Apamin induces early afterdepolarizations and torsades de pointes ventricular arrhythmia from failing rabbit ventricles exhibiting secondary rises in intracellular calcium.
ABSTRACT: A secondary rise of intracellular Ca(2+) (Cai) and an upregulation of apamin-sensitive K(+) current (I(KAS)) are characteristic findings of failing ventricular myocytes. We hypothesize that apamin, a specific I(KAS) blocker, may induce torsades de pointes (TdP) ventricular arrhythmia from failing ventricles exhibiting secondary rises of Cai.To test the hypothesis that small conductance Ca(2+) activated IKAS maintains repolarization reserve and prevents ventricular arrhythmia in a rabbit model of heart failure (HF).We performed Langendorff perfusion and optical mapping studies in 7 hearts with pacing-induced HF and in 5 normal control rabbit hearts. Atrioventricular block was created by cryoablation to allow pacing at slow rates.The left ventricular ejection fraction reduced from 69.1% [95% confidence interval 62.3%-76.0%] before pacing to 30.4% [26.8%-34.0%] (N = 7; P < .001) after pacing. The corrected QT interval in failing ventricles was 337 [313-360] ms at baseline and 410 [381-439] ms after applying 100 nmol/L of apamin (P = .01). Apamin induced early afterdepolarizations (EADs) in 6 ventricles, premature ventricular beats (PVBs) in 7 ventricles, and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia consistent with TdP in 4 ventricles. The earliest activation site of EADs and PVBs always occurred at the site with long action potential duration and large amplitude of the secondary rises of Ca(i). Apamin induced secondary rises of Ca(i) in 1 nonfailing ventricle, but no EAD or TdP were observed.In HF ventricles, apamin induces EADs, PVBs, and TdP from areas with secondary rises of Ca(i). I(KAS) is important in maintaining repolarization reserve and preventing TdP in HF ventricles.
Project description:Apamin-sensitive K currents (I(KAS)) are upregulated in heart failure. We hypothesize that apamin can flatten action potential duration restitution (APDR) curve and can reduce ventricular fibrillation duration in failing ventricles.We simultaneously mapped membrane potential and intracellular Ca (Ca(i)) in 7 rabbit hearts with pacing-induced heart failure and in 7 normal hearts. A dynamic pacing protocol was used to determine APDR at baseline and after apamin (100 nmol/L) infusion. Apamin did not change APD(80) in normal ventricles, but prolonged APD(80) in failing ventricles at either long (?300 ms) or short (?170 ms) pacing cycle length, but not at intermediate pacing cycle length. The maximal slope of APDR curve was 2.03 (95% confidence interval, 1.73-2.32) in failing ventricles and 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.40) in normal ventricles at baseline (P=0.002). After apamin administration, the maximal slope of APDR in failing ventricles decreased to 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.84; P=0.018), whereas no significant changes were observed in normal ventricles. During ventricular fibrillation in failing ventricles, the number of phase singularities (baseline versus apamin, 4.0 versus 2.5), dominant frequency (13.0 versus 10.0 Hz), and ventricular fibrillation duration (160 versus 80 s) were all significantly (P<0.05) decreased by apamin.Apamin prolongs APD at long and short, but not at intermediate pacing cycle length in failing ventricles. I(KAS) upregulation may be antiarrhythmic by preserving the repolarization reserve at slow heart rate, but is proarrhythmic by steepening the slope of APDR curve, which promotes the generation and maintenance of ventricular fibrillation.
