Pd(II) and Zn(II) based complexes with Schiff base ligands: synthesis, characterization, luminescence, and antibacterial and catalytic activities.
ABSTRACT: Two new metal complexes involving Schiff base ligands, namely, [Pd(L1)2] (1) and [Zn(L2)2] (2), [HL1: 2,4-dibromo-6-((E)-(mesitylimino)methyl)phenol and HL2: 2-((E)-(2,6-diisopropylphenylimino)methyl)-4,6-dibromophenol], have been solvothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR-spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both 1 and 2 are mononuclear cyclometalated complexes with square planar and tetrahedral coordination geometry, respectively. 1 and 2 display photoluminescence in the solid state at 298 K (fluorescence lifetimes ? = 5.521 ?s at 508 nm for 1; ? = 3.697 ?s at 506 nm for 2). These Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes have been screened for antibacterial activity against several bacteria strains, and the results are compared with the activity of penicillin. Moreover, the Suzuki reaction of 4-bromoanisole with phenylboronic acid by 1 has also been studied.
Project description:Thiosemicarbazones continue to attract the interest of researchers as potential anticancer drugs. For example, 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, or triapine, is the most well-known representative of this class of compounds that has entered multiple phase I and II clinical trials. Two new triapine derivatives HL1 and HL2 were prepared by condensation reactions of 2-pyridinamidrazone and S-methylisothiosemicarbazidium chloride with 3-N-(tert-butyloxycarbonyl) amino-pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, followed by a Boc-deprotection procedure. Subsequent reaction of HL1 and HL2 with CuCl2·2H2O in 1:1 molar ratio in methanol produced the complexes [CuII(HL1)Cl2]·H2O (1·H2O) and [CuII(HL2)Cl2] (2). The reaction of HL2 with Fe(NO3)3?9H2O in 2:1 molar ratio in the presence of triethylamine afforded the complex [FeIII(L2)2]NO3?0.75H2O (3?0.75H2O), in which the isothiosemicarbazone acts as a tridentate monoanionic ligand. The crystal structures of HL1, HL2 and metal complexes 1 and 2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The UV-Vis and EPR spectroelectrochemical measurements revealed that complexes 1 and 2 underwent irreversible reduction of Cu(II) with subsequent ligand release, while 3 showed an almost reversible electrochemical reduction in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Aqueous solution behaviour of HL1 and 1, as well as of HL2 and its complex 2, was monitored as well. Complexes 1-3 were tested against ovarian carcinoma cells, as well as noncancerous embryonic kidney cells, in comparison to respective free ligands, triapine and cisplatin. While the free ligands HL1 and HL2 were devoid of antiproliferative activity, their respective metal complexes showed remarkable antiproliferative activity in a micromolar concentration range. The activity was not related to the inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) R2 protein, but rather to cancer cell homeostasis disturbance-leading to the disruption of cancer cell signalling.
Project description:The incorporation of phosphonate ligands into the cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes can not only tune their electronic and optical properties but also provide the possibility of anchoring these molecules on the semiconductor surfaces for further applications. Herein, we report the first examples of mononuclear cyclometallated iridium(III) complexes incorporating phosphonate ligands, namely, [Ir(ppy)2(HL1)]·0.5H2O (1), [Ir(ppy)2(HL2)]·0.5H2O (2), [Ir(dfppy)2(HL1)] (3), and [Ir(dfppy)2(HL2)]·3.5H2O (4) (ppy = 2-phenylpyridine, dfppy = 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine, H2L1 = 2-pyridylphosphonic acid, H2L2 = 2-quinolinephosphonic acid). Luminescent spectra are studied both in solution and in the solid state, and significantly red-shifted broad emission bands are observed in complexes 2 and 4. The experimental and density functional theory (DFT) time-dependent-DFT calculation results indicate that the expansion of the aromatic conjugation length in the ancillary phosphonate ligands decreases the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels of the systems, originating from the triplet state associated with the ancillary ligand such as 3MLCT, 3LC, and 3LLCT charge-transfer transitions.
Project description:Dimorfolido-N-trichloroacetylphosphorylamide (HL1) and dimorfolido-N-benzoylphosphorylamide (HL2) as representatives of carbacylamidophosphates were synthesized and identified by the methods of IR, 1H, and 31P NMR spectroscopy. In vitro HL1 and HL2 at 1 mM concentration caused cell specific and time-dependent decrease of leukemic cell viability. Compounds caused the similar gradual decrease of Jurkat cells viability at 72 h (by 35%). HL1 had earlier and more profound toxic effect as compared to HL2 regardless on leukemic cell line. Viability of Molt-16 and CCRF-CEM cells under the action of HL1 was decreased at 24 h (by 32 and 45%, respectively) with no substantial further reducing up to 72 h. Toxic effect of HL2 was detected only at 72 h of incubation of Jurkat and Molt-16 cells (cell viability was decreased by 40 and 45%, respectively).It was shown that C60 fullerene enhanced the toxic effect of HL2 on leukemic cells. Viability of Jurkat and CCRF-CEM cells at combined action of C60 fullerene and HL2 was decreased at 72 h (by 20 and 24%, respectively) in comparison with the effect of HL2 taken separately.In silico study showed that HL1 and HL2 can interact with DNA and form complexes with DNA both separately and in combination with C60 fullerene. More stable complexes are formed when DNA interacts with HL1 or C60?+?HL2 structure. Strong stacking interactions can be formed between HL2 and C60 fullerene. Differences in the types of identified bonds and ways of binding can determine distinction in cytotoxic effects of studied compounds.
