ABSTRACT: Patients with pelvic congestion syndrome present with otherwise unexplained chronic pelvic pain that has been present for greater than 6 months, and anatomic findings that include pelvic venous insufficiency and pelvic varicosities. It remains an underdiagnosed explanation for pelvic pain in young, premenopausal, usually multiparous females. Symptoms include noncyclical, positional lower back, pelvic and upper thigh pain, dyspareunia, and prolonged postcoital discomfort. Symptoms worsen throughout the day and are exacerbated by activity or prolonged standing. Examination may reveal ovarian tenderness and unusual varicosities-vulvoperineal, posterior thigh, and gluteal. Diagnosis is suspected by clinical history and imaging that demonstrates pelvic varicosities. Venography is usually necessary to confirm ovarian vein reflux, although transvaginal ultrasound may be useful in documenting this finding. Endovascular therapy has been validated by several large patient series with long-term follow-up using standardized pain assessment surveys. Embolization has been shown to be significantly more effective than surgical therapy in improving symptoms in patients who fail hormonal therapy. Although there has been variation in approaches between investigators, the goal is elimination of ovarian vein reflux with or without direct sclerosis of enlarged pelvic varicosities. Symptom reduction is seen in 70 to 90% of the treated females despite technical variation.
Project description:<b>Purpose:</b> To evaluate medium-term clinical outcomes of transcatheter embolization and stenting in women with several pelvic venous disorders responsible for chronic pelvic pain and varicose veins of the lower limbs. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> The study population included 327 consecutively recruited patients referred to the interventional radiology unit from January 2014 to December 2019 due to chronic pelvic congestion (91; 27.83%), lower limb varices (15; 4.59%), or a combination of both the symptoms (221; 67.58%). Preprocedural pelvic, transvaginal Doppler ultrasound (US), and MRI were conducted in all the patients and revealed anatomical varicosities and incompetent pelvic veins in 312 patients. In all the patients, selective catheterization demonstrated uterine venous engorgement, ovarian plexus congestion, or pelvic vein filling. Retrograde flow was detected on catheter venography in the left ovarian vein (250; 78%), the right ovarian vein (85; 26%), the left internal iliac vein (222; 68%), and the right internal iliac vein (185; 57%). Patients were followed-up at 1, 6, and 12 months, and years thereafter systematically by the referring angiologist and the interventional radiologist of center. They were contacted by telephone in November and December 2020 to assess pain perception and quality of life by using the visual analog scales from 0 to 10 with assessments made at the baseline and last follow-up. Of the 327 patients (mean age, 42 ± 12 years), 312 patients were suffering from pelvic congestion syndrome and 236 patients was suffering from lower limb varices. All underwent embolization by using ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx<sup>®</sup>). Eighty-five right ovarian veins, 249 left ovarian veins, 510 tributaries of the right internal iliac vein, and 624 tributaries of the left internal iliac vein were embolized. A cohort of patients also underwent nutcracker syndrome angioplasty (6.7%) and May-Thurner syndrome angioplasty (14%) with a stent placement. <b>Results:</b> The initial technical success rate was 80.9% for embolization of pathological veins and 100% for stenting of stenoses. Overall, 307 patients attended 12-month follow-up visits and 288 (82%) patients completed the telephone survey at mean 39 (±18)-month postintervention. Main pelvic pain significantly improved from 6.9 (±2.4) pre- to 2.0 (±2.4) postembolization (<i>p</i> < 0.001), as did specific symptoms in each category. Improvement or disappearance of pain was achieved in 266/288 (92.36%) patients with improved quality of life in 276/288 (95.8%) patients. There were 16 minor and 4 major adverse events reported on the follow-up. <b>Conclusion:</b> Pelvic vein embolization (Onyx<sup>®</sup>) is an effective and safe procedure with high clinical success and quality of life improvement rates.
Project description:A curious hemodynamic phenomenon emerging as a consequence of the treatment of varicose veins can offer a reasonable explanation why varicose vein and reflux recurrences occur tenaciously irrespective of the applied therapeutic procedure. Saphenous reflux is the most important hemodynamic factor in varicose vein disease: it is responsible for the hemodynamic disturbance, ambulatory venous hypertension, clinical symptoms, and chronic venous insufficiency. Abolition of saphenous reflux eliminates the hemodynamic disturbance and restores physiological hemodynamic and pressure conditions, but at the same time it unavoidably evokes a pressure difference between the femoral vein and the incompetent superficial veins in the thigh during calf pump activity. The pressure difference increases flow and enhances fluid shear stress on the endothelium in pre-existing minor communicating channels between the femoral vein and the saphenous system in the thigh, which triggers release of biochemical agents nitride oxide and vascular endothelial growth factor; the consequence is enlargement (vascular remodeling) of the communicating channels, and ultimately reflux recurrence. Hence, the abolition of saphenous reflux creates preconditions for the comeback of the previous pathological situation. This phenomenon-starting the same trouble while fixing the problem-has been called hemodynamic paradox; is explains why varicose vein and reflux recurrence can occur after any mode of therapy.