Project description:Fibrillation/defibrillation episodes in failing ventricles may be followed by action potential duration (APD) shortening and recurrent spontaneous ventricular fibrillation (SVF).We hypothesized that activation of apamin-sensitive small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels is responsible for the postshock APD shortening in failing ventricles.A rabbit model of tachycardia-induced heart failure was used. Simultaneous optical mapping of intracellular Ca(2+) and membrane potential (V(m)) was performed in failing and nonfailing ventricles. Three failing ventricles developed SVF (SVF group); 9 did not (no-SVF group). None of the 10 nonfailing ventricles developed SVF. Increased pacing rate and duration augmented the magnitude of APD shortening. Apamin (1 ?mol/L) eliminated recurrent SVF and increased postshock APD(80) in the SVF group from 126±5 to 153±4 ms (P<0.05) and from 147±2 to 162±3 ms (P<0.05) in the no-SVF group but did not change APD(80) in nonfailing group. Whole cell patch-clamp studies at 36°C showed that the apamin-sensitive K(+) current (I(KAS)) density was significantly larger in the failing than in the normal ventricular epicardial myocytes, and epicardial I(KAS) density was significantly higher than midmyocardial and endocardial myocytes. Steady-state Ca(2+) response of I(KAS) was leftward-shifted in the failing cells compared with the normal control cells, indicating increased Ca(2+) sensitivity of I(KAS) in failing ventricles. The K(d) was 232±5 nmol/L for failing myocytes and 553±78 nmol/L for normal myocytes (P=0.002).Heart failure heterogeneously increases the sensitivity of I(KAS) to intracellular Ca(2+), leading to upregulation of I(KAS), postshock APD shortening, and recurrent SVF.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hypokalemia increases the vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation. We hypothesize that the apamin-sensitive small-conductance calcium-activated potassium current (IKAS) is activated during hypokalemia and that IKAS blockade is proarrhythmic. METHODS AND RESULTS:Optical mapping was performed in 23 Langendorff-perfused rabbit ventricles with atrioventricular block and either right or left ventricular pacing during normokalemia or hypokalemia. Apamin prolonged the action potential duration (APD) measured to 80% repolarization (APD80) by 26 milliseconds (95% confidence interval [CI], 14-37) during normokalemia and by 54 milliseconds (95% CI, 40-68) during hypokalemia (P=0.01) at a 1000-millisecond pacing cycle length. In hypokalemic ventricles, apamin increased the maximal slope of APD restitution, the pacing cycle length threshold of APD alternans, the pacing cycle length for wave-break induction, and the area of spatially discordant APD alternans. Apamin significantly facilitated the induction of sustained ventricular fibrillation (from 3 of 9 hearts to 9 of 9 hearts; P=0.009). Short-term cardiac memory was assessed by the slope of APD80 versus activation time. The slope increased from 0.01 (95% CI, -0.09 to 0.12) at baseline to 0.34 (95% CI, 0.23-0.44) after apamin (P<0.001) during right ventricular pacing and from 0.07 (95% CI, -0.05 to 0.20) to 0.54 (95% CI, 0.06-1.03) after apamin infusion (P=0.045) during left ventricular pacing. Patch-clamp studies confirmed increased IKAS in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes during hypokalemia (P=0.038). CONCLUSIONS:Hypokalemia activates IKAS to shorten APD and maintain repolarization reserve at late activation sites during ventricular pacing. IKAS blockade prominently lengthens the APD at late activation sites and facilitates ventricular fibrillation induction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Apamin-sensitive small conductance calcium-activated K current (IKAS) is up-regulated during ventricular pacing and masks short-term cardiac memory (CM). OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to determine the role of IKAS in long-term CM. METHODS:CM was created with 3-5 weeks of ventricular pacing and defined by a flat or inverted T wave off pacing. Epicardial optical mapping was performed in both paced and normal ventricles. Action potential duration (APD80) was determined during right atrial pacing. Ventricular stability was tested before and after IKAS blockade. Four paced hearts and 4 normal hearts were used for western blotting and histology. RESULTS:There were no significant differences in either echocardiographic parameters or fibrosis levels between groups. Apamin induced more APD80 prolongation in CM than in normal ventricles (mean [95% confidence interval]: 9.6% [8.8%-10.5%] vs 3.1% [1.9%-4.3%]; P <.001). Apamin significantly lengthened APD80 in the CM model at late activation sites, indicating significant IKAS up-regulation at those sites. The CM model also had altered Ca2+ handling, with the 50% Ca2+ transient duration and amplitude increased at distal sites compared to a proximal site (near the pacing site). After apamin, the CM model had increased ventricular fibrillation (VF) inducibility (paced vs control: 33/40 (82.5%) vs 7/20 (35%); P <.001) and longer VF durations (124 vs 26 seconds; P <.001). CONCLUSION:Chronic ventricular pacing increases Ca2+ transients at late activation sites, which activates IKAS to maintain repolarization reserve. IKAS blockade increases VF vulnerability in chronically paced rabbit ventricles.
