Activity of ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17) is regulated by its noncatalytic domains and secondary structure of its substrates.
ABSTRACT: ADAM proteases are implicated in multiple diseases, but no drugs based on ADAM inhibition exist. Most of the ADAM inhibitors developed to date feature zinc-binding moieties that target the active site zinc, which leads to a lack of selectivity and off target toxicity. Targeting secondary substrate binding sites (exosites) can potentially work as an alternative strategy for drug discovery; however, there are only a few reports of potential exosites in ADAM protease structures. In the study presented here, we utilized a series of TNF?-based substrates to probe ADAM10 and 17 interactions with its canonical substrate to identify the structural features that determine ADAM protease substrate specificity. We found that noncatalytic domains of ADAM17 did not directly bind the substrates used in the study but affected the binding nevertheless, most likely because of steric hindrance. Additionally, noncatalytic domains of ADAM17 affected the size/shape of the carbohydrate-binding pocket contained within the catalytic domain of ADAM17. This suggests that noncatalytic domains of ADAM17 play a role in substrate specificity and might help explain differences in substrate repertoires of ADAM17 and its closest homologue, ADAM10. We also addressed the question of which substrate features can affect ADAM protease specificity. We found that all ADAM proteases tested (i.e., ADAM10, 12, and 17) significantly decreased activity when the TNF?-derived sequence was induced into ?-helical conformation, suggesting that conformation plays a role in determining ADAM protease substrate specificity. These findings can help in the discovery of ADAM isoform- and substrate-specific inhibitors.
Project description:A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) proteases are implicated in multiple diseases, but no drugs based on ADAM inhibition exist. Most of the ADAM inhibitors developed to date feature zinc-binding moieties that target the active site zinc, which leads to a lack of selectivity and off-target toxicity. We hypothesized that secondary binding site (exosite) inhibitors should provide a viable alternative to active site inhibitors. Potential exosites in ADAM structures have been reported, but no studies describing substrate features necessary for exosite interactions exist. Analysis of ADAM cognate substrates revealed that glycosylation is often present in the vicinity of the scissile bond. To study whether glycosylation plays a role in modulating ADAM activity, a tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) substrate with and without a glycan moiety attached was synthesized and characterized. Glycosylation enhanced ADAM8 and -17 activities and decreased ADAM10 activity. Metalloprotease (MMP) activity was unaffected by TNF? substrate glycosylation. High throughput screening assays were developed using glycosylated and non-glycosylated substrate, and positional scanning was conducted. A novel chemotype of ADAM17-selective probes was discovered from the TPIMS library (Houghten, R. A., Pinilla, C., Giulianotti, M. A., Appel, J. R., Dooley, C. T., Nefzi, A., Ostresh, J. M., Yu, Y., Maggiora, G. M., Medina-Franco, J. L., Brunner, D., and Schneider, J. (2008) Strategies for the use of mixture-based synthetic combinatorial libraries. Scaffold ranking, direct testing in vivo, and enhanced deconvolution by computational methods. J. Comb. Chem. 10, 3-19; Pinilla, C., Appel, J. R., Borràs, E., and Houghten, R. A. (2003) Advances in the use of synthetic combinatorial chemistry. Mixture-based libraries. Nat. Med. 9, 118-122) that preferentially inhibited glycosylated substrate hydrolysis and spared ADAM10, MMP-8, and MMP-14. Kinetic studies revealed that ADAM17 inhibition occurred via a non-zinc-binding mechanism. Thus, modulation of proteolysis via glycosylation may be used for identifying novel, potentially exosite binding compounds. The newly described ADAM17 inhibitors represent research tools to investigate the role of ADAM17 in the progression of various diseases.
Project description:ADAM10 and ADAM17 have been shown to contribute to the acquired drug resistance of HER2-positive breast cancer in response to trastuzumab. The majority of ADAM10 and ADAM17 inhibitor development has been focused on the discovery of compounds that bind the active site zinc, however, in recent years, there has been a shift from active site to secondary substrate binding site (exosite) inhibitor discovery in order to identify non-zinc-binding molecules. In the present work a glycosylated, exosite-binding substrate of ADAM10 and ADAM17 was utilized to screen 370,276 compounds from the MLPCN collection. As a result of this uHTS effort, a selective, time-dependent, non-zinc-binding inhibitor of ADAM10 with Ki?=?883 nM was discovered. This compound exhibited low cell toxicity and was able to selectively inhibit shedding of known ADAM10 substrates in several cell-based models. We hypothesize that differential glycosylation of these cognate substrates is the source of selectivity of our novel inhibitor. The data indicate that this novel inhibitor can be used as an in vitro and, potentially, in vivo, probe of ADAM10 activity. Additionally, results of the present and prior studies strongly suggest that glycosylated substrate are applicable as screening agents for discovery of selective ADAM probes and therapeutics.
