Conservation of apolipoprotein A-I's central domain structural elements upon lipid association on different high-density lipoprotein subclasses.
ABSTRACT: The antiatherogenic properties of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) are derived, in part, from lipidation-state-dependent structural elements that manifest at different stages of apoA-I's progression from lipid-free protein to spherical high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Previously, we reported the structure of apoA-I's N-terminus on reconstituted HDLs (rHDLs) of different sizes. We have now investigated at the single-residue level the conformational adaptations of three regions in the central domain of apoA-I (residues 119-124, 139-144, and 164-170) upon apoA-I lipid binding and HDL formation. An important function associated with these residues of apoA-I is the activation of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), the enzyme responsible for catalyzing HDL maturation. Structural examination was performed by site-directed tryptophan fluorescence and spin-label electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies for both the lipid-free protein and rHDL particles 7.8, 8.4, and 9.6 nm in diameter. The two methods provide complementary information about residue side chain mobility and molecular accessibility, as well as the polarity of the local environment at the targeted positions. The modulation of these biophysical parameters yielded new insight into the importance of structural elements in the central domain of apoA-I. In particular, we determined that the loosely lipid-associated structure of residues 134-145 is conserved in all rHDL particles. Truncation of this region completely abolished LCAT activation but did not significantly affect rHDL size, reaffirming the important role of this structural element in HDL function.
Project description:HDL protects against vascular disease by accepting free cholesterol from macrophage foam cells in the artery wall. This pathway is critically dependent on lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), which rapidly converts cholesterol to cholesteryl ester. The physiological activator of LCAT is apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major HDL protein. However, cholesterol removal is compromised if apoA-I is exposed to reactive intermediates. In humans with established cardiovascular disease, myeloperoxidase (MPO) oxidizes HDL, and oxidation by MPO impairs apoA-I's ability to activate LCAT in vitro. Because a single methionine residue in apoA-I, Met-148, resides near the center of the protein's LCAT activation domain, we determined whether its oxidation by MPO could account for the loss of LCAT activity. Mass spectrometric analysis demonstrated that oxidation of Met-148 to methionine sulfoxide associated quantitatively with loss of LCAT activity in both discoidal HDL and HDL(3), the enzyme's physiological substrates. Reversing oxidation with methionine sulfoxide reductase restored HDL's ability to activate LCAT. Discoidal HDL prepared with apoA-I containing a Met-148-->Leu mutation was significantly resistant to inactivation by MPO. Based on structural data in the literature, we propose that oxidation of Met-148 disrupts apoA-I's central loop, which overlaps the LCAT activation domain. These observations implicate oxidation of a single Met in apoA-I in impaired LCAT activation, a critical early step in reverse cholesterol transport.
Project description:Lecithin:cholesterol-acyl transferase (LCAT) plays a major role in cholesterol metabolism as it is the only extracellular enzyme able to esterify cholesterol. LCAT activity is required for lipoprotein remodeling and, most specifically, for the growth and maturation of HDLs. In fact, genetic alterations affecting LCAT functionality may cause a severe reduction in plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol with important clinical consequences. Although several hypotheses were formulated, the exact molecular recognition mechanism between LCAT and HDLs is still unknown. We employed a combination of structural bioinformatics procedures to deepen the insights into the HDL-LCAT interplay that promotes LCAT activation and cholesterol esterification. We have generated a data-driven model of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) and studied the dynamics of an assembled rHDL::LCAT supramolecular complex, pinpointing the conformational changes originating from the interaction between LCAT and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) that are necessary for LCAT activation. Specifically, we propose a mechanism in which the anchoring of LCAT lid to apoA-I helices allows the formation of a hydrophobic hood that expands the LCAT active site and shields it from the solvent, allowing the enzyme to process large hydrophobic substrates.
