Diversity of extended HLA-DRB1 haplotypes in the Finnish population.
ABSTRACT: The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC, 6p21) codes for traditional HLA and other host response related genes. The polymorphic HLA-DRB1 gene in MHC Class II has been associated with several complex diseases. In this study we focus on MHC haplotype structures in the Finnish population. We explore the variability of extended HLA-DRB1 haplotypes in relation to the other traditional HLA genes and a selected group of MHC class III genes. A total of 150 healthy Finnish individuals were included in the study. Subjects were genotyped for HLA alleles (HLA-A, -B, -DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1). The polymorphism of TNF, LTA, C4, BTNL2 and HLA-DRA genes was studied with 74 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). The C4A and C4B gene copy numbers and a 2-bp silencing insertion at exon 29 in C4A gene were analysed with quantitative genomic realtime-PCR. The allele frequencies for each locus were calculated and haplotypes were constructed using both the traditional HLA alleles and SNP blocks. The most frequent Finnish A?B?DR -haplotype, uncommon in elsewhere in Europe, was A*03?B*35?DRB1*01?01. The second most common haplotype was a common European ancestral haplotype AH 8.1 (A*01?B*08?DRB1*03?01). Extended haplotypes containing HLA-B, TNF block, C4 and HLA-DPB1 strongly increased the number of HLA-DRB1 haplotypes showing variability in the extended HLA-DRB1 haplotype structures. On the contrary, BTNL2 block and HLA-DQB1 were more conserved showing linkage with the HLA-DRB1 alleles. We show that the use of HLA-DRB1 haplotypes rather than single HLA-DRB1 alleles is advantageous when studying the polymorphisms and LD patters of the MHC region. For disease association studies the HLA-DRB1 haplotypes with various MHC markers allows us to cluster haplotypes with functionally important gene variants such as C4 deficiency and cytokines TNF and LTA, and provides hypotheses for further assessment. Our study corroborates the importance of studying population-specific MHC haplotypes.
Project description:To determine the relationship between highly-conserved extended-haplotypes (CEHs) in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and MS-susceptibility.Among the ~200 MS-susceptibility regions, which are known from genome-wide analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the MHC accounts for roughly a third of the currently explained variance and the strongest MS-associations are for certain Class II alleles (e.g., HLA-DRB1*15:01; HLA-DRB1*03:01; and HLA-DRB1*13:03), which frequently reside on CEHs within the MHC.Autosomal SNPs (441,547) from 11,376 MS cases and 18,872 controls in the WTCCC dataset were phased. The most significant MS associated SNP haplotype was composed of 11 SNPs in the MHC Class II region surrounding the HLA-DRB1 gene. We also phased alleles at the HLA-A, HLA-C, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DQB1 loci. This data was used to probe the relationship between CEHs and MS susceptibility.We phased a total of 59,884 extended haplotypes (HLA-A, HLA-C, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1 and SNP haplotypes) from 29,942 individuals. Of these, 10,078 unique extended haplotypes were identified. The 10 most common CEHs accounted for 22% (13,302) of the total. By contrast, the 8,446 least common extended haplotypes also accounted for approximately 20% (12,298) of the total. This extreme frequency-disparity among extended haplotypes necessarily complicates interpretation of reported disease-associations with specific HLA alleles. In particular, the HLA motif HLA-DRB1*15:01~HLA-DQB1*06:02 is strongly associated with MS risk. Nevertheless, although this motif is almost always found on the a1 SNP haplotype, it can rarely be found on others (e.g., a27 and a36), and, in these cases, it seems to have no apparent disease-association (OR = 0.7; CI = 0.3-1.3 and OR = 0.7; CI = 0.2-2.2, respectively). Furthermore, single copy carriers of the a1 SNP-haplotype without this HLA motif still have an increased disease risk (OR = 2.2; CI = 1.2-3.8). In addition, even among the set of CEHs, which carry the Class II motif of HLA-DRB1*15:01~HLA-DQB1*06:02~a1, different CEHs have differing strengths in their MS-associations.The MHC in diverse human populations consists, primarily, of a very small collection of very highly-selected CEHs. Our findings suggest that the MS-association with the HLA-DRB1*15:01~HLA-DQB1*06:02 haplotype may be due primarily to the combined attributes of the CEHs on which this particular HLA-motif often resides.
