Genome duplication and mutations in ACE2 cause multicellular, fast-sedimenting phenotypes in evolved Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT: Laboratory evolution of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in bioreactor batch cultures yielded variants that grow as multicellular, fast-sedimenting clusters. Knowledge of the molecular basis of this phenomenon may contribute to the understanding of natural evolution of multicellularity and to manipulating cell sedimentation in laboratory and industrial applications of S. cerevisiae. Multicellular, fast-sedimenting lineages obtained from a haploid S. cerevisiae strain in two independent evolution experiments were analyzed by whole genome resequencing. The two evolved cell lines showed different frameshift mutations in a stretch of eight adenosines in ACE2, which encodes a transcriptional regulator involved in cell cycle control and mother-daughter cell separation. Introduction of the two ace2 mutant alleles into the haploid parental strain led to slow-sedimenting cell clusters that consisted of just a few cells, thus representing only a partial reconstruction of the evolved phenotype. In addition to single-nucleotide mutations, a whole-genome duplication event had occurred in both evolved multicellular strains. Construction of a diploid reference strain with two mutant ace2 alleles led to complete reconstruction of the multicellular-fast sedimenting phenotype. This study shows that whole-genome duplication and a frameshift mutation in ACE2 are sufficient to generate a fast-sedimenting, multicellular phenotype in S. cerevisiae. The nature of the ace2 mutations and their occurrence in two independent evolution experiments encompassing fewer than 500 generations of selective growth suggest that switching between unicellular and multicellular phenotypes may be relevant for competitiveness of S. cerevisiae in natural environments.
Project description:BACKGROUND: It remains a challenge for recombinant S. cerevisiae to convert xylose in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates to ethanol. Although industrial diploid strains are more robust compared to laboratory haploid strains, however, industrial diploid S. cerevisiae strains have been less pursued in previous studies. This work aims to construct fast xylose-fermenting yeast using an industrial ethanol-producing diploid S. cerevisiae strain as a host. RESULTS: Fast xylose-fermenting yeast was constructed by genome integration of xylose-utilizing genes and adaptive evolution, including 1) Piromyces XYLA was introduced to enable the host strain to convert xylose to xylulose; 2) endogenous genes (XKS1, RKI1, RPE1, TKL1, and TAL1) were overexpressed to accelerate conversion of xylulose to ethanol; 3) Candida intermedia GXF1, which encodes a xylose transporter, was introduced at the GRE3 locus to improve xylose uptake; 4) aerobic evolution in rich xylose media was carried out to increase growth and xylose consumption rates. The best evolved strain CIBTS0735 consumed 80 g/l glucose and 40 g/l xylose in rich media within 24 hours at an initial OD600 of 1.0 (0.63 g DCW/l) and produced 53 g/l ethanol. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the above fermentation performance, we conclude that CIBTS0735 shows great potential for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass.
Project description:Multicellularity was one of the most significant innovations in the history of life, but its initial evolution remains poorly understood. Using experimental evolution, we show that key steps in this transition could have occurred quickly. We subjected the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to an environment in which we expected multicellularity to be adaptive. We observed the rapid evolution of clustering genotypes that display a novel multicellular life history characterized by reproduction via multicellular propagules, a juvenile phase, and determinate growth. The multicellular clusters are uniclonal, minimizing within-cluster genetic conflicts of interest. Simple among-cell division of labor rapidly evolved. Early multicellular strains were composed of physiologically similar cells, but these subsequently evolved higher rates of programmed cell death (apoptosis), an adaptation that increases propagule production. These results show that key aspects of multicellular complexity, a subject of central importance to biology, can readily evolve from unicellular eukaryotes.
Project description:Alternation of generations, in which the haploid and diploid stages of the life cycle are each represented by multicellular forms that differ in their morphology, is a defining feature of the land plants (embryophytes). Anciently derived lineages of embryophytes grow predominately in the haploid gametophytic generation from shoot apical meristems (SAMs) that give rise to photosynthetic structures with either leaf-like organs or a ribbon-like thallus. More recently evolved plant lineages have multicellular SAMs, and photosynthetic shoot development is restricted to the sporophyte generation. The molecular genetic basis for this evolutionary shift from gametophyte dominant to sporophyte dominant life cycles remains a major question in the study of land plant evolution. We used laser microdissection and next generation RNA sequencing to address whether angiosperm meristem patterning genes expressed in the sporophytic SAM of Zea mays are expressed in the gametophytic SAMs, or in the non-meristematic sporophytes, of the model bryophytes Marchantia polymorpha and Physcomitrella patens.
Project description:To determine the subcellular distribution of initiation-factor eIF-2 activity, Ehrlich ascites-cell homogenates were fractionated to give (a) a rapidly sedimenting fraction, (b) a microsomal fraction and (c) post-microsomal supernatant. The first two fractions were washed in 0.5 m-KCl to render the associated protein-synthesis factor soluble. As much as 60% of the total recoverable eIF-2 was obtained from the rapidly sedimenting material.
Project description:We do not know how or why multicellularity evolved. We used the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to ask whether nutrients that must be digested extracellularly select for the evolution of undifferentiated multicellularity. Because yeast use invertase to hydrolyze sucrose extracellularly and import the resulting monosaccharides, single cells cannot grow at low cell and sucrose concentrations. Three engineered strategies overcame this problem: forming multicellular clumps, importing sucrose before hydrolysis, and increasing invertase expression. We evolved populations in low sucrose to ask which strategy they would adopt. Of 12 successful clones, 11 formed multicellular clumps through incomplete cell separation, 10 increased invertase expression, none imported sucrose, and 11 increased hexose transporter expression, a strategy we had not engineered. Identifying causal mutations revealed genes and pathways, which frequently contributed to the evolved phenotype. Our study shows that combining rational design with experimental evolution can help evaluate hypotheses about evolutionary strategies. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00367.001.