Project description:Apolipoprotein A-I and A-IV are protein constituents of high-density lipoproteins although their functional difference in lipoprotein metabolism is still unclear. To compare anti-atherogenic properties between apoA-I and apoA-4, we characterized both proteins in lipid-free and lipid-bound state. In lipid-free state, apoA4 showed two distinct bands, around 78 and 67 Å on native gel electrophoresis, while apoA-I showed scattered band pattern less than 71 Å. In reconstituted HDL (rHDL) state, apoA-4 showed three major bands around 101 Å and 113 Å, while apoA-I-rHDL showed almost single band around 98 Å size. Lipid-free apoA-I showed 2.9-fold higher phospholipid binding ability than apoA-4. In lipid-free state, BS3-crosslinking revealed that apoA-4 showed less multimerization tendency upto dimer, while apoA-I showed pentamerization. In rHDL state (95:1), apoA-4 was existed as dimer as like as apoA-I. With higher phospholipid content (255:1), five apoA-I and three apoA-4 were required to the bigger rHDL formation. Regardless of particle size, apoA-I-rHDL showed superior LCAT activation ability than apoA-4-rHDL. Uptake of acetylated LDL was inhibited by apoA-I in both lipid-free and lipid-bound state, while apoA-4 inhibited it only lipid-free state. ApoA-4 showed less anti-atherogenic activity with more sensitivity to glycation. In conclusion, apoA-4 showed inferior physiological functions in lipid-bound state, compared with those of apoA-I, to induce more pro-atherosclerotic properties.
Project description:It has been hypothesized that blood infusion of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) is a possible therapeutic strategy for the treatment of coronary artery disese. To compare short-term anti-inflammatory activity of wildtype (WT) apoA-I and point mutants, each rHDL containing WT, V156K, or R173C was infused into apo-E deficient atherosclerotic mice. Each rHDL was injected via the tail vein at a dosage of 120 mg/kg of body weight in 0.4 ml of tris-buffered saline (TBS), and blood was then collected at 24 and 48 h post-injection. Although regression activity was observed in each of the rHDL infused groups, a 30% reduction in the lipid-stained area of the aortic sinus was observed in the V156K and R173C-rHDL groups when compared to that of the WT-rHDL group, and this reduction was well correlated with an approximately 60% reduction in the accumulation of macrophages in the lesion area. Additionally, the groups that received the V156K and R173C-rHDL treatments showed smaller increases in the GOT, GPT, interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) serum levels than those that received the WT-rHDL treatment. In addition, the strongest serum paraoxonase and ferric reducing ability was observed in the V156K and R173C-rHDL groups. In vitro nitration and chlorination of apoA-I by MPO treatment revealed that V156K-rHDL and R173C-rHDL were less susceptible to chlorination. Furthermore, rHDL treatment inhibited cellular uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophage cells and the production of proatherogenic species in culture media. In conclusion, blood infusions of the rHDLs exerted in vivo regression activity with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity in apo-E deficient mice and THP-1 cells, especially in those that were treated with V156K and R173C apoA-I.