Project description:ADAM17 is implicated in several debilitating diseases. However, drug discovery efforts targeting ADAM17 have failed due to the utilization of zinc-binding inhibitors. We previously reported discovery of highly selective nonzinc-binding exosite-targeting inhibitors of ADAM17 that exhibited not only enzyme isoform selectivity but synthetic substrate selectivity as well ( J. Biol. Chem. 2013, 288, 22871). As a result of SAR studies presented herein, we obtained several highly selective ADAM17 inhibitors, six of which were further characterized in biochemical and cell-based assays. Lead compounds exhibited low cellular toxicity and high potency and selectivity for ADAM17. In addition, several of the leads inhibited ADAM17 in a substrate-selective manner, which has not been previously documented for inhibitors of the ADAM family. These findings suggest that targeting exosites of ADAM17 can be used to obtain highly desirable substrate-selective inhibitors. Additionally, current inhibitors can be used as probes of biological activity of ADAM17 in various in vitro and, potentially, in vivo systems.
Project description:IL-23 (interleukin 23) regulates immune responses against pathogens and plays a major role in the differentiation and maintenance of TH17 cells and the development of autoimmune diseases and cancer. The IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) complex consists of the unique IL-23R and the common IL-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1). Differential splicing generates antagonistic soluble IL-23R (sIL-23R) variants, which might limit IL-23-mediated immune responses. Here, ectodomain shedding of human and murine IL-23R was identified as an alternative pathway for the generation of sIL-23R. Importantly, proteolytically released sIL-23R has IL-23 binding activity. Shedding of IL-23R was induced by stimulation with the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), but not by ionomycin. PMA-induced shedding was abrogated by an ADAM (A disintegrin and metalloprotease) 10 and 17 selective inhibitor, but not by an ADAM10 selective inhibitor. ADAM17-deficient but not ADAM10-deficient HEK293 cells failed to shed IL-23R after PMA stimulation, demonstrating that ADAM17 but not ADAM10 cleaves the IL-23R. Constitutive shedding was, however, inhibited by an ADAM10 selective inhibitor. Using deletions and specific amino acid residue exchanges, we identified critical determinants of ectodomain shedding within the stalk region of the IL-23R. Finally, interaction studies identified domains 1 and 3 of the IL-23R as the main ADAM17 binding sites. In summary, we describe human and murine IL-23R as novel targets for protein ectodomain shedding by ADAM10 and ADAM17.
Project description:Hypomorphic ADAM17(ex/ex) mice showed defects in mucosal regeneration due to inefficient enhanced GFR shedding. ADAM17 is the main sheddase of interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) to induce IL-6 trans-signaling. However, serum levels of soluble murine IL-6R were not reduced in ADAM17(ex/ex) mice, and murine ADAM17 was not the major sheddase of murine IL-6R. Shedding of murine IL-6R by murine ADAM17 was rescued in chimeric murine IL-6R proteins containing any extracellular domain but not the transmembrane and intracellular domain of human IL-6R. Apoptosis is a physiological stimulus of ADAM17-mediated shedding of human IL-6R. Even though apoptosis induced IL-6R shedding in mice, the responsible protease was identified as ADAM10. ADAM10 also was identified as protease responsible for ionomycin-induced shedding of murine and human IL-6R. However, in ADAM10-deficient murine embryonic fibroblasts, compensatory shedding of human IL-6R was mediated by ADAM17, but loss of ADAM10-mediated shedding of murine IL-6R was compensated by an as-yet-unidentified protease. Finally, we identified physiological purinergic P2X7 receptor stimulation as a novel inducer of murine and human IL-6R shedding solely mediated by ADAM10. In conclusion, we describe an unexpected species specificity of ADAM10 and ADAM17 and identified ADAM10 as novel inducible sheddase of IL-6R in mice and humans, which might have consequences for the interpretation of phenotypes from ADAM17- and ADAM10-deficient mice.
Project description:Meprin A, composed of ? and ? subunits, is a membrane-bound metalloproteinase in renal proximal tubules. Meprin A plays an important role in tubular epithelial cell injury during acute kidney injury (AKI). The present study demonstrated that during ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI, meprin A was shed from proximal tubule membranes, as evident from its redistribution toward the basolateral side, proteolytic processing in the membranes, and excretion in the urine. To identify the proteolytic enzyme responsible for shedding of meprin A, we generated stable HEK cell lines expressing meprin ? alone and both meprin ? and meprin ? for the expression of meprin A. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin stimulated ectodomain shedding of meprin ? and meprin A. Among the inhibitors of various proteases, the broad spectrum inhibitor of the ADAM family of proteases, tumor necrosis factor-? protease inhibitor (TAPI-1), was most effective in preventing constitutive, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-, and ionomycin-stimulated shedding of meprin ? and meprin A in the medium of both transfectants. The use of differential inhibitors for ADAM10 and ADAM17 indicated that ADAM10 inhibition is sufficient to block shedding. In agreement with these results, small interfering RNA to ADAM10 but not to ADAM9 or ADAM17 inhibited meprin ? and meprin A shedding. Furthermore, overexpression of ADAM10 resulted in enhanced shedding of meprin ? from both transfectants. Our studies demonstrate that ADAM10 is the major ADAM metalloproteinase responsible for the constitutive and stimulated shedding of meprin ? and meprin A. These studies further suggest that inhibiting ADAM 10 activity could be of therapeutic benefit in AKI.
