A longitudinal examination of adolescent response inhibition: neural differences before and after the initiation of heavy drinking.
ABSTRACT: Response inhibition abnormalities contribute to several maladaptive behaviors commonly observed during adolescence, including heavy drinking.The present study aimed to determine whether abnormalities in brain response during response inhibition predate or follow adolescents' transition into heavy drinking, which is pivotal in identifying the neural antecedents and consequences of adolescent alcohol use.Longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquired during a response inhibition task was collected on adolescents before the onset of heavy drinking and then again on the same scanner approximately 3 years later. Adolescents who transitioned into heavy drinking (n?=?20) were matched to continuously nondrinking adolescents (n?=?20) on baseline and follow-up demographic and developmental variables.During no-go relative to go trials, participants showed responses common to inhibitory circuitry: frontal (e.g., pre-supplementary motor area), temporal, and parietal regions. A repeated measures analysis of covariance revealed that adolescents who later transitioned into heavy drinking showed less fMRI response contrast at baseline than continuous nondrinkers in frontal, parietal, subcortical, and cerebellar regions (p?756 ?l), then increased activation after the onset of heavy drinking in frontal, parietal, and cerebellar areas.Future heavy drinkers showed less activation of inhibitory circuitry before the onset of heavy drinking. After transitioning into heavy drinking, they showed more activation during response inhibition than nondrinking controls. These results contribute to the growing literature suggesting that neural vulnerabilities exist prior to the onset of substance use, and the initiation of heavy drinking may lead to additional alterations in brain functioning.
Project description:Eighteen- to twenty-five-year-olds show the highest rates of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and heavy drinking, which may have critical neurocognitive implications. Regions subserving memory may be particularly susceptible to alcohol-related impairments.We used blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural correlates of visual encoding and recognition among heavy-drinking college students. We predicted that heavy drinkers would show worse memory performance, increased frontal/parietal activation, and decreased hippocampal response during encoding.Participants were 23 heavy drinkers and 33 demographically matched light drinkers, aged 18-20, characterized using quantity/frequency of drinking and AUD diagnosis. Participants performed a figural encoding and recognition task during fMRI. BOLD response during encoding was modeled based on whether each stimulus was subsequently recognized or forgotten (i.e., correct vs. incorrect encoding).There were no group differences in behavioral performance. Compared to light drinkers, heavy drinkers showed (1) greater BOLD response during correct encoding in the right hippocampus/medial temporal, right dorsolateral prefrontal, left inferior frontal, and bilateral posterior parietal cortices; (2) less left inferior frontal activation and greater bilateral precuneus deactivation during incorrect encoding; and (3) less bilateral insula response during correct recognition (clusters >10,233 ?l, p?<?0.05 whole brain).This is the first investigation of the neural substrates of figural memory among heavy-drinking older adolescents. Heavy drinkers demonstrated compensatory hyperactivation of memory-related areas during correct encoding, greater deactivation of default mode regions during incorrect encoding, and reduced recognition-related response. Results could suggest use of different encoding and recognition strategies among heavy drinkers.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the full range of alcohol treatment effectiveness, it is important to assess secondary nondrinking outcome dimensions in addition to primary alcohol consumption outcomes. METHOD:We used a large sample (n=1,226) of alcohol-dependent participants entering the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism-sponsored COMBINE (Combining Medications and Behavioral Interventions) Study, a multisite clinical trial of pharmacological (naltrexone [ReVia] and acamprosate [Campral]) and behavioral interventions, to examine the effects of specific treatment combinations on nondrinking functional outcomes. We assessed the outcomes at baseline and at the end of 16 weeks of alcohol treatment and again at the 26-week and/or 52-week postrandomization follow-ups. RESULTS:(1) Drinking and secondary outcomes were significantly related, especially at the follow-up periods. A higher percentage of heavy drinking days, more drinks per drinking day, and lower percentage of days abstinent were associated with lower quality-of-life measures. (2) All nondrinking outcomes showed improvement at the end of 16 weeks of treatment and most maintained improvement over the 26-week and 52-week follow-ups. Only two measures returned to pretreatment levels at 52 weeks: percentage of days paid for work and physical health. Improvements of nondrinking outcomes remained even after adjusting for posttreatment heavy drinking status. (3) Although nondrinking outcomes showed overall improvement, specific pharmacological and behavioral treatment combinations were not differentially effective on specific secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:In the current study, changes that resulted from treatment were multidimensional, and improvements in nondrinking outcomes reflected the overall significant improvement in drinking but they were not differentiated between treatment combination groups. Findings from this study support the importance of including secondary nondrinking outcomes in clinical alcohol-treatment trials.