Project description:HLA genes are highly polymorphic and structurally complex. They are located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6, and the frequency of alleles and haplotypes varies widely among human populations. In this paper, we calculated the allele and haplotype frequencies using the HLA data of more than 120 000 Italian unrelated bone marrow donors enrolled in the national registry (IBMDR) and typed them with a high-resolution (HR) method for the HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 alleles. The allele frequency data were obtained by manual counting; haplotype frequencies were calculated using the expectation maximisation (EM) algorithm. The total numbers of observed alleles were 226 for HLA-A, 343 for HLA-B, 201 for HLA-C and 210 for HLA-DRB1, which account for 5.4%, 6.7%, 5.2% and 8.5%, respectively, of each locus allele (IPD-IMGT/HLA Database Release 3.32, April 2018). The three most frequent Italian haplotypes were HLA-A*01:01~B*08:01~C*07:01~DRB1*03:01 (2.5%), A*02:01~B*18:01~C*07:01~DRB1*11:04 (1.1%) and A*30:01~B*13:02~C*06:02~DRB1*07:01 (1.1%). Moreover, for a relevant subset of the examined population (>100 000 individuals), the birthplace was available, and thus, we grouped the frequency data based on the corresponding Italian geographic areas, describing the HLA specificity of the Italian regional populations. The haplotype frequencies were also compared between national and regional data, and we observed remarkable differences in the regional haplotype frequencies, particularly in Sardinia. This study represents a valid tool to identify a more efficient haematopoietic stem cell unrelated donor recruitment and selection strategy, as well as for population genetic and HLA-disease association fields.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The association between HLA-DRB1*15:01 with multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility is well established, but the contribution of the tightly associated HLA-DRB5*01:01 allele has not yet been completely ascertained. Similarly, the effects of HLA-DRB1*04:01 alleles and haplotypes, defined at the full-gene resolution level with MS risk remains to be elucidated. OBJECTIVES:To characterize the molecular architecture of class II HLA-DR15 and HLA-DR4 haplotypes associated with MS. METHODS:Next-generation sequencing was used to determine HLA-DQB1, HLA-DQA1, and HLA-DRB1/4/5 alleles in 1403 unrelated European-American patients and 1425 healthy unrelated controls. Effect sizes of HLA alleles and haplotypes on MS risk were measured by odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS:HLA-DRB1*15:01:01:01SG (OR?=?3.20, p?<?2.2E-16), HLA-DRB5*01:01:01 (OR?=?2.96, p?<?2.2E-16), and HLA-DRB5*01:01:01v1_STR1 (OR?=?8.18, p?=?4.3E-05) alleles all occurred at significantly higher frequencies in MS patients compared to controls. The most significant predis-posing haplotypes were HLA-DQB1*06:02:01~ HLA-DQA1*01:02:01:01SG~HLA-DRB1*15:01:01:01SG~HLA-DRB5*01:01:01 and HLA-DQB1*06:02:01~HLA-DQA1*01:02:01:01SG~HLA-DRB1*15:01:01:01SG~HLA-DRB5*01:01:01v1_STR1 (OR?=?3.19, p?<?2.2E-16; OR?=?9.30, p?=?9.7E-05, respectively). Analyses of the HLA-DRB1*04 cohort in the absence of HLA-DRB1*15:01 haplotypes revealed that the HLA-DQB1*03:01:01:01~HLA-DQA1*03:03:01:01~HLA-DRB1*04:01:01:01SG~HLA-DRB4*01:03:01:01 haplotype was protective (OR?=?0.64, p?=?0.028), whereas the HLA-DQB1*03:02:01~HLA-DQA1*03:01:01~HLA-DRB1*04:01:01:01SG~HLA-DRB4*01:03:01:01 haplotype was associated with MS susceptibility (OR?=?1.66, p?=?4.9E-03). CONCLUSION:HLA-DR15 haplotypes, including genomic variants of HLA-DRB5, and HLA-DR4 haplotypes affect MS risk.