Project description:Human serum amyloid A (SAA) is an exchangeable apolipoprotein (apo) in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that influences HDL quality and functionality, particularly in the acute phase of inflammation. On the other hand, the structural and functional correlations of HDL containing SAA and apoA-I have not been reported. The current study was designed to compare the change in HDL quality with increasing SAA content in the lipid-free and lipid-bound states in reconstituted HDL (rHDL). The expressed recombinant human SAA1 (13 kDa) was purified to at least 98% and characterized in the lipid-free and lipid-bound states with apoA-I. The dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) binding ability of apoA-I was impaired severely by the addition of SAA, while SAA alone could not bind with DMPC. The recombinant human SAA1 was incorporated into the rHDL (molar ratio 95:5:1, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC): cholesterol: apoA-I) with various apoA-I:SAA molar ratios from 1:0 to 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:2. With increasing SAA1 content, the rHDL particle size was reduced from 98 Å to 93 Å, and the α-helicity of apoA-I:SAA was decreased from 73% to 40% for (1:0) and (1:2), respectively. The wavelength maximum fluorescence (WMF) of tryptophan in rHDL was red-shifted from 339 nm to 345 nm for (1:0) and (1:2) of apoA-I:SAA, respectively, indicating that the addition of SAA to rHDL destabilized the secondary structure of apoA-I. Upon denaturation by urea treatment from 0 M to 8 M, SAA showed only a 3 nm red-shift in WMF, while apoA-I showed a 16 nm red-shift in WMF, indicating that SAA is resistant to denaturation and apoA-I had higher conformational flexibility than SAA. The glycation reaction of apoA-I in the presence of fructose was accelerated up to 1.8-fold by adding SAA in a dose-dependent manner than that of apoA-I alone. In conclusion, the incorporation of SAA in rHDL impaired the structural stability of apoA-I and exacerbated glycation of HDL and apoA-I.
Project description:The goal of this study was to understand how the reconstituted HDL (rHDL) phospholipid (PL) composition affects its cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory properties. An ApoA-I mimetic peptide, 5A, was combined with either SM or POPC. Both lipid formulations exhibited similar in vitro cholesterol efflux by ABCA1, but 5A-SM exhibited higher ABCG1- and SR-BI-mediated efflux relative to 5A-POPC (P < 0.05). Injection of both rHDLs in rats resulted in mobilization of plasma cholesterol, although the relative potency was 3-fold higher for the same doses of 5A-SM than for 5A-POPC. Formation of pre? HDL was observed following incubation of rHDLs with both human and rat plasma in vitro, with 5A-SM inducing a higher extent of pre? formation relative to 5A-POPC. Both rHDLs exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, but 5A-SM showed higher inhibition of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1? release than did 5A-POPC (P < 0.05). Both 5A-SM and 5A-POPC showed reduction in total plaque area in ApoE(-/-) mice, but only 5A-SM showed a statistically significant reduction over placebo control and baseline (P < 0.01). The type of PL used to reconstitute peptide has significant influence on rHDL's anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerosis properties.
Project description:We investigated the significance of hydrophobic and charged residues 218-226 on the structure and functions of apoA-I and their contribution to the biogenesis of HDL. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of apoA-I[L218A/L219A/V221A/L222A] in apoA-I?/? mice decreased plasma cholesterol and apoA-I levels to 15% of wild-type (WT) control mice and generated pre-?- and ?4-HDL particles. In apoA-I?/? × apoE?/? mice, the same mutant formed few discoidal and pre-?-HDL particles that could not be converted to mature ?-HDL particles by excess LCAT. Expression of the apoA-I[E223A/K226A] mutant in apoA-I?/? mice caused lesser but discrete alterations in the HDL phenotype. The apoA-I[218-222] and apoA-I[E223A/K226A] mutants had 20% and normal capacity, respectively, to promote ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux. Both mutants had ?65% of normal capacity to activate LCAT in vitro. Biophysical analyses suggested that both mutants affected in a distinct manner the structural integrity and plasticity of apoA-I that is necessary for normal functions. We conclude that the alteration of the hydrophobic 218-222 residues of apoA-I disrupts apoA-I/ABCA1 interactions and promotes the generation of defective pre-? particles that fail to mature into ?-HDL subpopulations, thus resulting in low plasma apoA-I and HDL. Alterations of the charged 223, 226 residues caused milder but discrete changes in HDL phenotype.