Project description:Impaired inhibition of prepotent motor response may represent an important risk factor for alcoholism. Alcohol use may also increase impulsive behavior, including impaired response inhibition. Little is known about the brain function underlying response inhibition among college-age drinkers based on their drinking patterns, despite college-age drinkers demonstrating high rates of alcohol-use disorders. Our major objective was to compare behavior and associated brain activity measured with fMRI during a response-inhibition task in matched heavy- and light-alcohol-drinking college students. Participants were light (N=36) and heavy (N=56) drinkers, aged 18-20 years. We characterized blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses, while participants performed an fMRI Go/No-Go task to quantify inhibitory behavior and brain activity. Behaviorally, group performance differences were observed for Go correct-hit and No-Go false-alarm reaction times with increased reaction times in heavy compared with light drinkers. During fMRI No-Go correct rejections, light drinkers exhibited greater BOLD response than did heavy drinkers in left supplementary motor area (SMA), bilateral parietal lobule, right hippocampus, bilateral middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus/anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann area 24). Group differences in Go/No-Go-related regional activations correlated with alcohol- and impulsivity-related measures. These findings suggest that heavy alcohol drinkers may have dysfunction in brain regions underlying attention and response inhibition, leading to diminished abilities to suppress prepotent responding. The extent to which these tendencies relate to impulsive decision-making and behaviors in real-life settings and may guide intervention development warrants additional investigation.
Project description:Dysfunctional response inhibition is a key executive function impairment in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Still, behavioral response inhibition measures do not consistently differentiate affected from unaffected individuals. The authors therefore investigated neural correlates of response inhibition and the familial nature of these neural correlates.Functional MRI measurements of neural activation during the stop-signal task and behavioral measures of response inhibition were obtained in adolescents and young adults with ADHD (N=185), their unaffected siblings (N=111), and healthy comparison subjects (N=124).Stop-signal task reaction times were longer and error rates were higher in participants with ADHD, but not in their unaffected siblings, while reaction time variability was higher in both groups than in comparison subjects. Relative to comparison subjects, participants with ADHD and unaffected siblings had neural hypoactivation in frontal-striatal and frontal-parietal networks, whereby activation in inferior frontal and temporal/parietal nodes in unaffected siblings was intermediate between levels of participants with ADHD and comparison subjects. Furthermore, neural activation in inferior frontal nodes correlated with stop-signal reaction times, and activation in both inferior frontal and temporal/parietal nodes correlated with ADHD severity.Neural activation alterations in ADHD are more robust than behavioral response inhibition deficits and explain variance in response inhibition and ADHD severity. Although only affected participants with ADHD have deficient response inhibition, hypoactivation in inferior frontal and temporal-parietal nodes in unaffected siblings supports the familial nature of the underlying neural process. Activation deficits in these nodes may be useful as endophenotypes that extend beyond the affected individuals in the family.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The authors sought evidence for altered adolescent brain growth trajectory associated with moderate and heavy alcohol use in a large national, multisite, prospective study of adolescents before and after initiation of appreciable alcohol use. METHOD:This study examined 483 adolescents (ages 12-21) before initiation of drinking and 1 and 2 years later. At the 2-year assessment, 356 participants continued to meet the study's no/low alcohol consumption entry criteria, 65 had initiated moderate drinking, and 62 had initiated heavy drinking. MRI was used to quantify regional cortical and white matter volumes. Percent change per year (slopes) in adolescents who continued to meet no/low criteria served as developmental control trajectories against which to compare those who initiated moderate or heavy drinking. RESULTS:In no/low drinkers, gray matter volume declined throughout adolescence and slowed in many regions in later adolescence. Complementing gray matter declines, white matter regions grew at faster rates at younger ages and slowed toward young adulthood. Youths who initiated heavy drinking exhibited an accelerated frontal cortical gray matter trajectory, divergent from the norm. Although significant effects on trajectories were not observed in moderate drinkers, their intermediate position between no/low and heavy drinkers suggests a dose effect. Neither marijuana co-use nor baseline volumes contributed significantly to the alcohol effect. CONCLUSIONS:Initiation of drinking during adolescence, with or without marijuana co-use, disordered normal brain growth trajectories. Factors possibly contributing to abnormal cortical volume trajectories include peak consumption in the past year and family history of alcoholism.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adolescence is a period of developmental flux when brain systems are vulnerable to influences of early substance use, which in turn relays increased risk for substance use disorders. Our study intent was to assess adolescent regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as it relates to current and future alcohol use. The aim was to identify brain-based predictors for initiation of alcohol use and onset of future substance use disorders. METHODS:Quantitative rCBF was assessed in 100 adolescents (age 12-15). Prospective behavioral assessments were conducted annually over a three-year follow-up period to characterize onset of alcohol initiation, future drinking patterns and use disorders. Comparisons amongst use groups (i.e., current-, future-, and non-alcohol using adolescents) identified rCBF associated with initiation of alcohol use. Regression by future drinking patterns identified rCBF predictive of heavier drinking. Survival analysis determined whether or not baseline rCBF predicted later development of use disorders. RESULTS:Baseline rCBF was decreased to the parietal cortex and increased to mesolimbic regions in adolescents currently using alcohol as well as those who would use alcohol in the future. Higher baseline rCBF to the left fusiform gyrus and lower rCBF to the right inferior parietal cortex and left cerebellum was associated with future drinking patterns as well as predicted the onset of alcohol and substance use disorders in this cohort. CONCLUSIONS:Variations in resting rCBF to regions within reward and default mode or control networks appear to represent trait markers of alcohol use initiation and are predictive of future development of use disorders.