Project description:Genome duplications are important evolutionary events that impact the rate and spectrum of beneficial mutations and thus the rate of adaptation. Laboratory evolution experiments initiated with haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures repeatedly experience whole-genome duplication (WGD). We report recurrent genome duplication in 46 haploid yeast populations evolved for 4,000 generations. We find that WGD confers a fitness advantage, and this immediate fitness gain is accompanied by a shift in genomic and phenotypic evolution. The presence of ploidy-enriched targets of selection and structural variants reveals that autodiploids utilize adaptive paths inaccessible to haploids. We find that autodiploids accumulate recessive deleterious mutations, indicating an increased susceptibility for nonadaptive evolution. Finally, we report that WGD results in a reduced adaptation rate, indicating a trade-off between immediate fitness gains and long-term adaptability.
Project description:It is often necessary to extract a small amount of a suspension, such as blood, from a larger sample of the same material for the purposes of diagnostics, testing or imaging. A practical challenge is that the cells in blood sediment noticeably on the time scale of a few minutes, making a representative subsampling of the original sample challenging. Guided by experimental data, we develop a Kynch sedimentation model to discuss design considerations that ensure a representative subsampling of blood, from a container of constant cross-sectional area, for the entire range of physiologically relevant hematocrit over a specified time of interest. Additionally, we show that this design may be modified to exploit the sedimentation and perform subsampling to achieve either higher or lower hematocrit relative to that of the original sample. Thus, our method provides a simple tool to either concentrate or dilute small quantities of blood or other sedimenting suspensions.
Project description:Sexual reproduction is restricted to eukaryotic species and involves the fusion of haploid gametes to form a diploid cell that subsequently undergoes meiosis to generate recombinant haploid forms. This process has been extensively studied in the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which exhibits separate regulatory control over mating and meiosis. Here we address the mechanism of sexual reproduction in the related hemiascomycete species Candida lusitaniae. We demonstrate that, in contrast to S. cerevisiae, C. lusitaniae exhibits a highly integrated sexual program in which the programs regulating mating and meiosis have fused. Profiling of the C. lusitaniae sexual cycle revealed that gene expression patterns during mating and meiosis were overlapping, indicative of co-regulation. This was particularly evident for genes involved in pheromone MAPK signalling, which were highly induced throughout the sexual cycle of C. lusitaniae. Furthermore, genetic analysis showed that the orthologue of IME2, a 'diploid-specific' factor in S. cerevisiae, and STE12, the master regulator of S. cerevisiae mating, were each required for progression through both mating and meiosis in C. lusitaniae. Together, our results establish that sexual reproduction has undergone significant rewiring between S. cerevisiae and C. lusitaniae, and that a concerted sexual cycle operates in C. lusitaniae that is more reminiscent of the distantly related ascomycete, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We discuss these results in light of the evolution of sexual reproduction in yeast, and propose that regulatory coupling of mating and meiosis has evolved multiple times as an adaptation to promote the haploid lifestyle.
Project description:Biotin prototrophy is a rare, incompletely understood, and industrially relevant characteristic of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The genome of the haploid laboratory strain CEN.PK113-7D contains a full complement of biotin biosynthesis genes, but its growth in biotin-free synthetic medium is extremely slow (specific growth rate [?] ? 0.01 h-1). Four independent evolution experiments in repeated batch cultures and accelerostats yielded strains whose growth rates (? ? 0.36 h-1) in biotin-free and biotin-supplemented media were similar. Whole-genome resequencing of these evolved strains revealed up to 40-fold amplification of BIO1, which encodes pimeloyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase. The additional copies of BIO1 were found on different chromosomes, and its amplification coincided with substantial chromosomal rearrangements. A key role of this gene amplification was confirmed by overexpression of BIO1 in strain CEN.PK113-7D, which enabled growth in biotin-free medium (? = 0.15 h-1). Mutations in the membrane transporter genes TPO1 and/or PDR12 were found in several of the evolved strains. Deletion of TPO1 and PDR12 in a BIO1-overexpressing strain increased its specific growth rate to 0.25 h-1 The effects of null mutations in these genes, which have not been previously associated with biotin metabolism, were nonadditive. This study demonstrates that S. cerevisiae strains that carry the basic genetic information for biotin synthesis can be evolved for full biotin prototrophy and identifies new targets for engineering biotin prototrophy into laboratory and industrial strains of this yeast.IMPORTANCE Although biotin (vitamin H) plays essential roles in all organisms, not all organisms can synthesize this vitamin. Many strains of baker's yeast, an important microorganism in industrial biotechnology, contain at least some of the genes required for biotin synthesis. However, most of these strains cannot synthesize biotin at all or do so at rates that are insufficient to sustain fast growth and product formation. Consequently, this expensive vitamin is routinely added to baker's yeast cultures. In this study, laboratory evolution in biotin-free growth medium yielded new strains that grew as fast in the absence of biotin as in its presence. By analyzing the DNA sequences of evolved biotin-independent strains, mutations were identified that contributed to this ability. This work demonstrates full biotin independence of an industrially relevant yeast and identifies mutations whose introduction into other yeast strains may reduce or eliminate their biotin requirements.