Involvement of reactive oxygen species in a feed-forward mechanism of Na/K-ATPase-mediated signaling transduction.
ABSTRACT: Cardiotonic steroids (such as ouabain) signaling through Na/K-ATPase regulate sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. We report here that reactive oxygen species are required to initiate ouabain-stimulated Na/K-ATPase·c-Src signaling. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevented ouabain-stimulated Na/K-ATPase·c-Src signaling, protein carbonylation, redistribution of Na/K-ATPase and sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3, and inhibition of active transepithelial (22)Na(+) transport. Disruption of the Na/K-ATPase·c-Src signaling complex attenuated ouabain-stimulated protein carbonylation. Ouabain-stimulated protein carbonylation is reversed after removal of ouabain, and this reversibility is largely independent of de novo protein synthesis and degradation by either the lysosome or the proteasome pathways. Furthermore, ouabain stimulated direct carbonylation of two amino acid residues in the actuator domain of the Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit. Taken together, the data indicate that carbonylation modification of the Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit is involved in a feed-forward mechanism of regulation of ouabain-mediated renal proximal tubule Na/K-ATPase signal transduction and subsequent sodium transport.
Project description:We have demonstrated that cardiotonic steroids, such as ouabain, signaling through the Na/K-ATPase, regulate sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. By direct carbonylation modification of the Pro222 residue in the actuator (A) domain of pig Na/K-ATPase ?1 subunit, reactive oxygen species are required for ouabain-stimulated Na/K-ATPase/c-Src signaling and subsequent regulation of active transepithelial (22)Na(+) transport. In the present study we sought to determine the functional role of Pro222 carbonylation in Na/K-ATPase signaling and sodium handling.Stable pig ?1 knockdown LLC-PK1-originated PY-17 cells were rescued by expressing wild-type rat ?1 and rat ?1 with a single mutation of Pro224 (corresponding to pig Pro222) to Ala. This mutation does not affect ouabain-induced inhibition of Na/K-ATPase activity, but abolishes the effects of ouabain on Na/K-ATPase/c-Src signaling, protein carbonylation, Na/K-ATPase endocytosis, and active transepithelial (22)Na(+) transport.Direct carbonylation modification of Pro224 in the rat ?1 subunit determines ouabain-mediated Na/K-ATPase signal transduction and subsequent regulation of renal proximal tubule sodium transport.
Project description:Our previous findings suggested that reversible thiol modifications of cysteine residues within the actuator (AD) and nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of the Na,K-ATPase may represent a powerful regulatory mechanism conveying redox- and oxygen-sensitivity of this multifunctional enzyme. S-glutathionylation of Cys244 in the AD and Cys 454-458-459 in the NBD inhibited the enzyme and protected cysteines' thiol groups from irreversible oxidation under hypoxic conditions. In this study mutagenesis approach was used to assess the role these cysteines play in regulation of the Na,K-ATPase hydrolytic and signaling functions. Several constructs of mouse α1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase were produced in which Cys244, Cys 454-458-459 or Cys 244-454-458-459 were replaced by alanine. These constructs were expressed in human HEK293 cells. Non-transfected cells and those expressing murine α1 subunit were exposed to hypoxia or treated with oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Both conditions induced inhibition of the wild type Na,K-ATPase. Enzymes containing mutated mouse α1 lacking Cys244 or all four cysteines (Cys 244-454-458-459) were insensitive to hypoxia. Inhibitory effect of GSSG was observed for wild type murine Na,K-ATPase, but was less pronounced in Cys454-458-459Ala mutant and completely absent in the Cys244Ala and Cys 244-454-458-459Ala mutants. In cells, expressing wild type enzyme, ouabain induced activation of Src and Erk kinases under normoxic conditions, whereas under hypoxic conditions this effect was inversed. Cys454-458-459Ala substitution abolished Src kinase activation in response to ouabain treatment, uncoupled Src from Erk signaling, and interfered with O2-sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase signaling function. Moreover, modeling predicted that S-glutathionylation of Cys 458 and 459 should prevent inhibitory binding of Src to NBD. Our data indicate for the first time that cysteine residues within the AD and NBD influence hydrolytic as well as receptor function of the Na,K-ATPase and alter responses of the enzyme to hypoxia or upon treatment with cardiotonic steroids.