Project description:Idiopathic achalasia is a relatively infrequent esophageal motor disorder for which major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are well-identified risk factors. However, no information about HLA-achalasia susceptibility in Mexicans has previously been reported. We studied a group of 91 patients diagnosed with achalasia and 234 healthy controls with Mexican admixed ancestry. HLA alleles and conserved extended haplotypes were analyzed using high-resolution HLA typing based on Sanger and next-generation sequencing technologies. Admixture estimates were determined using HLA-B and short tandem repeats. Results were analyzed by non-parametric statistical analysis and Bonferroni correction. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Patients with achalasia had 56.7% Native American genes, 24.7% European genes, 16.5% African genes and 2.0% Asian genes, which was comparable with the estimates in the controls. Significant increases in the frequencies of alleles DRB1*14:54 and DQB1*05:03 and the extended haplotypes DRB1*14:54-DQB1*05:03 and DRB1*11:01-DQB1*03:01, even after Bonferroni correction (pC<0.05), were found in the achalasia group compared to those in the controls. Concluding, the HLA class II alleles HLA-DRB1*14:54:01 and DQB1*05:03:01 and the extended haplotype are risk factors for achalasia in mixed-ancestry Mexican individuals. These results also suggest that the HLA-DRB1*14:54-DQB1*05:03 haplotype was introduced by admixture with European and/or Asian populations.
Project description:The primary associations of the HLA class II genes, HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1, and the class I genes, HLA-A and HLA-B, with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are well established. However, the role of polymorphism at the HLA-DRB3, HLA-DRB4, and HLA-DRB5 loci remains unclear. In two separate studies, one of 500 subjects and 500 control subjects and one of 366 DRB1*03:01-positive samples from selected multiplex T1D families, we used Roche 454 sequencing with Conexio Genomics ASSIGN ATF 454 HLA genotyping software analysis to analyze sequence variation at these three HLA-DRB loci. Association analyses were performed on the two HLA-DRB loci haplotypes (DRB1-DRB3, -DRB4, or -DRB5). Three common HLA-DRB3 alleles (*01:01, *02:02, *03:01) were observed. DRB1*03:01 haplotypes carrying DRB3*02:02 conferred a higher T1D risk than did DRB1*03:01 haplotypes carrying DRB3*01:01 in DRB1*03:01/*03:01 homozygotes with two DRB3*01:01 alleles (odds ratio [OR] 3.4 [95% CI 1.46-8.09]), compared with those carrying one or two DRB3*02:02 alleles (OR 25.5 [3.43-189.2]) (P = 0.033). For DRB1*03:01/*04:01 heterozygotes, however, the HLA-DRB3 allele did not significantly modify the T1D risk of the DRB1*03:01 haplotype (OR 7.7 for *02:02; 6.8 for *01:01). These observations were confirmed by sequence analysis of HLA-DRB3 exon 2 in a targeted replication study of 281 informative T1D family members and 86 affected family-based association control (AFBAC) haplotypes. The frequency of DRB3*02:02 was 42.9% in the DRB1*03:01/*03:01 patients and 27.6% in the DRB1*03:01/*04 (P = 0.005) compared with 22.6% in AFBAC DRB1*03:01 chromosomes (P = 0.001). Analysis of T1D-associated alleles at other HLA loci (HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DPB1) on DRB1*03:01 haplotypes suggests that DRB3*02:02 on the DRB1*03:01 haplotype can contribute to T1D risk.
