Role of a guanidinium cation-phosphodianion pair in stabilizing the vinyl carbanion intermediate of orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase-catalyzed reactions.
ABSTRACT: The side chain cation of Arg235 provides a 5.6 and 2.6 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition states for orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) decarboxylase (OMPDC) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyzed reactions of OMP and 5-fluoroorotidine 5'-monophosphate (FOMP), respectively, a 7.2 kcal/mol stabilization of the vinyl carbanion-like transition state for enzyme-catalyzed exchange of the C-6 proton of 5-fluorouridine 5'-monophosphate (FUMP), but no stabilization of the transition states for enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation of truncated substrates 1-(?-d-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid and 1-(?-d-erythrofuranosyl) 5-fluorouracil. These observations show that the transition state stabilization results from formation of a protein cation-phosphodianion pair, and that there is no detectable stabilization from an interaction between the side chain and the pyrimidine ring of substrate. The 5.6 kcal/mol side chain interaction with the transition state for the decarboxylation reaction is 50% of the total 11.2 kcal/mol transition state stabilization by interactions with the phosphodianion of OMP, whereas the 7.2 kcal/mol side chain interaction with the transition state for the deuterium exchange reaction is a larger 78% of the total 9.2 kcal/mol transition state stabilization by interactions with the phosphodianion of FUMP. The effect of the R235A mutation on the enzyme-catalyzed deuterium exchange is expressed predominantly as a change in the turnover number kex, whereas the effect on the enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP is expressed predominantly as a change in the Michaelis constant Km. These results are rationalized by a mechanism in which the binding of OMP, compared with that for FUMP, provides a larger driving force for conversion of OMPDC from an inactive open conformation to a productive, active, closed conformation.
Project description:Kinetic parameters kex (s-1) and kex/Kd (M-1 s-1) are reported for exchange for deuterium in D2O of the C-6 hydrogen of 5-fluororotidine 5'-monophosphate (FUMP) catalyzed by the Q215A, Y217F, and Q215A/Y217F variants of yeast orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ScOMPDC) at pD 8.1, and by the Q215A variant at pD 7.1-9.3. The pD rate profiles for wildtype ScOMPDC and the Q215A variant are identical, except for a 2.5 log unit downward displacement in the profile for the Q215A variant. The Q215A, Y217F and Q215A/Y217F substitutions cause 1.3-2.0 kcal/mol larger increases in the activation barrier for wildtype ScOMPDC-catalyzed deuterium exchange compared with decarboxylation, because of the stronger apparent side chain interaction with the transition state for the deuterium exchange reaction. The stabilization of the transition state for the OMPDC-catalyzed deuterium exchange reaction of FUMP is ca. 19 kcal/mol smaller than the transition state for decarboxylation of OMP, and ca. 8 kcal/mol smaller than for OMPDC-catalyzed deprotonation of FUMP to form the vinyl carbanion intermediate common to OMPDC-catalyzed reactions OMP/FOMP and UMP/FUMP. We propose that ScOMPDC shows similar stabilizing interactions with the common portions of decarboxylation and deprotonation transition states that lead to formation of this vinyl carbanion intermediate, and that there is a large ca. (19-8) = 11 kcal/mol stabilization of the former transition state from interactions with the nascent CO2 of product. The effects of Q215A and Y217F substitutions on kcat/Km for decarboxylation of OMP are expressed mainly as an increase in Km for the reactions catalyzed by the variant enzymes, while the effects on kex/Kd for deuterium exchange are expressed mainly as an increase in kex. This shows that the Q215 and Y217 side chains stabilize the Michaelis complex to OMP for the decarboxylation reaction, compared with the complex to FUMP for the deuterium exchange reaction. These results provide strong support for the conclusion that interactions which stabilize the transition state for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation at a nonpolar enzyme active site dominate over interactions that destabilize the ground-state Michaelis complex.