Project description:The binding properties of HL1, HL2, and HL3 ligands toward Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions, constituted by tetraaza-macrocyclic rings decorated with pyrimidine pendants, were investigated by means of potentiometric and UV spectrophotometric measurements in aqueous solution, with the objective of using the related HL-M(II) (HL = HL1-HL3; M = Cu, Zn) complexes for the preparation of hybrid MWCNT-HL-M(II) materials based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), through an environmentally friendly noncovalent procedure. As shown by the crystal structure of [Cu(HL1)](ClO4)2, metal coordination takes place in the macrocyclic ring, whereas the pyrimidine residue remains available for attachment onto the surface of the MWCNTs via ?-? stacking interactions. On the basis of equilibrium data showing the formation of highly stable Cu(II) complexes, the MWCNT-HL1-Cu(II) material was prepared and characterized. This compound proved very stable toward lixiviation processes (release of HL1 and/or Cu(II)); thus, it was used for the preparation of its reduced MWCNT-HL1-Cu(0) derivatives. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that MWCNT-HL1-Cu(0) contains Cu(0) nanoparticles, of very small (less than 5 nm) and regular size, uniformly distributed over the surface of the MWCNTs. Also, the MWCNT-HL1-Cu(0) material proved very resistant to detachment of its components. Accordingly, both MWCNT-HL1-Cu(II) and MWCNT-HL1-Cu(0) are promising candidates for applications in heterogeneous catalysis.
Project description:Chemical tools are needed to discover new effective drugs for tackling multifaceted complex neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Multifunctional nature of two compounds, 5-((4-nitro-phenyl)diazenyl)quinolin-8-ol (HL1) and 4-((4-nitrophenyl)diazenyl)benzene-1,3-diol (HL2) is reported w.r.t. their ability to bind Cu2+ ions and amyloid aggregates related to AD. HL1 and HL2 have half congo-red type azo-stilbene structural framework incorporated with metal chelating groups, designed to chelate metal ions from metal-amyloid species. Metal binding studies of HL1 and HL2 are established by the methods of Job's Plot, UV-vis spectra with metal ions and stability constant determination. In addition, their metal complexes are isolated, purity checked by elemental analysis, spectroscopically characterized and their structural analyses were obtained from DFT based calculations including binding energy determination. Chicken egg white Lysozyme (CEWL) was used as a model peptide for fibrillation studies. HL1 is found as an excellent colorimetric sensor for amyloid fibrils. Inhibitory effect of HL1 and HL2 and their isolated metal complexes L1-Cu and L2-Cu on CEWL fibrillation was studied using ThT and ANS fluorescence assay along with TEM imaging. In addition, the cell toxicity studies on these compounds suggest that although azo dyes may be non-toxic but having a nitro-substitution lead to significant cell toxicity. Overall, these results suggest that this new class of multifunctional small molecules can interact with amyloids as well as metal ions and could be potential anti-aggregation metal chelating agents.
Project description:In this study, two Ni(II) complexes, namely [Ni(HL1)?(OAc)?] (1) and [Ni(L2)?] (2) (where HL1 and HL2 are (E)-1-((1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1H-pyrazol-5-ylimino)methyl)-naphthalen-2-ol) and (E)-ethyl-5-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methyleneamino)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate, respectively), were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS), elemental analysis, and IR. Their uptake in biological macromolecules and cancer cells were preliminarily investigated through electronic absorption (UV-Vis), circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence quenching measurements. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) interaction experiments were investigated by spectroscopy which showed that the complexes and ligands could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through an obvious static quenching process. The spectroscopic studies indicated that these complexes could bind to DNA via groove, non-covalent, and electrostatic interactions. Furthermore, in vitro methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays and Annexin V/PI flow cytometry experiments were performed to assess the antitumor capacity of the complexes against eight cell lines. The results show that both of the complexes possess reasonable cytotoxicities.
