of beta-catenin and matrix accumulation in mesangial cells. Knocking down DKK1 prevents diabetes-induced renal dysfunction and microstructure deterioration, suggesting that inhibition of DKK1offers therapeutic potential for diabetic nephropathy.
Project description:The homeostatic chemokine receptor CCR7 serves as key molecule in lymphocyte homing into secondary lymphoid tissues. Previous experiments from our group identified CCR7 also to be expressed by human mesangial cells. Exposing cultured human mesangial cells to the receptor ligand CCL21 revealed a positive effect on these cells regarding proliferation, migration, and survival. In the present study, we localized CCR7 and CCL21 during murine nephrogenesis. Analyzing wild-type and CCR7 deficient (CCR7-/-) mice, we observed a retarded glomerulogenesis during renal development and a significantly decreased mesangial cellularity in adult CCR7-/- mice, as a consequence of less mesangial cell proliferation between embryonic day E17.5 and week 5 postpartum. Cell proliferation assays and cell-wounding experiments confirmed reduced proliferative and migratory properties of mesangial cells cultured from CCR7-/- kidneys. To further emphasize the role of CCR7 as important factor for mesangial biology, we examined the chemokine receptor expression in rats after induction of a mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that extra- and intraglomerular mesangial cells that were CCR7-negative in control rats exhibited a strong CCR7 expression during the phase of mesangial repopulation and proliferation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The renal function of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients may be improved by a number of rehabilitative mechanisms. Swimming exercise training was supposed to be beneficial to its recovery. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Doxorubicin-induced CKD (DRCKD) rat model was performed. Swimming training was programmed three days per week, 30 or 60 min per day for a total period of 11 weeks. Serum biochemical and pathological parameters were examined. In DRCKD, hyperlipidemia was observed. Active mesangial cell activation was evidenced by overexpression of PDGFR, P-PDGFR, MMP-2, MMP-9, ?-SMA, and CD34 with a huge amount collagen deposition. Apparent myofibroblast transdifferentiation implicating fibrogenesis in the glomerular mesangium, glomerulonephritis and glomeruloscelorosis was observed with highly elevated proteinuria and urinary BUN excretion. The 60-min swimming exercise but not the 30 min equivalent rescued most of the symptoms. To quantify the effectiveness of exercise training, a physical parameter, i.e. "the strenuosity coefficient" or "the myokine releasing coefficient", was estimated to be 7.154 × 10(-3) pg/mL-J. CONCLUSIONS: The 60-min swimming exercise may ameliorate DRCKD by inhibiting the transdifferentiation of myofibroblasts in the glomerular mesangium. Moreover, rehabilitative exercise training to rescue CKD is a personalized remedy. Benefits depend on the duration and strength of exercise, and more importantly, on the individual physiological condition.
Project description:ErbB4 is highly expressed in the cystic kidneys with polycystic kidney diseases. To investigate its potential role in cystogenesis, cpk mice carrying a heart-rescued ErbB4 deletion were generated. Accelerated cyst progression and renal function deterioration were noted as early as 10 days postnatally in cpk mice with ErbB4 deletion compared to cpk mice, as indicated by increased cystic index, higher kidney weight to body weight ratios, and elevated BUN levels. No apparent defects in renal development were noted with ErbB4 deletion itself. Increased cell proliferation was predominately seen in the cortex of cystic kidneys with or without ErbB4 deletion. However, there was significantly more cell proliferation in the cyst-lining epithelial cells in cpk mice with ErbB4 deletion. TUNEL staining localized apoptotic cells mainly to the renal medulla. There were significantly more apoptotic cells in the cyst-lining epithelial cells in ErbB4-deleted cpk kidneys, with decreased levels of cyclin D1, increased levels of p21, p27, and cleaved caspase 3. Thus, lack of ErbB4 may contribute to elevated cell proliferation and unbalanced cell apoptosis, resulting in accelerated cyst formation and early renal function deterioration. These studies suggest that the high level of ErbB4 expression seen in cpk mice may exert relative cytoprotective effects in renal epithelia.
Project description:IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, has significant morbidity and mortality as 20-40% of patients progress to end-stage renal disease within 20 years of onset. In order to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of IgAN, we systematically evaluated renal biopsies from such patients. This showed that the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway was activated in the mesangium of patients presenting with over 1 g/day proteinuria and elevated blood pressure, but absent in biopsy specimens of patients with IgAN and modest proteinuria (<1 g/day). ERK activation was not associated with elevated galactose-deficient IgA1 or IgG specific for galactose-deficient IgA1 in the serum. In human mesangial cells in vitro, ERK activation through mesangial IgA1 receptor (CD71) controlled pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and was induced by large-molecular-mass IgA1-containing circulating immune complexes purified from patient sera. Moreover, IgA1-dependent ERK activation required renin-angiotensin system as its blockade was efficient in reducing proteinuria in those patients exhibiting substantial mesangial activation of ERK. Thus, ERK activation alters mesangial cell-podocyte crosstalk, leading to renal dysfunction in IgAN. Assessment of MAPK/ERK activation in diagnostic renal biopsies may predict the therapeutic efficacy of renin-angiotensin system blockers in IgAN.