Project description:Na/K-ATPase signaling has been implicated in different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress not only regulates the Na/K-ATPase enzymatic activity, but also regulates its signaling and other functions. While cardiotonic steroids (CTS)-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is an intermediate step in CTS-mediated Na/K-ATPase signaling, increase in ROS alone also stimulates Na/K-ATPase signaling. Based on literature and our observations, we hypothesize that ROS have biphasic effects on Na/K-ATPase signaling, transcellular sodium transport, and urinary sodium excretion. Oxidative modulation, in particular site specific carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase ?1 subunit, is a critical step in proximal tubular Na/K-ATPase signaling and decreased transcellular sodium transport leading to increases in urinary sodium excretion. However, once this system is overstimulated, the signaling, and associated changes in sodium excretion are blunted. This review aims to evaluate ROS-mediated carbonylation of the Na/K-ATPase, and its potential role in the regulation of pump signaling and sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule (RPT).
Project description:Exposure of intact cells to selective inhibitors of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase such as ouabain activates several growth-related cell signaling pathways. It has been suggested that the initial event of these pathways is the binding of ouabain to a preexisting complex of Src with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase of the plasma membrane. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of Src in the ouabain-induced activation of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase 1A (PI3K1A) and its downstream consequences. When fibroblasts devoid of Src (SYF cells) and controls (Src(++) cells) were exposed to ouabain, PI3K1A, Akt, and proliferative growth were similarly stimulated in both cell lines. Ouabain-induced activation of Akt was not prevented by the Src inhibitor PP2. In contrast, ERK1/2 were not activated by ouabain in SYF cells but were stimulated in Src(++) cells; this was prevented by PP2. In isolated adult mouse cardiac myocytes, where ouabain induces hypertrophic growth, PP2 also did not prevent ouabain-induced activation of Akt and the resulting hypertrophy. Ouabain-induced increases in the levels of co-immunoprecipitation of the α-subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with the p85 subunit of PI3K1A were noted in SYF cells, Src(++) cells, and adult cardiac myocytes. In conjunction with previous findings, the results presented here indicate that (a) if there is a preformed complex of Src and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, it is irrelevant to ouabain-induced activation of the PI3K1A/Akt pathway through Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and (b) a more likely, but not established, mechanism of linkage of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase to PI3K1A is the ouabain-induced interaction of a proline-rich domain of the α-subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with the SH3 domain of the p85 subunit of PI3K1A.
Project description:Proatherogenic, hyperlipidemic states demonstrate increases in circulating ligands for scavenger receptor CD36 (eg, oxidized low-density lipoprotein [oxLDL]) and the Na/K-ATPase (eg, cardiotonic steroids). These factors increase inflammation, oxidative stress, and progression of chronic kidney disease. We hypothesized that diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia potentiate a CD36/Na/K-ATPase-dependent inflammatory paracrine loop between proximal tubule cells (PTCs) and their associated macrophages and thereby facilitate development of chronic inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. ApoE(-/-) and apoE(-/-)/cd36(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet for ?32 weeks and examined for physiologic and histologic changes in renal function. Compared with apoE(-/-), apoE(-/-)/cd36(-/-) mice had improved creatinine clearance and blood pressure which corresponded histologically with less glomerular and tubulointerstitial macrophage accumulation, foam cell formation, oxidant stress, and interstitial fibrosis. Coimmunopreciptation and a cell surface fluorescence-based crosslinking assay showed that CD36 and Na/K-ATPase ?-1 colocalized in PTCs and macrophages, and this association was increased by oxLDL or the cardiotonic steroid ouabain. OxLDL and ouabain also increased activation of Src and Lyn in PTCs. Cell-free conditioned medium from PTCs treated with oxLDL or ouabain increased macrophage migration. OxLDL, ouabain, or plasma isolated from high-fat diet-fed mice stimulated reactive oxygen species production in PTCs, which was inhibited by N-acetyl-cysteine, apocynin, or Na/K-ATPase ?-1 knockdown. These data suggest that ligands generated in hyperlipidemic states activate CD36 and the Na/K-ATPase and potentiate an inflammatory signaling loop involving PTCs and their associated macrophages, which facilitates the development of chronic inflammation, oxidant stress, and fibrosis underlying the renal dysfunction common to proatherogenic, hyperlipidemic states.