Project description:Carvedilol and its analogues suppress delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardias by direct action on the cardiac ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2).To test a hypothesis that carvedilol analogue may also prevent triggered activities (TAs) through the suppression of early afterdepolarizations (EADs).Intracellular Ca(2+) and membrane voltage were simultaneously recorded by using optical mapping technique in Langendorff-perfused mouse and rabbit hearts to study the effect of carvedilol analogue VK-II-36, which does not have significant beta-blocking effects.Spontaneous intracellular Ca(2+) elevations (SCaEs) during diastole were induced by rapid ventricular pacing and isoproterenol infusion in intact rabbit ventricles. Systolic and diastolic SCaEs were simultaneously noted in Langendorff-perfused RyR2 R4496(+/-) mouse hearts after creating atrioventricular block. VK-II-36 effectively suppressed SCaEs and eliminated TAs observed in both mouse and rabbit ventricles. We tested the effect of VK-II-36 on EADs by using a rabbit model of acquired long QT syndrome, in which phase 2 and phase 3 EADs were observed in association with systolic SCaEs. VK-II-36 abolished the systolic SCaEs and phase 2 EADs, and greatly decreased the dispersion of repolarization and the amplitude of phase 3 EADs. VK-II-36 completely prevented EAD-mediated TAs in all ventricles studied.A carvedilol analogue, VK-II-36, inhibits ventricular tachyarrhythmias in intact mouse and rabbit ventricles by the suppression of SCaEs, independent of beta-blocking activity. The RyR2 may be a potential target for treating focal ventricular arrhythmias triggered by either EADs or DADs.
Project description:PURPOSE: Torsades de pointes (TdP) tachycardias are triggered, polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias arising from early afterdepolarizations (EADs) and increased dispersion of repolarization. Ranolazine is a new agent which reduces pathologically elevated late INa but also IKr . Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ranolazine in a validated isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart model. METHODS: TdP was reproducibly induced with d-sotalol (10(-4) mol/L) and low potassium (K) (1.0 mmol/L for 5 min, pacing at CL 1000 ms). In 10 hearts, ECG and 8 epi- and endocardial monophasic action potentials were recorded. Action potential duration (APD) was measured at 90% repolarization and dispersion defined as APD max-min. RESULTS: D-sotalol prolonged APD90 and increased dispersion of APD90 , simultaneously causing EADs and induction of TdP. The combination of d-sotalol and two concentrations of ranolazine did not increase dispersion of ventricular APD90 as compared to vehicle. Ranolazine at 5 μmol/L did not cause additional induction of EADs and/or TdP but also did not significantly suppress arrhythmogenic triggers. The higher concentration of ranolazine (10 μmol/L) in combination with d-sotalol caused further prolongation of APD90 , at the same time reduction in APD90 dispersion. In parallel, the incidence of EADs was reduced and an antitorsadogenic effect was seen. CONCLUSIONS: In the healthy isolated rabbit heart (where late INa is not elevated), ranolazine does not cause proarrhythmia but exerts antiarrhythmic effects in a dose-dependent manner against d-sotalol/low K-induced TdP. This finding-despite additional APD prolongation-supports the safety of a combined use of both drugs and merits clinical investigation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Apamin sensitive potassium current (I KAS), carried by the type 2 small conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (SK2) channels, plays an important role in post-shock action potential duration (APD) shortening and recurrent spontaneous ventricular fibrillation (VF) in failing ventricles.<h4>Objective</h4>To test the hypothesis that amiodarone inhibits I KAS in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells.<h4>Methods</h4>We used the patch-clamp technique to study I KAS in HEK-293 cells transiently expressing human SK2 before and after amiodarone administration.<h4>Results</h4>Amiodarone inhibited IKAS in a dose-dependent manner (IC50, 2.67 ± 0.25 µM with 1 µM intrapipette Ca(2+)). Maximal inhibition was observed with 50 µM amiodarone which inhibited 85.6 ± 3.1% of IKAS induced with 1 µM intrapipette Ca(2+) (n?=?3). IKAS inhibition by amiodarone was not voltage-dependent, but was Ca(2+)-dependent: 30 µM amiodarone inhibited 81.5±1.9% of I KAS induced with 1 µM Ca(2+) (n?=?4), and 16.4±4.9% with 250 nM Ca(2+) (n?=?5). Desethylamiodarone, a major metabolite of amiodarone, also exerts voltage-independent but Ca(2+) dependent inhibition of I KAS.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Both amiodarone and desethylamiodarone inhibit I KAS at therapeutic concentrations. The inhibition is independent of time and voltage, but is dependent on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. SK2 current inhibition may in part underlie amiodarone's effects in preventing electrical storm in failing ventricles.