Project description:Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan inflammatory disorder with heritability estimates up to 66%. Previous studies have shown the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region to be associated with sarcoidosis, suggesting a functional role for antigen-presenting molecules and immune mediators in the disease pathogenesis. To detect variants predisposing to sarcoidosis and to identify genetic differences between patient subgroups, we studied four genes in the MHC Class III region (LTA, TNF, AGER, BTNL2) and HLA-DRA with tag-SNPs and their relation to HLA-DRB1 alleles. We present results from a joint analysis of four study populations (Finnish, Swedish, Dutch, and Czech). Patients with sarcoidosis (n?=?805) were further subdivided based on the disease activity and the presence of Löfgren's syndrome. In a joint analysis, seven SNPs were associated with non-Löfgren sarcoidosis (NL; the strongest association with rs3177928, P?=?1.79E-07, OR?=?1.9) and eight with Löfgren's syndrome [Löfgren syndrome (LS); the strongest association with rs3129843, P?=?3.44E-12, OR?=?3.4] when compared with healthy controls (n?=?870). Five SNPs were associated with sarcoidosis disease course (the strongest association with rs3177928, P?=?0.003, OR?=?1.9). The high linkage disequilibrium (LD) between SNPs and an HLA-DRB1 challenged the result interpretation. When the SNPs and HLA-DRB1 alleles were analyzed together, independent association was observed for four SNPs in the HLA-DRA/BTNL2 region: rs3135365 (NL; P?=?0.015), rs3177928 (NL; P?<?0.001), rs6937545 (LS; P?=?0.012), and rs5007259 (disease activity; P?=?0.002). These SNPs act as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) for HLA-DRB1 and/or HLA-DRB5. In conclusion, we found novel SNPs in BTNL2 and HLA-DRA regions associating with sarcoidosis. Our finding further establishes that polymorphisms in the HLA-DRA and BTNL2 have a role in sarcoidosis susceptibility. This multi-population study demonstrates that at least a part of these associations are HLA-DRB1 independent (e.g., not due to LD) and shared across ancestral origins. The variants that were independent of HLA-DRB1 associations acted as eQTL for HLA-DRB1 and/or -DRB5, suggesting a role in regulating gene expression.
Project description:The incidence of narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) increased in Sweden following the 2009-2010 mass-vaccination with the influenza Pandemrix-vaccine. NT1 has been associated with Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQB1*06:02 but full high-resolution HLA-typing of all loci in vaccine-induced NT1 remains to be done. Therefore, here we performed HLA typing by sequencing HLA-DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, DPA1 and DPB1 in 31 vaccine-associated NT1 patients and 66 of their first-degree relatives (FDR), and compared these data to 636 Swedish general population controls (GP). Previously reported disease-related alleles in the HLA-DRB5*01:01:01-DRB1*15:01:01-DQA1*01:02:01-DQB1*06:02:01 extended haplotype were increased in NT1 patients (34/62 haplotypes, 54.8%) compared to GP (194/1272 haplotypes, 15.3%, p = 6.17E-16). Indeed, this extended haplotype was found in 30/31 patients (96.8%) and 178/636 GP (28.0%). In total, 15 alleles, four extended haplotypes, and six genotypes were found to be increased or decreased in frequency among NT1 patients compared to GP. Among subjects with the HLA-DRB5*01:01:01-DRB1*15:01:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 haplotype, a second DRB4*01:03:01-DRB1*04:01:01-DQA1*03:02//*03:03:01-DQB1*03:01:01 haplotype (p = 2.02E-2), but not homozygosity for DRB1*15:01:01-DQB1*06:02:01 (p = 7.49E-1) conferred association to NT1. Alleles with increased frequency in DQA1*01:02:01 (p = 1.07E-2) and DQA1*03:02//*03:03:01 (p = 3.26E-2), as well as with decreased frequency in DRB3*01:01:02 (p = 8.09E-3), DRB1*03:01:01 (p = 1.40E-2), and DQB1*02:01:01 (p = 1.40E-2) were found among patients compared to their FDR. High-resolution HLA sequencing in Pandemrix-associated NT1 confirmed the strong association with the DQB1*06:02:01-containing haplotype but also revealed an increased association to the not previously reported extended HLA-DRB4*01:03:01-DRB1*04:01:01-DQA1*03:02//*03:03:01-DQB1*03:01:01 haplotype. High-resolution HLA typing should prove useful in dissecting the immunological mechanisms of vaccination-associated NT1.
