Redesign of MST enzymes to target lyase activity instead promotes mutase and dehydratase activities.
ABSTRACT: The isochorismate and salicylate synthases are members of the MST family of enzymes. The isochorismate synthases establish an equilibrium for the conversion chorismate to isochorismate and the reverse reaction. The salicylate synthases convert chorismate to salicylate with an isochorismate intermediate; therefore, the salicylate synthases perform isochorismate synthase and isochorismate-pyruvate lyase activities sequentially. While the active site residues are highly conserved, there are two sites that show trends for lyase-activity and lyase-deficiency. Using steady state kinetics and HPLC progress curves, we tested the "interchange" hypothesis that interconversion of the amino acids at these sites would promote lyase activity in the isochorismate synthases and remove lyase activity from the salicylate synthases. An alternative, "permute" hypothesis, that chorismate-utilizing enzymes are designed to permute the substrate into a variety of products and tampering with the active site may lead to identification of adventitious activities, is tested by more sensitive NMR time course experiments. The latter hypothesis held true. The variant enzymes predominantly catalyzed chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase activities, sequentially generating prephenate and phenylpyruvate, augmenting previously debated (mutase) or undocumented (dehydratase) adventitious activities.
Project description:The enzyme chorismate mutase EcCM from Escherichia coli catalyzes one of the few pericyclic reactions in biology, the transformation of chorismate to prephenate. The isochorismate pyruvate lyase PchB from Pseudomonas aeroginosa catalyzes another pericyclic reaction, the isochorismate to salicylate transformation. Interestingly, PchB possesses weak chorismate mutase activity as well thus being able to catalyze two distinct pericyclic reactions in a single active site. EcCM and PchB possess very similar folds, despite their low sequence identity. Using molecular dynamics simulations of four combinations of the two enzymes (EcCM and PchB) with the two substrates (chorismate and isochorismate) we show that the electrostatic field due to EcCM at atoms of chorismate favors the chorismate to prephenate transition and that, analogously, the electrostatic field due to PchB at atoms of isochorismate favors the isochorismate to salicylate transition. The largest differences between EcCM and PchB in electrostatic field strengths at atoms of the substrates are found to be due to residue side chains at distances between 0.6 and 0.8 nm from particular substrate atoms. Both enzymes tend to bring their non-native substrate in the same conformation as their native substrate. EcCM and to a lower extent PchB fail in influencing the forces on and conformations of the substrate such as to favor the other chemical reaction (isochorismate pyruvate lyase activity for EcCM and chorismate mutase activity for PchB). These observations might explain the difficulty of engineering isochorismate pyruvate lyase activity in EcCM by solely mutating active site residues.
Project description:- Identification of proteins whose expression was affected by a bifunctional chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydratase in Acidovorax citrulli str. KACC17005 - Shotgun proteomic analysis was used - Two strains were used with three biological replicates (total 6 samples). WT: the wild-type strain. 12G: a bifunctional chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydratase knockout mutant
Project description:The isochorismate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchA) catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate, which is subsequently converted by a second enzyme (PchB) to salicylate for incorporation into the salicylate-capped siderophore pyochelin. PchA is a member of the MST family of enzymes, which includes the structurally homologous isochorismate synthases from Escherichia coli (EntC and MenF) and salicylate synthases from Yersinia enterocolitica (Irp9) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MbtI). The latter enzymes generate isochorismate as an intermediate before generating salicylate and pyruvate. General acid-general base catalysis has been proposed for isochorismate synthesis in all five enzymes, but the residues required for the isomerization are a matter of debate, with both lysine221 and glutamate313 proposed as the general base (PchA numbering). This work includes a classical characterization of PchA with steady state kinetic analysis, solvent kinetic isotope effect analysis and by measuring the effect of viscosogens on catalysis. The results suggest that isochorismate production from chorismate by the MST enzymes is the result of general acid-general base catalysis with a lysine as the base and a glutamic acid as the acid, in reverse protonation states. Chemistry is determined to not be rate limiting, favoring the hypothesis of a conformational or binding step as the slow step.
