Combined deletion of Id2 and Id3 genes reveals multiple roles for E proteins in invariant NKT cell development and expansion.
ABSTRACT: The invariant NKT (iNKT) cells represent a unique group of ?? T cells that have been classified based on their exclusive usage of the invariant V?14J?18 TCR?-chain and their innate-like effector function. Thus far, the transcriptional programs that control V?14J?18 TCR? rearrangements and the population size of iNKT cells are still incompletely defined. E protein transcription factors have been shown to play necessary roles in the development of multiple T cell lineages, including iNKT cells. In this study, we examined E protein functions in T cell development through combined deletion of genes encoding E protein inhibitors Id2 and Id3. Deletion of Id2 and Id3 in T cell progenitors resulted in a partial block at the pre-TCR selection checkpoint and a dramatic increase in numbers of iNKT cells. The increase in iNKT cells is accompanied with a biased rearrangement involving V?14 to J?18 recombination at the double-positive stage and enhanced proliferation of iNKT cells. We further demonstrate that a 50% reduction of E proteins can cause a dramatic switch from iNKT to innate-like ?? T cell fate in Id2- and Id3-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that Id2- and Id3-mediated inhibition of E proteins controls iNKT development by restricting lineage choice and population expansion.
Project description:Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) proteins, including Id1-4, are transcriptional regulators involved in promoting cell proliferation and survival in various cell types. Although upregulation of Id proteins is associated with a broad spectrum of tumors, recent studies have identified that Id3 plays a tumor-suppressor role in the development of Burkitt's lymphoma in humans and hepatosplenic T cell lymphomas in mice. In this article, we report rapid lymphoma development in Id2/Id3 double-knockout mice that is caused by unchecked expansion of invariant NKT (iNKT) cells or a unique subset of innate-like CD1d-independent T cells. These populations began to expand in neonatal mice and, upon malignant transformation, resulted in mortality between 3 and 11 mo of age. The malignant cells also gave rise to lymphomas upon transfer to Rag-deficient and wild-type hosts, reaffirming their inherent tumorigenic potential. Microarray analysis revealed a significantly modified program in these neonatal iNKT cells that ultimately led to their malignant transformation. The lymphoma cells demonstrated chromosome instability along with upregulation of several signaling pathways, including the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway, which can promote their expansion and migration. Dysregulation of genes with reported driver mutations and the NF-?B pathway were found to be shared between Id2/Id3 double-knockout lymphomas and human NKT tumors. Our work identifies a distinct premalignant state and multiple tumorigenic pathways caused by loss of function of Id2 and Id3. Thus, conditional deletion of Id2 and Id3 in developing T cells establishes a unique animal model for iNKT and relevant innate-like lymphomas.
Project description:Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells display characteristics of both adaptive and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Like other ILCs, iNKT cells constitutively express ID proteins, which antagonize the E protein transcription factors that are essential for adaptive lymphocyte development. However, unlike ILCs, ID2 is not essential for thymic iNKT cell development. In this study, we demonstrated that ID2 and ID3 redundantly promoted iNKT cell lineage specification involving the induction of the signature transcription factor PLZF and that ID3 was critical for development of TBET-dependent NKT1 cells. In contrast, both ID2 and ID3 limited iNKT cell numbers by enforcing the postselection checkpoint in conventional thymocytes. Therefore, iNKT cells show both adaptive and innate-like requirements for ID proteins at distinct checkpoints during iNKT cell development.
Project description:Invariant NKT (iNKT) cell functional subsets are defined by key transcription factors and output of cytokines, such as IL-4, IFN-?, IL-17, and IL-10. To examine how TCR specificity determines iNKT function, we used somatic cell nuclear transfer to generate three lines of mice cloned from iNKT nuclei. Each line uses the invariant V?14J?18 TCR? paired with unique V?7 or V?8.2 subunits. We examined tissue homing, expression of PLZF, T-bet, and ROR?t, and cytokine profiles and found that, although monoclonal iNKT cells differentiated into all functional subsets, the NKT17 lineage was reduced or expanded depending on the TCR expressed. We examined iNKT thymic development in limited-dilution bone marrow chimeras and show that higher TCR avidity correlates with higher PLZF and reduced T-bet expression. iNKT functional subsets showed distinct tissue distribution patterns. Although each individual monoclonal TCR showed an inherent subset distribution preference that was evident across all tissues examined, the iNKT cytokine profile differed more by tissue of origin than by TCR specificity.