Project description:Our laboratory has recently demonstrated that low concentrations of ouabain increase blood pressure in rats associated with stimulation of NaK ATPase activity and activation of the Src signaling cascade in NHE1-dependent manner. Proteomic analysis of human kidney proximal tubule cells (HKC11) suggested that the Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) as an ouabain-associating protein. We hypothesize that ouabain-induced stimulation of NaK ATPase activity is mediated through AT1R. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of ouabain on renal cell angiotensin II production, the effect of AT1R inhibition on ouabain-stimulated NKA activity, and the effect of ouabain on NKA-AT1R association. Ouabain increased plasma angiotensin II levels in rats treated with ouabain (1?g/kg body wt./day) for 9days and increased angiotensin II levels in cell culture media after 24h treatment with ouabain in human (HKC11), mouse (MRPT), and human adrenal cells. Ouabain 10pM stimulated NKA-mediated 86Rb uptake and phosphorylation of EGFR, Src, and ERK1/2. These effects were prevented by the AT1R receptor blocker candesartan. FRET and TIRF microscopy using Bodipy-labeled ouabain and mCherry-NKA or mCherry-AT1R demonstrated association of ouabain with AT1R and NKA. Further our FRET and TIRF studies demonstrated increased association between AT1R and NKA upon treatment with low dose ouabain. We conclude that ouabain stimulates NKA in renal proximal tubule cells through an angiotensin/AT1R-dependent mechanism and that this pathway contributes to cardiac glycoside associated hypertension.
Project description:Na,K-ATPase is a membrane protein that catalyzes ATP to maintain transmembrane sodium and potassium gradients. In addition, Na,K-ATPase also acts as a signal-transducing receptor for cardiotonic steroids such as ouabain and activates a number of signalling pathways. Several studies report that ouabain affects cell migration. Here we used ouabain at concentrations far below those required to block Na,K-ATPase pump activity and show that it significantly reduced RPE cell migration through two mechanisms. It causes dephosphorylation of a 130 kD protein, which we identify as p130cas. Src is involved, because Src inhibitors, but not inhibitors of other kinases tested, caused a similar reduction in p130cas phosphorylation and ouabain increased the association of Na,K-ATPase and Src. Knockdown of p130cas by siRNA reduced cell migration. Unexpectedly, ouabain induced separation of nucleus and centrosome, also leading to a block in cell migration. Inhibitor and siRNA experiments show that this effect is mediated by ERK1,2. This is the first report showing that ouabain can regulate cell migration by affecting nucleus-centrosome association.
Project description:1. An ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) preparation obtained from pig brain microsomes by treatment with sodium iodide showed four apparently different ouabain-sensitive activities under various conditions. They were (a) ouabain-sensitive Mg(2+)-stimulated ATPase, (b) K(+)-stimulated ATPase, (c) (Na(+),K(+))-stimulated ATPase and (d) Na(+)-stimulated ATPase activities. 2. These activities showed the same substrate specificity, ATP being preferentially hydrolysed and CTP slightly. AMP was not hydrolysed. 3. These activities were inhibited by low concentration of ouabain. The concentration producing 50% inhibition was 0.1mum for ouabain-sensitive Mg(2+)-stimulated ATPase, 0.2mum for K(+)-stimulated ATPase, 0.1mum for (Na(+),K(+))-stimulated ATPase and 0.003mum for Na(+)-stimulated ATPase activity. 4. The ouabain-sensitive ATPase activities were inactivated by N-ethylmaleimide but the insensitive ATPase activity was not. 5. The three ouabain-sensitive ATPase activities were inhibited about 50% by 1mm-Ca(2+), whereas the ouabain-sensitive Mg(2+)-stimulated ATPase activity was activated by the same concentration of Ca(2+). The preparation was treated with ultrasonics at 20kcyc./sec. The 2min. ultrasonic treatment inactivated the ATPase activities by 50%. 7. The temperature coefficient Q(10) was 6.6 for K(+)-stimulated ATPase activity, 3.7 for (Na(+),K(+))-stimulated ATPase and 2.6 for Na(+)-stimulated ATPase. 8. Organic solvents inactivated the ATPase activities, to which treatment the K(+)-stimulated ATPase was the most resistant. 9. The phosphorylation of the enzyme preparation became less dependent on Na(+) with decreasing pH. This Na(+)-independent phosphorylation at low pH was sensitive to K(+) and hydroxylamine as well as the Na(+)-dependent phosphorylation at neutral pH.