Project description:The shikimate pathway of bacteria, fungi, and plants generates chorismate, which is drawn into biosynthetic pathways that form aromatic amino acids and other important metabolites, including folates, menaquinone, and siderophores. Many of the pathways initiated at this branch point transform chorismate using an MST enzyme. The MST enzymes (menaquinone, siderophore, and tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes) are structurally homologous and magnesium-dependent, and all perform similar chemical permutations to chorismate by nucleophilic addition (hydroxyl or amine) at the 2-position of the ring, inducing displacement of the 4-hydroxyl. The isomerase enzymes release isochorismate or aminodeoxychorismate as the product, while the synthase enzymes also have lyase activity that displaces pyruvate to form either salicylate or anthranilate. This has led to the hypothesis that the isomerase and lyase activities performed by the MST enzymes are functionally conserved. Here we have developed tailored pre-steady-state approaches to establish the kinetic mechanisms of the isochorismate and salicylate synthase enzymes of siderophore biosynthesis. Our data are centered on the role of magnesium ions, which inhibit the isochorismate synthase enzymes but not the salicylate synthase enzymes. Prior structural data have suggested that binding of the metal ion occludes access or egress of substrates. Our kinetic data indicate that for the production of isochorismate, a high magnesium ion concentration suppresses the rate of release of product, accounting for the observed inhibition and establishing the basis of the ordered-addition kinetic mechanism. Moreover, we show that isochorismate is channeled through the synthase reaction as an intermediate that is retained in the active site by the magnesium ion. Indeed, the lyase-active enzyme has 3 orders of magnitude higher affinity for the isochorismate complex relative to the chorismate complex. Apparent negative-feedback inhibition by ferrous ions is documented at nanomolar concentrations, which is a potentially physiologically relevant mode of regulation for siderophore biosynthesis in vivo.
Project description:A bifunctional protein denoted as the P protein and encoded by pheA is widely present in purple gram-negative bacteria. This P protein carries catalytic domains that specify chorismate mutase (CM-P) and prephenate dehydratase. The instability of a recombinant plasmid carrying a pheA insert cloned from Erwinia herbicola resulted in a loss of 260 bp plus the TAA stop codon from the 3' terminus of pheA. The plasmid carrying the truncated pheA gene (denoted pheA*) was able to complement an Escherichia coli pheA auxotroph. pheA* was shown to be a chimera composed of the residual 5' part of pheA (901 bp) and a 5-bp fragment from the pUC18 vector. The new fusion protein (PheA*) retained both chorismate mutase and prephenate dehydratase activities. PheA* had a calculated subunit molecular weight of 33,574, in comparison to the 43,182-molecular-weight subunit size of PheA. The deletion did not affect the ability of PheA* to assume the native dimeric configuration of PheA. Both the CM-P and prephenate dehydratase components of PheA* were insensitive to L-phenylalanine inhibition, in contrast to the corresponding components of PheA. L-Phenylalanine protected both catalytic activities of PheA from thermal inactivation, and this protective effect of L-phenylalanine upon the PheA* activities was lost. PheA* was more stable than PheA to thermal inactivation; this was more pronounced for prephenate dehydratase than for CM-P. In the presence of dithiothreitol, the differential resistance of PheA* prephenate dehydratase to thermal inactivation was particularly striking.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Project description:An isochorismate-pyruvate lyase with adventitious chorismate mutase activity from Pseudomonas aerugionsa (PchB) achieves catalysis of both pericyclic reactions in part by the stabilization of reactive conformations and in part by electrostatic transition-state stabilization. When the active site loop Lys42 is mutated to histidine, the enzyme develops a pH dependence corresponding to a loss of catalytic power upon deprotonation of the histidine. Structural data indicate that the change is not due to changes in active site architecture, but due to the difference in charge at this key site. With loss of the positive charge on the K42H side chain at high pH, the enzyme retains lyase activity at ?100-fold lowered catalytic efficiency but loses detectable mutase activity. We propose that both substrate organization and electrostatic transition state stabilization contribute to catalysis. However, the dominant reaction path for catalysis is dependent on reaction conditions, which influence the electrostatic properties of the enzyme active site amino acid side chains.
Project description:In addition to being a vital component of proteins, phenylalanine is also a precursor of numerous aromatic primary and secondary metabolites with broad physiological functions. In plants phenylalanine is synthesized predominantly via the arogenate pathway in plastids. Here, we describe the structure, molecular players and subcellular localization of a microbial-like phenylpyruvate pathway for phenylalanine biosynthesis in plants. Using a reverse genetic approach and metabolic flux analysis, we provide evidence that the cytosolic chorismate mutase is responsible for directing carbon flux towards cytosolic phenylalanine production via the phenylpyruvate pathway. We also show that an alternative transcription start site of a known plastidial enzyme produces a functional cytosolic prephenate dehydratase that catalyzes the conversion of prephenate to phenylpyruvate, the intermediate step between chorismate mutase and phenylpyruvate aminotransferase. Thus, our results complete elucidation of phenylalanine biosynthesis via phenylpyruvate in plants, showing that this pathway splits from the known plastidial arogenate pathway at chorismate, instead of prephenate as previously thought, and the complete pathway is localized in the cytosol.