Project description:The mechanism for activation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) by interactions of side chains from Gln215 and Try217 at a gripper loop and R235, adjacent to this loop, with the phosphodianion of OMP was probed by determining the kinetic parameters k(cat) and K(m) for all combinations of single, double, and triple Q215A, Y217F, and R235A mutations. The 12 kcal/mol intrinsic binding energy of the phosphodianion is shown to be equal to the sum of the binding energies of the side chains of R235 (6 kcal/mol), Q215 (2 kcal/mol), Y217 (2 kcal/mol), and hydrogen bonds to the G234 and R235 backbone amides (2 kcal/mol). Analysis of a triple mutant cube shows small (ca. 1 kcal/mol) interactions between phosphodianion gripper side chains, which are consistent with steric crowding of the side chains around the phosphodianion at wild-type OMPDC. These mutations result in the same change in the activation barrier to the OMPDC-catalyzed reactions of the whole substrate OMP and the substrate pieces (1-?-D-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid (EO) and phosphite dianion. This shows that the transition states for these reactions are stabilized by similar interactions with the protein catalyst. The 12 kcal/mol intrinsic phosphodianion binding energy of OMP is divided between the 8 kcal/mol of binding energy, which is utilized to drive a thermodynamically unfavorable conformational change of the free enzyme, resulting in an increase in (k(cat))(obs) for OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP, and the 4 kcal/mol of binding energy, which is utilized to stabilize the Michaelis complex, resulting in a decrease in (K(m))(obs).
Project description:Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) catalyzes the exchange for deuterium from solvent D(2)O of the C-6 proton of 1-(?-d-erythrofuranosyl)-5-fluorouracil (FEU), a phosphodianion truncated product analog. The deuterium exchange reaction of FEU is accelerated 1.8 × 10(4)-fold by 1 M phosphite dianion (HPO(3)(2-)). This corresponds to a 5.8 kcal/mol stabilization of the vinyl carbanion-like transition state, which is similar to the 7.8 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition state for OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of a truncated substrate analog by bound HPO(3)(2-). These results show that the intrinsic binding energy of phosphite dianion is used in the stabilization of the vinyl carbanion-like transition state common to the decarboxylation and deuterium exchange reactions.
Project description:Closure of the active site phosphate gripper loop of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScOMPDC) over the bound substrate orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) activates the bound substrate for decarboxylation by at least 10(4)-fold [Amyes, T. L., Richard, J. P., and Tait, J. J. (2005) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 15708-15709]. The 19-residue phosphate gripper loop of the mesophilic ScOMPDC is much larger than the nine-residue loop at the ortholog from the thermophile Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (MtOMPDC). This difference in loop size results in a small decrease in the total intrinsic phosphate binding energy of the phosphodianion group of OMP from 11.9 to 11.6 kcal/mol, along with a modest decrease in the extent of activation by phosphite dianion of decarboxylation of the truncated substrate 1-(beta-D-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid. The activation parameters DeltaH(double dagger) and DeltaS(double dagger) for k(cat) for decarboxylation of OMP are 3.6 kcal/mol and 10 cal K(-1) mol(-1) more positive, respectively, for MtOMPDC than for ScOMPDC. We suggest that these differences are related to the difference in the size of the active site loops at the mesophilic ScOMPDC and the thermophilic MtOMPDC. The greater enthalpic transition state stabilization available from the more extensive loop-substrate interactions for the ScOMPDC-catalyzed reaction is largely balanced by a larger entropic requirement for immobilization of the larger loop at this enzyme.
Project description:Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of 5-fluoroorotate (FO) with kcat/Km = 1.4 × 10-7 M-1 s-1. Combining this and related kinetic parameters shows that the 31 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition state for decarboxylation of OMP provided by OMPDC represents the sum of 11.8 and 10.6 kcal/mol stabilization by the substrate phosphodianion and the ribosyl ring, respectively, and an 8.6 kcal/mol stabilization from the orotate ring. The transition state for OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of FO is stabilized by 5.2, 7.2, and 9.0 kcal/mol, respectively, by 1.0 M phosphite dianion, d-glycerol 3-phosphate and d-erythritol 4-phosphate. The stabilization is due to the utilization of binding interactions of the substrate fragments to drive an enzyme conformational change, which locks the orotate ring of the whole substrate, or the substrate pieces in a caged complex. We propose that enzyme-activation is a possible, and perhaps probable, consequence of any substrate-induced enzyme conformational change.