Project description:The apamin-sensitive small-conductance calcium-activated potassium current (IKAS ) is increased in heart failure. It is unknown if myocardial infarction (MI) is also associated with an increase of IKAS .We performed Langendorff perfusion and optical mapping in 6 normal hearts and 10 hearts with chronic (5 weeks) MI. An additional 6 normal and 10 MI hearts were used for patch clamp studies. The infarct size was 25% (95% confidence interval, 20-31) and the left ventricular ejection fraction was 50 (46-54). The rabbits did not have symptoms of heart failure. The action potential duration measured to 80% repolarization (APD80 ) in the peri-infarct zone (PZ) was 150 (142-159) milliseconds, significantly (P = 0.01) shorter than that in the normal ventricles (167 [158-177] milliseconds. The intracellular Ca transient duration was also shorter in the PZ (148 [139-157] milliseconds) than that in normal ventricles (168 [157-180] milliseconds; P = 0.017). Apamin prolonged the APD80 in PZ by 9.8 (5.5-14.1)%, which is greater than that in normal ventricles (2.8 [1.3-4.3]%, P = 0.006). Significant shortening of APD80 was observed at the cessation of rapid pacing in MI but not in normal ventricles. Apamin prevented postpacing APD80 shortening. Patch clamp studies showed that IKAS was significantly higher in the PZ cells (2.51 [1.55-3.47] pA/pF, N = 17) than in the normal cells (1.08 [0.36-1.80] pA/pF, N = 15, P = 0.019).We conclude that IKAS is increased in MI ventricles and contributes significantly to ventricular repolarization especially during tachycardia.
Project description:Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are an important cause of lethal ventricular arrhythmias in long QT syndromes and heart failure, but the mechanisms by which EADs at the cellular scale cause arrhythmias such as polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PVT) and torsades de pointes (TdP) at the tissue scale are not well understood. Here we summarize recent progress in this area, discussing (1) the ionic basis of EADs, (2) evidence that deterministic chaos underlies the irregular behavior of EADs, (3) mechanisms by which chaotic EADs synchronize in large numbers of coupled cells in tissue to overcome source-sink mismatches, (4) how this synchronization process allows EADs to initiate triggers and generate mixed focal reentrant ventricular arrhythmias underlying PVT and TdP, and (5) therapeutic implications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The transmural distribution of apamin-sensitive small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) current (IKAS) in failing human ventricles remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS:We optically mapped left ventricular wedge preparations from 12 failing native hearts and 2 rejected cardiac allografts explanted during transplant surgery. We determined transmural action potential duration (APD) before and after 100 nmol/L apamin administration in all wedges and after sequential administration of apamin, chromanol, and E4031 in 4 wedges. Apamin prolonged APD from 363 ms (95% confidence interval [CI], 341-385) to 409 (95% CI, 385-434; P<0.001) in all hearts, and reduced the transmural conduction velocity from 36 cm/s (95% CI, 30-42) to 32 cm/s (95% CI, 27-37; P=0.001) in 12 native failing hearts at 1000 ms pacing cycle length (PCL). The percent APD prolongation is negatively correlated with baseline APD and positively correlated with PCL. Only 1 wedge had M-cell islands. The percentages of APD prolongation in the last 4 hearts at 2000 ms PCL after apamin, chromanol, and E4031 were 9.1% (95% CI, 3.9-14.2), 17.3% (95% CI, 3.1-31.5), and 35.9% (95% CI, 15.7-56.1), respectively. Immunohistochemical staining of subtype 2 of SK protein showed increased expression in intercalated discs of myocytes. CONCLUSIONS:SK current is important in the transmural repolarization in failing human ventricles. The magnitude of IKAS is positively correlated with the PCL, but negatively correlated with APD when PCL is fixed. There is abundant subtype 2 of SK protein in the intercalated discs of myocytes.