Project description:Trastuzumab prolongs survival in HER2 positive breast cancer patients. However, resistance remains a challenge. We have previously shown that ADAM17 plays a key role in maintaining HER2 phosphorylation during trastuzumab treatment. Beside ADAM17, ADAM10 is the other well characterized ADAM protease responsible for HER ligand shedding. Therefore, we studied the role of ADAM10 in relation to trastuzumab treatment and resistance in HER2 positive breast cancer. ADAM10 expression was assessed in HER2 positive breast cancer cell lines and xenograft mice treated with trastuzumab. Trastuzumab treatment increased ADAM10 levels in HER2 positive breast cancer cells (p ? 0.001 in BT474; p ? 0.01 in SKBR3) and in vivo (p ? 0.0001) compared to control, correlating with a decrease in PKB phosphorylation. ADAM10 inhibition or knockdown enhanced trastuzumab response in naïve and trastuzumab resistant breast cancer cells. Trastuzumab monotherapy upregulated ADAM10 (p ? 0.05); and higher pre-treatment ADAM10 levels correlated with decreased clinical response (p ? 0.05) at day 21 in HER2 positive breast cancer patients undergoing a trastuzumab treatment window study. Higher ADAM10 levels correlated with poorer relapse-free survival (p ? 0.01) in a cohort of HER2 positive breast cancer patients. Our studies implicate a role of ADAM10 in acquired resistance to trastuzumab and establish ADAM10 as a therapeutic target and a potential biomarker for HER2 positive breast cancer patients.
Project description:Ectodomain cleavage by A-disintegrin and -metalloproteases (ADAMs) releases many important biologically active substrates and is therefore tightly controlled. Part of the regulation occurs on the level of the enzymes and affects their cell surface abundance and catalytic activity. ADAM-dependent proteolysis occurs outside the plasma membrane but is mostly controlled by intracellular signals. However, the intracellular domains (ICDs) of ADAM10 and -17 can be removed without consequences for induced cleavage, and so far it is unclear how intracellular signals address cleavage. We therefore explored whether substrates themselves could be chosen for proteolysis via ICD modification. We report here that CD44 (ADAM10 substrate), a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) coreceptor required for cellular migration, and pro-NRG1 (ADAM17 substrate), which releases the epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand neuregulin required for axonal outgrowth and myelination, are indeed posttranslationally modified at their ICDs. Tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA)-induced CD44 cleavage requires dephosphorylation of ICD serine 291, while induced neuregulin release depends on the phosphorylation of several NRG1-ICD serines, in part mediated by protein kinase C? (PKC?). Downregulation of PKC? inhibits neuregulin release and reduces ex vivo neurite outgrowth and myelination of trigeminal ganglion explants. Our results suggest that specific selection among numerous substrates of a given ADAM is determined by ICD modification of the substrate.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There are emerging reports that the family of a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAM) are involved in the maintenance of the malignant phenotype of glioblastomas. Notably, ADAM proteases 10 and 17 might impair the immune recognition of glioma cells via the activating immunoreceptor NKG2D by cleavage of its ligands from the cell surface. Glioblastoma-initiating cells (GIC) with stem cell properties have been identified as an attractive target for immunotherapy. However, GIC immunogenicity seems to be low.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Here,we show that ADAM10 and ADAM17 are expressed on the cell surface of GIC and contribute to an immunosuppressive phenotype by cleavage of ULBP2. The cell surface expression of ULBP2 is enhanced upon blocking ADAM10 and ADAM17, and treatment with ADAM10 and ADAM17specific inhibitors leads to enhanced immunerecognition of GIC by natural killer cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Therefore, ADAM10 and ADAM17 constitute suitable targets to boost an immune response against GIC.
Project description:A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family of proteins play versatile roles in cancer development and progression. In the present study, we investigated the role of ADAM proteins in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell migration and invasion focusing on the epigenetic mechanism whereby ADAM transcription is regulated. We report that higher levels of ADAM10, ADAM17, and ADAM19 were detected in SW480 cells than in HCT116 cells. Expression levels of the same set of ADAMs were higher in human CRC biopsy specimens of advanced stages than in those of a less aggressive phenotype. Overexpression of ADAM10/17/19 in HCT116 cells enhanced, whereas depletion of ADAM10/17/19 in SW480 cells weakened, migration and invasion. ADAM expression was activated by the Wnt signaling pathway, which could be attributed to direct binding of ?-catenin on the ADAM promoters. Mechanistically, ?-catenin recruited the chromatin remodeling protein BRG1, which in turn enlisted histone demethylase KDM4 to alter the chromatin structure, thereby leading to ADAM transactivation. In conclusion, our data suggest that the Wnt signaling may promote CRC metastasis, at least in part, by recruiting an epigenetic complex to activate ADAM transcription.