Physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA in three species of Agave (Asparagales, Asparagaceae).
ABSTRACT: Agave Linnaeus, 1753 is endemic of America and is considered one of the most important crops in Mexico due to its key role in the country's economy. Cytogenetic analysis was carried out in Agave tequilana Weber, 1902 'Azul', Agave cupreata Trelease et Berger, 1915 and Agave angustifolia Haworth, 1812. The analysis showed that in all species the diploid chromosome number was 2n = 60, with bimodal karyotypes composed of five pairs of large chromosomes and 25 pairs of small chromosomes. Furthermore, different karyotypical formulae as well as a secondary constriction in a large chromosome pair were found in all species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). All species analyzed showed that 5S rDNA was located in both arms of a small chromosome pair, while 18S rDNA was associated with the secondary constriction of a large chromosome pair. Data of FISH analysis provides new information about the position and number of rDNA loci and helps for detection of hybrids in breeding programs as well as evolutionary studies.
Project description:We used conventional cytogenetic techniques (Giemsa, C-banding, Ag-NOR), and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 18S rDNA probes to investigate the karyotype and cytogenetic characteristics of Ichthyoelephas humeralis (Günther, 1860) from Ecuador. The specimens studied have a karyotype with 2n=54 biarmed chromosomes (32 M + 22 SM) and C-positive heterochromatin located on the centromeric, pericentromeric, interstitial, and terminal regions of some chromosomes. The nucleolus organizer regions occurred terminally on the long arm of chromosome pair 2. FISH confirmed the presence of only one 18S rDNA cluster with nonsyntenic localization with the 5S rDNA. Cytogenetic data allow us to refute the earlier morphological hypothesis of a sister relationship between Semaprochilodus Fowler, 1941 and Ichthyoelephas Posada Arango, 1909 and support the molecular proposal that Ichthyoelephas is a sister group to the monophyletic clade containing Prochilodus Agassiz, 1829 and Semaprochilodus.
Project description:Phleum echinatum Host (2n = 2x = 10) is an annual Mediterranean species which differs from other representatives of the genus Phleum by reduced chromosome number, asymmetric karyotype and unusually high amount of DNA in the genome. Chromosomes of this plant were studied using conventional acetic-orcein staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH showed the major 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) site at the secondary constriction of satellite chromosome (3) and the minor 35S rDNA site near 5S rDNA cluster in the monobrachial chromosome 5. Telomeric repeats were detected at all chromosome ends within secondary constriction in satellited chromosome 3 and at the centromeric regions of chromosomes 1 and 2. Intrachromosomally located telomeric repeats are probably traces of chromosomal rearrangements that have shaped P.echinatum genome; they were prone to breakage which was manifested in chromosome fragmentation. The most distinct telomeric signals, suggesting massive amplification of interstitial telomeric sequences (ITRs), were observed at the nucleolar organizer region (NOR) of the third chromosome pair. Double FISH confirmed co-localization of telomeric and 35S rDNA repeats in this locus characterized by the biggest fragility in the karyotype. Fragile sites of P.echinatum, composed of amplified telomeric repeats, may bear a resemblance to metazoan rare fragile sites enriched in microsatellite repeats.
Project description:Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3) and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences) cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (Gymnotus sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, Gymnotus inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, Gymnotus pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758) from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. Gymnotus sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st), Gymnotus pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st), while Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a)and Gymnotus cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st) presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus, and on pair 2 in Gymnotus sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in Gymnotus sylvius and Gymnotus pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in Gymnotus sylvius and two pairs in Gymnotus pantherinus; Gymnotus inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and Gymnotus cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus and Gymnotus cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of Gymnotus sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGG)n indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present study reveals valuable cytotaxonomic markers for this group and allows a more precise evaluation of the processes involved in the karyotype differentiation and the interrelationships among different species of the genus Gymnotus.
Project description:Conventional (Giemsa, C-banding, Ag - NORs) and molecular [5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, (TTAGGG)n] cytogenetic techniques were employed to study six species of the genus Eigenmannia Jordan & Evermann, 1896. They exhibited diploid chromosome numbers ranging from 2n=28 (Eigenmannia sp.1) to 2n=38 (Eigenmanniavirescens (Valenciennes, 1836)). The C-banding results revealed that species with the lowest 2n have less heterochromatin content and that morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes observed in two species showed distinct patterns of heterochromatin. While the X1, X2 and Y-chromosomes of Eigenmannia sp.2 showed only centromeric heterochromatin, the XY sex chromosomes of Eigenmanniavirescens possessed large heterochromatic blocks in the terminal position, particularly on the X chromosome. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were located in different positions when compared to the 5S rDNA sites. Additionally, the presence of minor ribosomal gene sites on the sex chromosome pair of Eigenmanniavirescens represented a new type of the sex chromosomes in this group. The telomeric probe (TTAGGG)n hybridized to the terminal portion of all chromosomes in all species examined however, interstitial telomeric sites were found in the metacentric pair No. 2 in Eigenmannia sp.1. The analyzes confirmed some hypotheses about karyotype evolution in the genus Eigenmannia, and brought new information about the distribution of the genetic material in the chromosomes of the samples analyzed providing new insights for understanding the process differentiation in the genomes of species under study.