Project description:Much evidence points to a role of Na,K-ATPase in ouabain-dependent signal transduction. Based on experiments with different cell lines and native tissue membranes, a current hypothesis postulates direct interactions between the Na,K-ATPase and Src kinase (non-receptor tyrosine kinase). Na,K-ATPase is proposed to bind Src kinase and inhibit its activity, whereas ouabain, the specific Na,K-ATPase inhibitor, binds and stabilizes the E2 conformation, thus exposing the Src kinase domain and its active site Tyr-418 for activation. Ouabain-dependent signaling is thought to be mediated within caveolae by a complex consisting of Na,K-ATPase, caveolin, and Src kinase. In the current work, we have looked for direct interactions utilizing purified recombinant Na,K-ATPase (human ?1?1FXYD1 or porcine ?1D369N?1FXYD1) and purified human Src kinase and human caveolin 1 or interactions between these proteins in native membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit kidney. By several independent criteria and techniques, no stable interactions were detected between Na,K-ATPase and purified Src kinase. Na,K-ATPase was found to be a substrate for Src kinase phosphorylation at Tyr-144. Clear evidence for a direct interaction between purified human Na,K-ATPase and human caveolin was obtained, albeit with a low molar stoichiometry (1:15-30 caveolin 1/Na,K-ATPase). In native renal membranes, a specific caveolin 14-5 oligomer (95 kDa) was found to be in direct interaction with Na,K-ATPase. We inferred that a small fraction of the renal Na,K-ATPase molecules is in a ?1:1 complex with a caveolin 14-5 oligomer. Thus, overall, whereas a direct caveolin 1/Na,K-ATPase interaction is confirmed, the lack of direct Src kinase/Na,K-ATPase binding requires reassessment of the mechanism of ouabain-dependent signaling.
Project description:We have demonstrated that Na/K-ATPase acts as a receptor for reactive oxygen species (ROS), regulating renal Na+ handling and blood pressure. TALLYHO/JngJ (TH) mice are believed to mimic the state of obesity in humans with a polygenic background of type 2 diabetes. This present work is to investigate the role of Na/K-ATPase signaling in TH mice, focusing on susceptibility to hypertension due to chronic excess salt ingestion. Age-matched male TH and the control C57BL/6J (B6) mice were fed either normal diet or high salt diet (HS: 2, 4, and 8% NaCl) to construct the renal function curve. Na/K-ATPase signaling including c-Src and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, as well as protein carbonylation (a commonly used marker for enhanced ROS production), were assessed in the kidney cortex tissues by Western blot. Urinary and plasma Na+ levels were measured by flame photometry. When compared to B6 mice, TH mice developed salt-sensitive hypertension and responded to a high salt diet with a significant rise in systolic blood pressure indicative of a blunted pressure-natriuresis relationship. These findings were evidenced by a decrease in total and fractional Na+ excretion and a right-shifted renal function curve with a reduced slope. This salt-sensitive hypertension correlated with changes in the Na/K-ATPase signaling. Specifically, Na/K-ATPase signaling was not able to be stimulated by HS due to the activated baseline protein carbonylation, phosphorylation of c-Src and ERK1/2. These findings support the emerging view that Na/K-ATPase signaling contributes to metabolic disease and suggest that malfunction of the Na/K-ATPase signaling may promote the development of salt-sensitive hypertension in obesity. The increased basal level of renal Na/K-ATPase-dependent redox signaling may be responsible for the development of salt-sensitive hypertension in polygenic obese TH mice.