Project description:The purpose of this work was to study the contents of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) in the blood plasma of patients with pelvic varicose veins. Thirty women with pelvic varicosities and a reflux blood flow were investigated using duplex ultrasonography. Group 1 included 18 patients with clinical signs of the pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), including venous pelvic pain (VPP). Group 2 consisted of 12 patients with pelvic varicosities with no clinical signs of PCS. Group 1. The score of VPP intensity ranged from 4 to 8; the mean score being 4.84 ± 0.43. The CGRP level in the studied group ranged from 0.39 to 1.01 ng/mL; the SP level ranged from 0.005 to 1.33 ng/mL. Group 2. The CGRP values were 0.15-0.32 ng/mL, and the SP range was 0.003-0.3 ng/mL. In this group, the levels of the studied peptides were 3-5 times lower than those for the patients with VPP. Group 3. The mean CGRP values were 0.06 ± 0.003 ng/mL, and the mean SP values were 0.03 ± 0.001 ng/mL. These values were considered as the reference parameters; a statistical analysis was performed for them. The correlation analysis revealed a strong relationship between the CGRP and VPP levels (r = 0.82) and a medium correlation between the SP level and pelvic pain in Group 1. The CGRP and SP levels in blood plasma highly correlate with the presence of pelvic venous pain.
Project description:Renal nutcracker syndrome is an anatomic anomaly characterized by the compression of the left renal vein between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta or between the aorta and the vertebral body. Diagnosis is often challenging. Common presenting symptoms include hematuria, abdominal pain, and pelvic congestion. Several open and endovascular techniques have been described to treat this syndrome. We report a novel surgical technique with robotic-assisted left renal vein transposition to treat a 19-year-old woman with renal nutcracker syndrome. Robotic vascular surgery can be a safe and effective therapy for this condition.
Project description:Isolated pelvic deep vein thromboses (DVT) are rare and difficult to diagnose, but they are more common in pregnant women and carry an increased risk of embolization. Pulmonary embolism is the most common non-obstetric cause of death in pregnancy. Compression ultrasound is the first-line imaging test for suspected lower extremity DVT, but it cannot usually aid in directly visualizing or easily diagnosing isolated pelvic DVT. Nonetheless, point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) may provide valuable clues to help rule in pelvic DVT and expedite initiation of anticoagulant therapy. Such findings include increased venous diameter, increased resistance to compression, visible venous reflux, and blunted phasicity. This case presents an example of how these findings on POCUS led the emergency physician to make the difficult diagnosis of pelvic DVT at the bedside within seconds.
Project description:Suprapubic varicose veins are usually indicative of unilateral iliac vein occlusion and venous collateralisation. We report two cases of suprapubic varicose veins following pelvic vein embolisation and subsequent pregnancy; both presented without residual pelvic venous reflux or pelvic venous obstruction. In both cases, there was no significant flow in the suprapubic veins indicating that they were not acting as a collateral post-pregnancy. One patient had this venous abnormality treated successfully with TRansluminal Occlusion of Perforators, followed by foam sclerotherapy to the main part of the suprapubic vein. This patient has since completed the reminder of her lower limb varicose vein treatment. We suggest that pregnancy may have caused prolonged intermittent compression of the left common iliac vein, and that this, together with the physiological impact of previous embolisation procedures, obstructed venous drainage from the left leg resulting in collateral vein formation within the 9-month gestation period.