Project description:Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci encoding 5S and 45S (18S-5.8S-28S) rRNAs are important components of eukaryotic chromosomes. Here, we set up the animal rDNA database containing cytogenetic information about these loci in 1343 animal species (264 families) collected from 542 publications. The data are based on in situ hybridisation studies (both radioactive and fluorescent) carried out in major groups of vertebrates (fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals) and invertebrates (mostly insects and mollusks). The database is accessible online at www.animalrdnadatabase.com . The median number of 45S and 5S sites was close to two per diploid chromosome set for both rDNAs despite large variation (1-74 for 5S and 1-54 for 45S sites). No significant correlation between the number of 5S and 45S rDNA loci was observed, suggesting that their distribution and amplification across the chromosomes follow independent evolutionary trajectories. Each group, irrespective of taxonomic classification, contained rDNA sites at any chromosome location. However, the distal and pericentromeric positions were the most prevalent (>?75% karyotypes) for 45S loci, while the position of 5S loci was more variable. We also examined potential relationships between molecular attributes of rDNA (homogenisation and expression) and cytogenetic parameters such as rDNA positions, chromosome number, and morphology.
Project description:<i>Crenicichla</i> (Cichliformes, Cichlidae) present a highly conserved diploid number 2n=48 with fundamental numbers varying between 52 and 62. We analyzed four species in order to investigate the role of repetitive DNA in chromosome evolution in the genus. <i>Crenicichla johanna</i>, <i>Crenicichla</i> cf. <i>saxatilis</i> and <i>Crenicichla</i> cf. <i>regani</i> have 2n=48 (8?m/sm and 40st/a) and FN=56, while <i>Crenicichla</i> sp. 'Xingu I' has 2n=48 (48 st/a) and FN=48. Different patterns of constitutive heterochromatin distribution were observed including pericentric, interstitial and whole arm C bands. A single chromosome bears 18S rDNA clusters in most species, except <i>C. johanna</i>, where population variation exists in terms of the quantity and distribution of clusters and their association with interstitial telomeric sequences. All species showed hybridization of 5S rDNA sequences in an interstitial region on an acrocentric chromosome pair. The karyotypic differences and maintenance of the diploid number supports chromosome evolution mediated by inversions in <i>Crenicichla</i> The telomeric and 18S rDNA sequence association in various chromosomes of <i>C. johanna</i> are proposed to represent hotspots for breakage, favoring intra-chromosomal rearrangements. The results suggest that repetitive sequences can contribute to microstructural cytogenetic diversity in <i>Crenicichla</i>.
Project description:BACKGROUND: To contribute to the knowledge of coleopteran cytogenetics, especially with respect to the genomic content of B chromosomes, we analyzed the composition and organization of repetitive DNA sequences in the Coprophanaeus cyanescens karyotype. We used conventional staining and the application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping using as probes C0t-1 DNA fraction, the 18S and 5S rRNA genes, and the LOA-like non-LTR transposable element (TE). RESULTS: The conventional analysis detected 3 individuals (among 50 analyzed) carrying one small metacentric and mitotically unstable B chromosome. The FISH analysis revealed a pericentromeric block of C0t-1 DNA in the B chromosome but no 18S or 5S rDNA clusters in this extra element. Using the LOA-like TE probe, the FISH analysis revealed large pericentromeric blocks in eight autosomal bivalents and in the B chromosome, and a pericentromeric block extending to the short arm in one autosomal pair. No positive hybridization signal was observed for the LOA-like element in the sex chromosomes. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the origin of the B chromosome is associated with the autosomal elements, as demonstrated by the hybridization with C0t-1 DNA and the LOA-like TE. The present study is the first report on the cytogenetic mapping of a TE in coleopteran chromosomes. These TEs could have been involved in the origin and evolution of the B chromosome in C. cyanescens.