Project description:Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is strongly associated with several human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes. Due to extensive linkage disequilibrium and multiple polymorphic candidate genes in the HLA complex, identifying the alleles responsible for these associations has proven difficult. We aimed to evaluate whether studying populations of admixed or non-European descent could help in defining the causative HLA alleles. When assessing haplotypes carrying HLA-DRB1*13:01 (hypothesized to specifically increase the susceptibility to chronic cholangitis), we observed that every haplotype in the Scandinavian PSC population carried HLA-DQB1*06:03. In contrast, only 65% of HLA-DRB1*13:01 haplotypes in an admixed/non-European PSC population carried this allele, suggesting that further assessments of the PSC-associated haplotype HLA-DRB1*13:01-DQA1*01:03-DQB1*06:03 in admixed or multi-ethnic populations could aid in identifying the causative allele.
Project description:Genetic variability defends us against pathogen-driven antigens; human leucocyte antigens (HLA) is the immunological system in charge of this work. The Mexican mestizo population arises mainly from the mixture of three founder populations; Amerindian, Spaniards, and a smaller proportion of the African population. We describe allele and haplotype frequencies of HLA class I (-A and -B) and class II (-DRB1 and -DQB1), which were analyzed by PCR-SSP in Mexican mestizo from three urban populations of Mexico: Chihuahua-Chihuahua City (n = 88), Mexico City-Tlalpan (n = 330), and Veracruz-Xalapa (n = 84). The variability of the allele HLA class I and class II among the three regions of Mexico are in four alleles: HLA-A*24:02 (36.39%), -B*35:01 (16.04%), -DRB1*04:07 (17.33%), and -DQB1*03:02 (31.47%), these alleles have been previously described in some indigenous populations. We identified 5 haplotypes with a frequency >1%: HLA-A*02:01-B*35:01-DRB1*08:02-DQB1*04:02, A*68:01-B*39:01-DRB1*08:02-DQB1*04:02, A*02:01-B*35:01-DRB1*04:07-DQB1*03:02, A*68:01-B*39:01-DRB1*04:07-DQB1*03:02, and A*01:01-B*08:01-DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01. Also, the haplotype A*02:01-B*35:01-DRB1*08:02-DQB1*04:02 was identified in Tlalpan and Xalapa regions. Haplotype A*01:01-B*08:01-DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01 was found only in Tlalpan and Chihuahua. In the Xalapa region, the most frequent haplotype was A*24:02-B*35:01-DRB1*04:07-DQB1*03:02. These alleles and haplotypes have been described in Amerindian populations. Our data are consistent with previous studies and contribute to the analysis of the variability in the Mexican population.
Project description:Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping displays the particular characteristics of HLA alleles and haplotype frequencies in each population. Although it is considered the current gold standard for HLA typing, high-resolution sequence-based HLA typing is currently unavailable in Kinh Vietnamese populations. In this study, high-resolution sequence-based HLA typing (3-field) was performed using an amplicon-based next-generation sequencing platform to identify the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 alleles of 101 unrelated healthy Kinh Vietnamese individuals from southern Vietnam. A total of 28 HLA-A, 41 HLA-B, 21 HLA-C, 26 HLA-DRB1, and 25 HLA-DQB1 alleles were identified. The most frequently occurring HLA alleles were A?11:01:01, B?15:02:01, C?07:02:01, DRB1?12:02:01, and DQB1?03:01:01. Haplotype calculation showed that A?29:01:01?B?07:05:01, DRB1?12:02:01?DQB1?3:01:01, A?29:01:01?C?15:05:02?B?07:05:01, A?33:03:01?B?58:01:01?DRB1?03:01:01, and A?29:01:01?C?15:05:02?B?07:05:01?DRB1?10:01:01?DQB1?05:01:01 were the most common haplotypes in the southern Kinh Vietnamese population. Allele distribution and haplotype analyses demonstrated that the Vietnamese population shares HLA features with South-East Asians but retains unique characteristics. Data from this study will be potentially applicable in medicine and anthropology.