Project description:Acidovorax citrulli (Ac) is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) in cucurbit crops. Despite its importance in the cucurbit industry, resistant cultivars/lines against BFB have not yet been identified. Therefore, there is a need to characterize the virulence factors/mechanisms in Ac to control the disease. Chorismate mutase, a key enzyme in the shikimate pathway, produces aromatic amino acids. Here, we report the functions of putative bifunctional chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydratase in Ac (CmpAc) determined by proteomic analysis and phenotypic assays. Ac strain lacking CmpAc, Ac?cmpAc(EV), were significantly less virulent on watermelon in the germinated-seed inoculation and leaf infiltration assays. Sequence analysis revealed that CmpAc possesses two distinct domains: chorismate mutase and prephenate dehydratase, indicating that CmpAc is a bifunctional protein. Auxotrophic assays demonstrated that CmpAc is required for the biosynthesis of phenylalanine, but not tyrosine. The comparative proteomic analysis revealed that CmpAc is mostly involved in cell wall/membrane/envelop biogenesis. Furthermore, Ac?cmpAc(EV) showed reduced twitching halo production and enhanced biofilm formation. In addition, Ac?cmpAc(EV) was less tolerant to osmotic stress but more tolerant to antibiotics (polymyxin B). Thus, our study provides new insights into the functions of a putative bifunctional protein related to virulence in Ac.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance is a growing health concern, and new avenues of antimicrobial drug design are being actively sought. One suggested pathway to be targeted for inhibitor design is that of iron scavenging through siderophores. Here we present a high throughput screen to the isochorismate-pyruvate lyase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an enzyme required for the production of the siderophore pyochelin. Compounds identified in the screen are high nanomolar to low micromolar inhibitors of the enzyme and produce growth inhibition in PAO1 P. aeruginosa in the millimolar range under iron-limiting conditions. The identified compounds were also tested for enzymatic inhibition of Escherichia coli chorismate mutase, a protein of similar fold and similar chemistry, and of Yersinia enterocolitica salicylate synthase, a protein of differing fold but catalyzing the same lyase reaction. In both cases, subsets of the inhibitors from the screen were found to be inhibitory to enzymatic activity (mutase or synthase) in the micromolar range and capable of growth inhibition in their respective organisms (E. coli or Y. enterocolitica).
Project description:Mandelic acid is an important aromatic fine chemical and is currently mainly produced via chemical synthesis. Recently, mandelic acid production was achieved by microbial fermentations using engineered Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing heterologous hydroxymandelate synthases (hmaS). The best-performing strains carried a deletion of the gene encoding the first enzyme of the tyrosine biosynthetic pathway and therefore were auxotrophic for tyrosine. This was necessary to avoid formation of the competing intermediate hydroxyphenylpyruvate, the preferred substrate for HmaS, which would have resulted in the predominant production of hydroxymandelic acid. However, feeding tyrosine to the medium would increase fermentation costs. In order to engineer a tyrosine prototrophic mandelic acid-producing S. cerevisiae strain, we tested three strategies: (1) rational engineering of the HmaS active site for reduced binding of hydroxyphenylpyruvate, (2) compartmentalization of the mandelic acid biosynthesis pathway by relocating HmaS together with the two upstream enzymes chorismate mutase Aro7 and prephenate dehydratase Pha2 into mitochondria or peroxisomes, and (3) utilizing a feedback-resistant version of the bifunctional E. coli enzyme PheA (PheAfbr) in an aro7 deletion strain. PheA has both chorismate mutase and prephenate dehydratase activity. Whereas the enzyme engineering approaches were only successful in respect to reducing the preference of HmaS for hydroxyphenylpyruvate but not in increasing mandelic acid titers, we could show that strategies (2) and (3) significantly reduced hydroxymandelic acid production in favor of increased mandelic acid production, without causing tyrosine auxotrophy. Using the bifunctional enzyme PheAfbr turned out to be the most promising strategy, and mandelic acid production could be increased 12-fold, yielding titers up to 120?mg/L. Moreover, our results indicate that utilizing PheAfbr also shows promise for other industrial applications with S. cerevisiae that depend on a strong flux into the phenylalanine biosynthetic pathway.