Project description:The caged complex between orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ScOMPDC) and 5-fluoroorotidine 5'-monophosphate (FOMP) undergoes decarboxylation ?300 times faster than the caged complex between ScOMPDC and the physiological substrate, orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP). Consequently, the enzyme conformational changes required to lock FOMP at a protein cage and release product 5-fluorouridine 5'-monophosphate (FUMP) are kinetically significant steps. The caged form of ScOMPDC is stabilized by interactions between the side chains from Gln215, Tyr217, and Arg235 and the substrate phosphodianion. The control of these interactions over the barrier to the binding of FOMP and the release of FUMP was probed by determining the effect of all combinations of single, double, and triple Q215A, Y217F, and R235A mutations on kcat/Km and kcat for turnover of FOMP by wild-type ScOMPDC; its values are limited by the rates of substrate binding and product release, respectively. The Q215A and Y217F mutations each result in an increase in kcat and a decrease in kcat/Km, due to a weakening of the protein-phosphodianion interactions that favor fast product release and slow substrate binding. The Q215A/R235A mutation causes a large decrease in the kinetic parameters for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP, which are limited by the rate of the decarboxylation step, but much smaller decreases in the kinetic parameters for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of FOMP, which are limited by the rate of enzyme conformational changes. By contrast, the Y217A mutation results in large decreases in kcat/Km for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of both OMP and FOMP, because of the comparable effects of this mutation on rate-determining decarboxylation of enzyme-bound OMP and on the rate-determining enzyme conformational change for decarboxylation of FOMP. We propose that kcat = 8.2 s(-1) for decarboxylation of FOMP by the Y217A mutant is equal to the rate constant for cage formation from the complex between FOMP and the open enzyme, that the tyrosyl phenol group stabilizes the closed form of ScOMPDC by hydrogen bonding to the substrate phosphodianion, and that the phenyl group of Y217 and F217 facilitates formation of the transition state for the rate-limiting conformational change. An analysis of kinetic data for mutant enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP and FOMP provides estimates for the rate and equilibrium constants for the conformational change that traps FOMP at the enzyme active site.
Project description:The kinetic parameters for activation of yeast triosephosphate isomerase (ScTIM), yeast orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase (ScOMPDC), and human liver glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (hlGPDH) for catalysis of reactions of their respective phosphodianion truncated substrates are reported for the following oxydianions: HPO3(2-), FPO3(2-), S2O3(2-), SO4(2-) and HOPO3(2-). Oxydianions bind weakly to these unliganded enzymes and tightly to the transition state complex (E·S(‡)), with intrinsic oxydianion Gibbs binding free energies that range from -8.4 kcal/mol for activation of hlGPDH-catalyzed reduction of glycolaldehyde by FPO3(2-) to -3.0 kcal/mol for activation of ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of 1-?-d-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid by HOPO3(2-). Small differences in the specificity of the different oxydianion binding domains are observed. We propose that the large -8.4 kcal/mol and small -3.8 kcal/mol intrinsic oxydianion binding energy for activation of hlGPDH by FPO3(2-) and S2O3(2-), respectively, compared with activation of ScTIM and ScOMPDC reflect stabilizing and destabilizing interactions between the oxydianion -F and -S with the cationic side chain of R269 for hlGPDH. These results are consistent with a cryptic function for the similarly structured oxydianion binding domains of ScTIM, ScOMPDC and hlGPDH. Each enzyme utilizes the interactions with tetrahedral inorganic oxydianions to drive a conformational change that locks the substrate in a caged Michaelis complex that provides optimal stabilization of the different enzymatic transition states. The observation of dianion activation by stabilization of active caged Michaelis complexes may be generalized to the many other enzymes that utilize substrate binding energy to drive changes in enzyme conformation, which induce tight substrate fits.
Project description:Orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase catalyzes the decarboxylation of truncated substrate (1-?-D-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid to form (1-?-D-erythrofuranosyl)uracil. This enzyme-catalyzed reaction is activated by tetrahedral oxydianions, which bind weakly to unliganded OMPDC and tightly to the enzyme-transition state complex, with the following intrinsic oxydianion binding energies (kcal/mol): SO3(2-), -8.3; HPO3(2-), -7.7; S2O3(2-), -4.6; SO4(2-), -4.5; HOPO3(2-), -3.0; HOAsO3(2-), no activation detected. We propose that the oxydianion and orotate binding domains of OMPDC perform complementary functions in catalysis of decarboxylation reactions: (1) The orotate binding domain carries out decarboxylation of the orotate ring. (2) The activating oxydianion binding domain has the cryptic function of utilizing binding interactions with tetrahedral inorganic oxydianions to drive an enzyme conformational change that results in the stabilization of transition states at the distant orotate domain.