Project description:In a sample of 1,897 youth studied across the last year of elementary school to the second year of high school, we identified five trajectories of drinking frequency. Three of those (nondrinkers, middle onset, and late onset drinkers) were not drinking in elementary school; two others (moderate drinkers and early high drinkers) were. Among originally nondrinking groups, multiple impulsigenic traits and the acquired preparedness risk model predicted membership in groups that subsequently began drinking. Membership in trajectory groups characterized by drinking during this age period was associated with (a) the experience of alcohol-related problems and (b) further increases in both impulsigenic traits and alcohol expectancies. Youth vary considerably in the development of drinking behavior across the transitions from elementary to high school. Harms associated with early drinking involve both problems from drinking and increases in high-risk personality traits. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:Excessive alcohol use is assumed to affect maturation of cognitive functioning in adolescence. However, most existing studies that have tested this hypothesis are seriously flawed due to the use of selective groups and/or cross-sectional designs, which limits the ability to draw firm conclusions. This longitudinal study investigated whether patterns of alcohol use predicted differences in maturation of executive functioning in adolescence. Additionally, gender was tested as a possible moderator.We used data from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which comprises a cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents. Maturation of executive functioning was measured by assessing the standardized improvement on each of four basic executive functions (i.e., inhibition, working memory, and shift- and sustained attention) between ages 11 and 19. Participants were assigned to one of six (heavy) drinking groups (i.e., non-drinkers, light drinkers, infrequent heavy drinkers, increased heavy drinkers, decreased heavy drinkers, and chronic heavy drinkers). We conducted linear regression analyses, and adjusted for relevant confounders.The six drinking groups did not reveal significant differences in maturation between drinking groups. E.g., maturation executive functioning of chronic heavy drinkers in comparison to non-drinkers; inhibition: B = -0.14, 95% CI [-0.41 to 0.14], working memory: B = -0.03, 95% CI [-0.26 to 0.21], shift attention: B = 0.13, 95% CI [-0.17 to 0.41], sustained attention: B = 0.12, 95% CI [-0.60 to 0.36]. Furthermore, gender was not found to be a significant moderator.Four years of weekly heavy drinking (i.e., chronic heavy drinkers) did not result in measurable impairments in four basic executive functions. Thus, regular heavy drinking in adolescence does not seem to affect these basic behavioural measures of executive functioning.
Project description:Outcomes related to alcohol use after hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment are unknown in the direct-acting antiviral (DAA) era. We assessed levels of alcohol use before and after HCV treatment and their association with long-term outcomes in a cohort of U.S. veterans. In this retrospective cohort analysis, 29,037 patients who initiated DAA regimens between 2013 and 2015 were followed for a mean of 3.04 years. We categorized alcohol use into three categories (nondrinking, low-level drinking, and unhealthy drinking) using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption questionnaires administered within 1 year before (baseline) and after treatment. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the associations between alcohol use and mortality or liver-related outcomes. Before DAA treatment, 68% of veterans reported nondrinking, 22.9% reported low-level drinking, and 9.1% reported unhealthy drinking. Compared to patients with baseline non-drinking, those with unhealthy drinking had a higher risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-1.75) and decompensated cirrhosis (adjusted HR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06-1.59) and lower likelihood of liver transplantation (adjusted HR 0.24, 95% CI: 0.06-0.92). These associations were greater in patients without sustained virologic response than in those with sustained virologic response. When alcohol use before and after treatment was modeled as a time-varying covariate, similar associations were observed. Survival analysis also found that unhealthy drinking was significantly associated with a lower probability of survival compared with nondrinking. Low-level alcohol use was not associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes. Conclusion: In this large cohort of U.S. veterans with HCV who received DAAs, unhealthy drinking was common and associated with a higher risk of posttreatment mortality. Interventions to achieve alcohol cessation before and during antiviral treatment should be encouraged.
Project description:Beginning to engage in heavy alcohol use during adolescence, as opposed to later in life, is associated with elevated risk for a variety of negative consequences, including the development of an alcohol use disorder. Behavioral studies suggest that poor decision making predicts alcohol use during adolescence; however, more research is needed to determine the neurobiological risk factors that underlie this association. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain activation during decision making involving risk and reward was assessed in 47 adolescents (14-15 years old) with no significant history or alcohol or drug use. After baseline assessment, participants completed follow-up interviews every 3 months to assess the duration to onset of binge drinking. Adolescents who made a greater number of risky selections and had greater activation in the nucleus accumbens, precuneus, and occipital cortex during decision making involving greater potential for risk and reward began binge drinking sooner. Findings suggest that heightened activation of reward circuitry during decision making under risk is a neurobiological risk factor for earlier onset of binge drinking. Furthermore, brain activation was a significant predictor of onset to binge drinking, even after controlling for decision-making behavior, suggesting that neurobiological markers may provide additional predictive validity over behavioral assessments. Interventions designed to modify these behavioral and neurobiological risk factors may be useful for curbing heavy alcohol use during adolescence.