Project description:Calf muscle pump is the motive force enhancing return of venous blood from the lower extremity to the heart. It causes displacement of venous blood in both vertical and horizontal directions, generates ambulatory pressure gradient between thigh and lower leg veins, and bidirectional streaming within calf perforators. Ambulatory pressure gradient triggers venous reflux in incompetent veins, which induces ambulatory venous hypertension in the lower leg and foot. Bidirectional flow in calf perforators enables quick pressure equalization between deep and superficial veins of the lower leg; the outward (into the superficial veins) oriented component of the bidirectional flow taking place during calf muscle contraction is no pathological reflux but a physiological centripetal flow streaming via great saphenous vein into the femoral vein. Calf perforators are communicating channels between both systems making them conjoined vessels; they are not involved in the generation of pathological hemodynamic situations, nor do they cause ambulatory venous hypertension. The real cause why recurrences develop has not as yet been cleared. Pressure gradient arising during calf pump activity between the femoral vein and the saphenous remnant after abolition of saphenous reflux triggers biophysical and biochemical events, which might induce recurrence. Thus, abolition of saphenous reflux removes the hemodynamic disturbance, but at the same time it generates precondition for reflux recurrence and for the comeback of the previous pathological situation; this chain of events has been called hemodynamic paradox.
Project description:Despite advances in cytotoxic chemotherapy and surgical cytoreduction, disease recurrence continues to be a troubling problem in patients with advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Malignant ascites affects approximately 10% of patients with recurrent EOC and is associated with troublesome symptoms, including abdominal pressure, distension, dyspnea, pelvic pain, and bowel/bladder dysfunction. To date, no effective therapy has been identified for the treatment of malignant ascites in patients with recurrent, advanced-stage ovarian cancer. Recently, immune modulation has gained attention as a novel approach to anti-cancer therapy. This review explores the role of epithelial cell-adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-directed immunotherapy, with a specific focus on the mechanism of action of the trifunctional antibody catumaxomab (anti-EpCAM × anti-CD3). In addition, clinical trials exploring the use of catumaxomab in the treatment of malignant ascites in patients with ovarian cancer are reviewed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) with concurrent musculoskeletal and bladder symptoms is a complex and challenging problem. However, clinically the co-existence of these symptoms is not routinely questioned, and their musculoskeletal source is not investigated thoroughly. The purpose of this case series is to present the use of Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT) principles in seven patients with concurrent chronic pelvic pain, bladder dysfunction and musculoskeletal symptoms.<h4>Case descriptions</h4>Seven patients with coexisting pelvic health and musculoskeletal signs and symptoms were retrospectively reviewed. Most common symptoms were urinary frequency, incontinence, pelvic pain, nocturia, dyspareunia, bladder dyssynergia, and lumbar, pelvic or hip pain. All patients failed to recognize the possible interconnectedness of the two sets of symptoms. Each exhibited a directional preference (DP) and subsequent MDT provisional classification of derangement was established; the use of DP forces abolished or dramatically improved both symptoms and mobility impairments. In all cases DP was for sustained sagittal forces initially, but ultimately lateral forces and mobilization were indicated.<h4>Outcomes</h4>Changes in Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, Care Connections Pelvic Floor and Lumbar spine were all clinically significant and exceeded minimally Clinical Important Differences several times. Average of 5.8 sessions per patient was noted. Follow-up at an average of 3.3 years revealed ongoing satisfaction and confidence in independent self-management.<h4>Discussion</h4>These case studies highlight the importance of ensuring expansion of intake questions for possible co-existence of symptoms in both pelvic and musculoskeletal patients, possibly suggesting a mechanical intervention is indicated. Provisional subclassification into 'Mechanical Pelvic Syndrome' is proposed. Level of Evidence: 4.
Project description:<i>Background and Objectives</i>: <i>Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)</i> infection impairs quality of life. However, whether eradication therapy ameliorates gastrointestinal symptoms remains questionable. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of <i>H. pylori</i> eradication therapy on gastrointestinal symptoms. <i>Materials and Methods</i>: A total of 140 patients, 59 women and 81 men, with a mean age of 61 and suffering from <i>H. pylori</i> infection in the University Hospital of Split, Croatia, were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to either concomitant or hybrid therapies. The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) questionnaire was completed by patients prior to and after the eradication therapy. <i>Results</i>: In both groups, the total GSRS score improved significantly after therapy. In the concomitant group, the abdominal pain score, reflux symptoms score and indigestion score decreased significantly after therapy. In the group with hybrid therapy, all five groups of symptoms (abdominal pain, reflux symptoms, indigestion, diarrhea and constipation) significantly decreased after therapy. Patients with adverse events had significantly higher total GSRS scores after eradication therapy. <i>Conclusions</i>: <i>H. pylori</i> eradication therapy could alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms regardless of the treatment used, but the favorable effect seemed to be more pronounced after hybrid therapy.