Project description:The mystery associated with catalysis by what were once regarded as protein black boxes, diminished with the X-ray crystallographic determination of the three-dimensional structures of enzyme-substrate complexes. The report that several high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) failed to provide a consensus mechanism for enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP to form uridine 5'-monophosphate, therefore, provoked a flurry of controversy. This controversy was fueled by the enormous 1023-fold rate acceleration for this enzyme, which had " jolted many biochemists' assumptions about the catalytic potential of enzymes." Our studies on the mechanism of action of OMPDC provide strong evidence that catalysis by this enzyme is not fundamentally different from less proficient catalysts, while highlighting important architectural elements that enable a peak level of performance. Many enzymes undergo substrate-induced protein conformational changes that trap their substrates in solvent occluded protein cages, but the conformational change induced by ligand binding to OMPDC is incredibly complex, as required to enable the development of 22 kcal/mol of stabilizing binding interactions with the phosphodianion and ribosyl substrate fragments of OMP. The binding energy from these fragments is utilized to activate OMPDC for catalysis of decarboxylation at the orotate fragment of OMP, through the creation of a tight, catalytically active, protein cage from the floppy, open, unliganded form of OMPDC. Such utilization of binding energy for ligand-driven conformational changes provides a general mechanism to obtain specificity in transition state binding. The rate enhancement that results from the binding of carbon acid substrates to enzymes is partly due to a reduction in the carbon acid p Ka that is associated with ligand binding. The binding of UMP to OMPDC results in an unusually large >12 unit decrease in the p Ka = 29 for abstraction of the C-6 substrate hydrogen, due to stabilization of an enzyme-bound vinyl carbanion, which is also an intermediate of OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation. The protein-ligand interactions operate to stabilize the vinyl carbanion at the enzyme active site compared to aqueous solution, rather than to stabilize the transition state for the concerted electrophilic displacement of CO2 by H+ that avoids formation of this reaction intermediate. There is evidence that OMPDC induces strain into the bound substrate. The interaction between the amide side chain of Gln-215 from the phosphodianion gripper loop and the hydroxymethylene side chain of Ser-154 from the pyrimidine umbrella of ScOMPDC position the amide side chain to interact with the phosphodianion of OMP. There are no direct stabilizing interactions between dianion gripper protein side chains Gln-215, Tyr-217, and Arg-235 and the pyrimidine ring at the decarboxylation transition state. Rather these side chains function solely to hold OMPDC in the catalytically active closed conformation. The hydrophobic side chains that line the active site of OMPDC in the region of the departing CO2 product may function to stabilize the decarboxylation transition state by providing hydrophobic solvation of this product.
Project description:The side chain cation of R269 lies at the surface of l-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and forms an ion pair to the phosphodianion of substrate dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), which is buried at the nonpolar protein interior. The R269A mutation of GPDH results in a 110-fold increase in K(m) (2.8 kcal/mol effect) and a 41,000-fold decrease in k(cat) (6.3 kcal/mol effect), which corresponds to a 9.1 kcal/mol destabilization of the transition state for GPDH-catalyzed reduction of DHAP by NADH. There is a 6.7 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition state for the R269A mutant GPDH-catalyzed reaction by 1.0 M guanidinium ion, and the transition state for the reaction of the substrate pieces is stabilized by an additional 2.4 kcal/mol by their covalent attachment at wildtype GPDH. These results provide strong support for the proposal that GPDH invests the 11 kcal/mol intrinsic phosphodianion binding energy of DHAP in trapping the substrate at a nonpolar active site, where strong electrostatic interactions are favored, and obtains a 9 kcal/mol return from stabilizing interactions between the side chain cation and transition state trianion. We propose a wide propagation for the catalytic motif examined in this work, which enables strong transition state stabilization from enzyme-phosphodianion pairs.