Project description:Regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress the development of inflammatory disease, but our knowledge of transcriptional regulators that control this function remains incomplete. Here we show that expression of Id2 and Id3 in Treg cells was required to suppress development of fatal inflammatory disease. We found that T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-driven signaling initially decreased the abundance of Id3, which led to the activation of a follicular regulatory T (TFR) cell-specific transcription signature. However, sustained lower abundance of Id2 and Id3 interfered with proper development of TFR cells. Depletion of Id2 and Id3 expression in Treg cells resulted in compromised maintenance and localization of the Treg cell population. Thus, Id2 and Id3 enforce TFR cell checkpoints and control the maintenance and homing of Treg cells.
Project description:Type I invariant NKT cells (iNKT cells) are a subset of alphabeta T cells characterized by the expression of an invariant alpha-chain variable region 14-alpha-chain joining region 18 (V(alpha)14J(alpha)18) T cell antigen receptor (TCR) alpha-chain. The iNKT cells derive from CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) thymocytes, and their generation requires a long half-life of DP thymocytes to allow V(alpha)14-J(alpha)18 rearrangements, expression of glycolipid-loaded CD1d on DP thymocytes, and signaling through the signaling-activation molecule SLAM-adaptor SAP pathway. Here we show that the transcription factor c-Myb has a central role in priming DP thymocytes to enter the iNKT lineage by simultaneously regulating CD1d expression, the half-life of DP cells and expression of SLAMF1, SLAMF6 and SAP.
Project description:Id proteins have been shown to promote the differentiation of conventional αβ and γδT cells, and to suppress the expansion of invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells and innate-like γδNKT within their respective cell lineages. However, it remains to be determined whether Id proteins regulate lineage specification in developing T cells that give rise to these distinct cell fates. Here we report that in the absence of Id2 and Id3 proteins, E2A prematurely activates genes critical for the iNKT cell lineage prior to TCR expression. Lack of Id proteins also promotes a biased TCR rearrangement in favor of iNKT cell fate prior to selection at the CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) stage. Enhanced iNKT development in Id3-deficient mice lacking γδNKT cells suggests that Id3 regulates the lineage competition between these populations. RNA-Seq analysis establishes E2A as the transcriptional regulator of both iNKT and γδNKT development. In the absence of pre-TCR signaling, Id2/Id3 deletion gives rise to a large population of iNKT cells and a unique innate-like DP population, despite the block in conventional αβ T cell development. The transcriptional profile of these unique DP cells reflects enrichment of innate-like signature genes, including PLZF (Zbtb16) and Granzyme A (Gzma). Results from these genetic models and genome-wide analyses suggest that Id proteins suppress E2A-driven innate-like T cell programs prior to TCR selection to enforce predominance of conventional T cells. Overall design: The ChIP-Seq experiment included E2A ChIP-Seq of DP and iNKT cells from L-DKO mice (deficient in Id2 and Id3). Each sample consisted of pooled cells from 3-4 mice. Input controls (i.e. not immunoprecipitated with E2A antibody) were included for each sample. The mouse strains for these experiments were either C57BL/6, or C57BL/6 and 129 hybrids.
Project description:The innate-like T cells expressing V?1.1 and V?6.3 represent a unique T cell lineage sharing features with both the ?? T and the invariant NKT cells. The population size of V?1.1(+)V?6.3(+) T cells is tightly controlled and usually contributes to a very small proportion of thymic output, but the underlying mechanism remains enigmatic. Deletion of Id3, an inhibitor of E protein transcription factors, can induce an expansion of the V?1.1(+)V?6.3(+) T cell population. This phenotype is much stronger on the C57BL/6 background than on the 129/sv background. Using quantitative trait linkage analysis, we identified Id2, a homolog of Id3, to be the major modifier of Id3 in limiting V?1.1(+)V?6.3(+) T cell expansion. The V?1.1(+)V?6.3(+) phenotype is attributed to an intrinsic weakness of Id2 transcription from Id2 C57BL/6 allele, leading to an overall reduced dosage of Id proteins. However, complete removal of both Id2 and Id3 genes in developing T cells suppressed the expansion of V?1.1(+)V?6.3(+) T cells because of decreased proliferation and increased cell death. We showed that conditional knockout of Id2 alone is sufficient to promote a moderate expansion of ?? T cells. These regulatory effects of Id2 and Id3 on V?1.1(+)V?6.3(+) T cells are mediated by titration of E protein activity, because removing one or more copies of E protein genes can restore V?1.1(+)V?6.3(+) T cell expansion in Id2 and Id3 double conditional knockout mice. Our data indicated that Id2 and Id3 collaboratively control survival and expansion of the ?? lineage through modulating a proper threshold of E proteins.