Project description:Karyotypes and chromosomal characteristics of both minor and major rDNAs in four fish species known popularly as "lambaris", namely Astyanaxabramis (Jenyns, 1842), Astyanaxasuncionensis Géry, 1972, Astyanaxcorrentinus (Holmberg, 1891) and Astyanax sp. collected from downstream of the Iguassu Falls (Middle Paraná River basin), preservation area of the Iguassu National Park, were analyzed by conventional and molecular protocols. Astyanaxabramis had diploid chromosome number 2n=50 (4m+30sm+8st+8a) and single AgNORs (pair 22), Astyanaxasuncionensis had 2n=50 (8m+24sm+6st+12a) and single AgNORs (pair 20), Astyanax sp. had 2n=50 (4m+26sm+8st+12a) and single AgNORs (pair 25), and Astyanaxcorrentinus had 2n=36 (12m+16sm+2st+6a) and multiple AgNORs (pairs 12, 15, 16, 17). FISH with 18S rDNA showed a single site for Astyanaxabramis, Astyanaxasuncionensis and Astyanax sp. and multiple for Astyanaxcorrentinus (14 sites). FISH with 5S rDNA showed single 5S-bearing loci chromosome pair only for Astyanaxasuncionensis and multiple for Astyanaxabramis (four sites), Astyanaxcorrentinus (five sites) and Astyanax sp. (four sites). Distinct distribution patterns of heterochromatin were observed for karyotypes of all species, with the exception of the first acrocentric chromosome pair characterized by centromeric, interstitial-proximal and telomeric blocks of heterochromatin on the long arm, which may represent homeology between karyotypes of Astyanaxabramis and Astyanaxasuncionensis. Our study showed species-specific characteristics which can serve in diagnosis and differentiation between Astyanaxabramis and Astyanaxasuncionensis, considered cryptic species, as well as strengthening the occurrence of a species of Astyanax not yet described taxonomically. In addition, the data obtained from first cytogenetic studies in Astyanaxcorrentinus suggest a high similarity with Astyanaxschubarti Britski, 1964, suggesting that these species may belong to the same morphological group and that can be phylogenetically related.
Project description:The cytogenetic characteristics of five fish species of the Moenkhausia are described, based on the analysis of specimens collected in different headwater. All the species analyzed presented 2n=50 chromosomes. The C-banding revealed a similar distribution pattern of heterochromatic blocks in all the species, except Moenkhausia nigromarginata. The 5S rDNA sites were distributed on multiple chromosome pairs in all five species. Single and multiple histone H1 sites were observed in all the species, and histone H1 was shown to be co-located with the 18S rRNA gene in a single chromosome pair. The U2 snDNA gene was distributed at multiple sites in all the Moenkhausia species. The presence of B microchromosomes was confirmed in Moenkhausia forestii, while individuals of the three study populations of Moenkhausia oligolepis presented three morphologically distinct types of B chromosome. The chromosomal mapping of the 18S rDNA sites using the FISH technique revealed signals in the B chromosomes of M. forestii, while clusters of the H1 histone and U2 snDNA genes were found in the B chromosomes of M. forestii and M. oligolepis. The classical and molecular cytogenetic markers used in this study revealed ample variation in the Moenkhausia karyotypes, reflecting the dynamic nature of the chromosomal evolution.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Interspecific hybridisation resulting in polyploidy is one of the major driving forces in plant evolution. Here, we present data from the molecular cytogenetic analysis of three cytotypes of Elytrigia ×mucronata using sequential fluorescence (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA and pSc119.2 probes) and genomic in situ hybridisation (four genomic probes of diploid taxa, i.e., Aegilops, Dasypyrum, Hordeum and Pseudoroegneria). RESULTS:The concurrent presence of Hordeum (descended from E. repens) and Dasypyrum + Aegilops (descended from E. intermedia) chromosome sets in all cytotypes of E. ×mucronata confirmed the assumed hybrid origin of the analysed plants. The following different genomic constitutions were observed for E. ×mucronata. Hexaploid plants exhibited three chromosome sets from Pseudoroegneria and one chromosome set each from Aegilops, Hordeum and Dasypyrum. Heptaploid plants harboured the six chromosome sets of the hexaploid plants and an additional Pseudoroegneria chromosome set. Nonaploid cytotypes differed in their genomic constitutions, reflecting different origins through the fusion of reduced and unreduced gametes. The hybridisation patterns of repetitive sequences (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, and pSc119.2) in E. ×mucronata varied between and within cytotypes. Chromosome alterations that were not identified in the parental species were found in both heptaploid and some nonaploid plants. CONCLUSIONS:The results confirmed that both homoploid hybridisation and heteroploid hybridisation that lead to the coexistence of four different haplomes within single hybrid genomes occur in Elytrigia allopolyploids. The chromosomal alterations observed in both heptaploid and some nonaploid plants indicated that genome restructuring occurs during and/or after the hybrids arose. Moreover, a specific chromosomal translocation detected in one of the nonaploids indicated that it was not a primary hybrid. Therefore, at least some of the hybrids are fertile. Hybridisation in Triticeae allopolyploids clearly and significantly contributes to genomic diversity. Different combinations of parental haplomes coupled with chromosomal alterations may result in the establishment of unique lineages, thus providing raw material for selection.