Project description:Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the major protein component of high density lipoproteins (HDL) and a critical element of cholesterol metabolism. To better elucidate the role of the apoA-I structure-function in cholesterol metabolism, the conformation of the apoA-I N terminus (residues 6-98) on nascent HDL was examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic analysis. A series of 93 apoA-I variants bearing single nitroxide spin label at positions 6-98 was reconstituted onto 9.6-nm HDL particles (rHDL). These particles were subjected to EPR spectral analysis, measuring regional flexibility and side chain solvent accessibility. Secondary structure was elucidated from side-chain mobility and molecular accessibility, wherein two major ?-helical domains were localized to residues 6-34 and 50-98. We identified an unstructured segment (residues 35-39) and a ?-strand (residues 40-49) between the two helices. Residues 14, 19, 34, 37, 41, and 58 were examined by EPR on 7.8, 8.4, and 9.6 nm rHDL to assess the effect of particle size on the N-terminal structure. Residues 14, 19, and 58 showed no significant rHDL size-dependent spectral or accessibility differences, whereas residues 34, 37, and 41 displayed moderate spectral changes along with substantial rHDL size-dependent differences in molecular accessibility. We have elucidated the secondary structure of the N-terminal domain of apoA-I on 9.6 nm rHDL (residues 6-98) and identified residues in this region that are affected by particle size. We conclude that the inter-helical segment (residues 35-49) plays a role in the adaptation of apoA-I to the particle size of HDL.
Project description:The objective of this study was to establish the role of apoA-IV, ABCA1, and LCAT in the biogenesis of apoA-IV-containing HDL (HDL-A-IV) using different mouse models. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of apoA-IV in apoA-I(-/-) mice did not change plasma lipid levels. ApoA-IV floated in the HDL2/HDL3 region, promoted the formation of spherical HDL particles as determined by electron microscopy, and generated mostly ?- and a few pre-?-like HDL subpopulations. Gene transfer of apoA-IV in apoA-I(-/-) × apoE(-/-) mice increased plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and 80% of the protein was distributed in the VLDL/IDL/LDL region. This treatment likewise generated ?- and pre-?-like HDL subpopulations. Spherical and ?-migrating HDL particles were not detectable following gene transfer of apoA-IV in ABCA1(-/-) or LCAT(-/-) mice. Coexpression of apoA-IV and LCAT in apoA-I(-/-) mice restored the formation of HDL-A-IV. Lipid-free apoA-IV and reconstituted HDL-A-IV promoted ABCA1 and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI)-mediated cholesterol efflux, respectively, as efficiently as apoA-I and apoE. Our findings are consistent with a novel function of apoA-IV in the biogenesis of discrete HDL-A-IV particles with the participation of ABCA1 and LCAT, and may explain previously reported anti-inflammatory and atheroprotective properties of apoA-IV.
Project description:Recently we established a cell-free assay to evaluate "cholesterol uptake capacity (CUC)" as a novel concept for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) functionality and demonstrated the feasibility of CUC for coronary risk stratification, although its regulatory mechanism remains unclear. HDL fluidity affects cholesterol efflux, and trans fatty acids (TFA) reduce lipid membrane fluidity when incorporated into phospholipids (PL). This study aimed to clarify the effect of TFA in HDL-PL on CUC. Serum was collected from 264 patients after coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention to measure CUC and elaidic acid levels in HDL-PL, and in vitro analysis using reconstituted HDL (rHDL) was used to determine the HDL-PL mechanism affecting CUC. CUC was positively associated with HDL-PL levels but negatively associated with the proportion of elaidic acid in HDL-PL (elaidic acid in HDL-PL/HDL-PL ratio). Increased elaidic acid-phosphatidylcholine (PC) content in rHDL exhibited no change in particle size or CUC compared to rHDL containing oleic acid in PC. Recombinant human lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) enhanced CUC, and LCAT-dependent enhancement of CUC and LCAT-dependent cholesterol esterification were suppressed in rHDL containing elaidic acid in PC. Therefore, CUC is affected by HDL-PL concentration, HDL-PL acyl group composition, and LCAT-dependent cholesterol esterification. Elaidic acid precipitated an inhibition of cholesterol uptake and maturation of HDL; therefore, modulation of HDL-PL acyl groups could improve CUC.