Project description:Natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes that bridge the gap between the innate and adaptive immune responses. Like innate immune cells, they have a mature, effector phenotype that allows them to rapidly respond to threats, compared to adaptive cells. NKT cells express T cell receptors (TCRs) like conventional T cells, but instead of responding to peptide antigen presented by MHC class I or II, NKT cell TCRs recognize glycolipid antigen in the context of CD1d. NKT cells are subdivided into classes based on their TCR and antigen reactivity. This review will focus on type I iNKT cells that express a semi invariant V?14J?18 TCR and respond to the canonical glycolipid antigen, ?-galactosylceramide. The innate-like effector functions of these cells combined with their T cell identity make their developmental path quite unique. In addition to the extrinsic factors that affect iNKT cell development such as lipid:CD1d complexes, co-stimulation, and cytokines, this review will provide a comprehensive delineation of the cell intrinsic factors that impact iNKT cell development, differentiation, and effector functions - including TCR rearrangement, survival and metabolism signaling, transcription factor expression, and gene regulation.
Project description:Gene knockout experiments in mice have suggested a hierarchical model of early B cell commitment wherein E2A proteins (E47 and E12) activate early B cell factor (Ebf1), which in turn activates expression of the B cell commitment factor, Pax5. In IL-7 receptor alpha (IL-7Ralpha) knockout mice, B cell development is blocked before B-lineage commitment at the prepro-B cell stage in adult animals. In IL-7Ralpha(-/-) prepro-B cells, E47 is expressed and yet is insufficient to transcriptionally activate the putative downstream target gene, Ebf1. In this study, we show that further increases of E47 expression in IL-7Ralpha(-/-) prepro-B cells fails to activate Ebf1, but rather leads to a dramatic induction of the E2A inhibitory factors, Id2 and Id3. In contrast, enforced expression of Ebf1 in IL-7Ralpha(-/-) bone marrow potently down-regulates Id2 and Id3 mRNA expression and restores B cell differentiation in vivo. Down-regulation of both Id2 and Id3 during B cell specification is essential in that overexpression of either Id2 or Id3 in wild-type bone marrow blocks B cell specification at the prepro-B cell stage. Collectively, these studies suggest a model where Ebf1 induction specifies the B cell fate by dramatically increasing activity of E47 at the posttranslational level.
Project description:Folliculin-interacting protein 1 (Fnip1) is an adaptor protein that physically interacts with AMPK, an energy-sensing kinase that stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy in response to low ATP, while turning off energy consumption mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin. Previous studies with Fnip1-null mice revealed that Fnip1 is essential for pre-B-cell development. Here we report a critical role of Fnip1 in invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell development. Thymic iNKT development in Fnip1(-/-) mice was arrested at stage 2 (NK1.1(-)CD44(+)) but development of CD4, CD8, ?? T-cell, and NK cell lineages proceeded normally. Enforced expression of a V?14J?18 iNKT TCR transgene or loss of the proapoptotic protein Bim did not rescue iNKT cell maturation in Fnip1(-/-) mice. Whereas most known essential transcription factors for iNKT cell development were represented normally, Fnip1(-/-) iNKT cells failed to down-regulate Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger compared with their WT counterparts. Moreover, Fnip1(-/-) iNKT cells contained hyperactive mTOR and reduced mitochondrial number despite lower ATP levels, resulting in increased sensitivity to apoptosis. These results indicate that Fnip1 is vital for iNKT cell development by maintaining metabolic homeostasis in response to metabolic stress.