Project description:Triethylphosphinegold(I) complexes [Au(HL1)P(CH2CH3)3]PF6 (1), [Au(HL2)P(CH2CH3)3]PF6 (2), and [Au(HL3)P(CH2CH3)3]PF6 (3) were obtained with (E)-2-(1-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propan-2-ylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide (HL1), (E)-N-methyl-2-(1-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propan-2-ylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide (HL2), and (E)-2-(1-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propan-2-ylidene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL3). All compounds were assayed for their cytotoxic activities against HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells under normoxia and hypoxia conditions and against nonmalignant HEK-293 human embryonic kidney cells under normoxia conditions. The thiosemicarbazone ligands HL1-HL3 were inactive against HCT-116 cells under hypoxia but while HL3 was inactive, HL1 and HL2 proved to be cytotoxic to both cell lineages under normoxia conditions. Complexes (1-3) and the triethylphosphinegod(I) precursor proved to be active against both cell lineages in normoxia as well as in hypoxia. While 1 and 3 revealed to be active against HEK-293 and HCT-116 cells, being approximately as active against HCT-116 cells in normoxia as under hypoxia, complex (2) proved to be more active against HCT-116 cells under hypoxia than under normoxia conditions, and more active against HCT-116 cells than against the nonmalignant HEK-293 cells, with the selectivity index, calculated as SI = IC50HEK-293/IC50HCT-116hypoxia, equal to 3.7, similar to the value obtained for the control drug tirapazamine (tirapazamine (TPZ), SI = 4). Although the compounds showed distinct cytotoxic activities, the electrochemical behaviors of HL1-HL3 were very similar, as were the behaviors of complexes (1-3). Complex (2) deserves special interest since it was significantly more active under hypoxia than under normoxia conditions. Hence, in this case, selective reduction of the nitro group in a low oxygen pressure environment, resulting in toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and damage to DNA or other biomolecules, might operate, while for the remaining compounds, other modes of action probably occur.
Project description:Four Schiff bases derived from 7-hydrazin-yl-5,8-dihydroindolo[2,3-d]benzazepin-(6H)-one and its bromo-substituted analogue (HL1-HL4) and four copper(ii) complexes 1-4 have been synthesised and fully characterised by standard spectroscopic methods (1H and 13C NMR, UV-vis), ESI mass spectrometry, single crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroelectrochemistry. In addition, two previously reported complexes with paullone ligands 5 and 6 were prepared and studied for comparison reasons. The CuII ion in 1-4 is five-coordinate and adopts a square-pyramidal or slightly distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry. The ligands HL1-4 act as tridentate, the other two coordination places are occupied by two chlorido co-ligands. The organic ligands in 2 and 3 are bound tighter to copper(ii) when compared to related paullone ligands in 5 and 6. The new compounds show very strong cytotoxic activity against human colon adenocarcinoma doxorubicin-sensitive Colo 205 and multidrug resistant Colo 320 cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the low micromolar to nanomolar concentration range.
Project description:Two new zinc complexes, Zn(HL1)2 (1) and [Zn2(H2L2)(OAc)2]2 (2) [H2L1 = Schiff base derived from o-vanillin and (R)-(+)-2-amino-3-phenyl-1-propanol, H3L2 = Schiff base derived from o-vanillin and 2-amino-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol], have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, TG analyses, solid fluorescence, IR, UV-Vis and circular dichroism spectra. The structural analysis shows that complex 1 has a right-handed double helical chain along the crystallographic b axis. A homochiral 3D supramolecular architecture has been further constructed by intermolecular C-H··· ?, O-H···O and C-H···O interactions. Complex 2 includes two crystallographically independent binuclear zinc molecules. The two binuclear zinc molecules are isostructural. The 2-D sheet supramolecular structure was formed by intermolecular hydrogen bonding interaction. The fluorescence of ligands and complexes in DMF at room temperature are studied. The interactions of two complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) are investigated using UV-Vis, CD and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results show that complex 1 exhibits higher interaction with CT-DNA than complex 2. In addition, in vitro cytotoxicity of the complexes towards four kinds of cancerous cell lines (A549, HeLa, HL-60 and K562) were assayed by the MTT method. Investigations on the structures indicated that the chirality and nuclearity of zinc complexes play an important role on cytotoxic activity.
Project description:Two novel organoantimony(V) and two organobismuth(V) complexes of the type ML2 were synthesized, with L = acetylsalicylic acid (HL1) or 3-acetoxybenzoic acid (HL2) and M = triphenylantimony(V) (M1) or triphenylbismuth(V) (M2). Complexes, [M1(L1)2] (1), [M1(L2)2]?CHCl3 (2), [M2(L1)2], (3) and [M2(L2)2] (4), were characterized by elemental analysis, IR and NMR. Crystal structures of triphenylantimony(V) dicarboxylate complexes 1 and 2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analyses revealed that 1 and 2 adopt five-coordinated extremely distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometries, binding with three phenyl groups in the equatorial position and two deprotonated organic ligands (L) in the axial sites. The metal complexes, their metal salts and ligands were evaluated in vitro for their activities against Leishmania infantum and amazonensis promastigotes and Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. Both the metal complexes showed antileishmanial and antibacterial activities but the bismuth complexes were the most active. Intriguingly, complexation of organobismuth(V) salt reduced its activity against Leishmania, but increased it against bacteria. In vitro cytotoxic test of these complexes against murine macrophages showed that antimony(V) complexes were the least toxic. Considering the selectivity indexes, organoantimony(V) complexes emerge as the most promising antileishmanial agents and organobismuth(V) complex 3 as the best antibacterial agent.