High prevalence of hepatitis B virus dual infection with genotypes A and G in HIV-1 infected men in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, during 2000-2011.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is divided into 8 definite (A-H) and 2 putative (I, J) genotypes that show a geographical distribution. HBV genotype G, however, is an aberrant genotype of unknown origin that demonstrates severe replication deficiencies and very little genetic variation. It is often found in co-infections with another HBV genotype and infection has been associated with certain risk groups such as intravenous drug users and men having sex with men (MSM). We aimed to estimate the prevalence of HBV-G in the Netherlands by analysing samples from HBV-positive patients visiting the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam. METHODS:Ninety-six HBV-infected patients, genotyped as HBV-A or HBV-G infected, were retrieved from the clinical database. Blood plasma samples were analysed with a newly-developed real-time PCR assay that detects HBV-A and HBV-G. For three patients, the HBV plasma viral load (pVL) of both genotypes was followed longitudinally. In addition, three complete genomes of HBV-G were sequenced to determine their relationship to global HBV-G strains. RESULTS:Ten HBV-G infections were found in the selected Dutch patients. All concerned HIV-1 infected males with HBV-A co-infection. Dutch HBV-G strains were phylogenetically closely related to reference HBV-G strains. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, HBV-G infection in the Netherlands is found exclusively in HIV-1 infected men as co-infection with HBV-A. A considerable percentage (37%) of men infected with HBV and HIV-1 are actually co- infected with two HBV genotypes.
Project description:The major routes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Japan has been mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and blood transfusion. However, HBV cases transmitted through sexual contact are increasing, especially among HIV-1-seropositive patients. To understand the molecular epidemiology of HBV in HBV/HIV-1 coinfection, we analyzed HBV genotypes and HIV-1 subtypes in HBV/HIV-1-coinfected patients at Nagoya Medical Center from 2003 to 2007. Among 394 HIV-1-infected Japanese men having sex with men (MSM) who were newly diagnosed during the study period, 31 (7.9%) tested positive for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen. HBV sequence analyses were successful in 26 cases, with 21 (80.7%) and 5 (19.3%) cases determined as genotypes A and C, respectively. Our finding that HBV genotype A was dominant in HIV-1-seropositive patients alerts clinicians to an alternative outbreak of HBV genotype A in the HIV-1-infected MSM population and a shift in HBV genotype from C to A in Japan. The narrow genetic diversity in genotype A cases suggests that genotype A has been recently introduced into the MSM population and that sexual contacts among MSM were more active than speculated from HIV-1 tree analyses. In addition, we found a lamivudine resistance mutation in one naïve case, suggesting a risk of drug-resistant HBV transmission. As genotype A infection has a higher risk than infection with other genotypes for individuals to become HBV carriers, prevention programs are urgently needed for the target population.
Project description:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection is possible in patients who are positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) since both share similar transmission routes. Furthermore, through the continuous risk of exposure, they potentially can be infected by mixtures of distinct HBV genotypes which can result in the presence of two or more genotypes in a single patient. This study aimed to specify the frequency of mixtures of HBV genotypes and their potential clinic importance in HIV-infected Mexican patients. HBV infection was assessed by serological testing and molecular diagnostics. HBV mixtures were detected by multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing. Liver fibrosis was evaluated using transitional elastography, the Aspartate aminotransferase to Platelets Ratio Index score, and Fibrosis-4 score. Among 228 HIV-infected patients, 67 were positive for HBsAg. In 25 HBV/HIV co-infected patients, 44 HBV genotypes were found: H (50.0%, 22/44), G (22.7%, 10/44), D (15.9%, 6/44), A (9.1%, 4/44), and F (2.3%, 1/44). Among these, 44.0% (11/25) were single genotype, 36.0% (9/25) were dual and 20.0% (5/25) were triple genotype. The most frequent dual combination was G/H (44.4%, 4/9), while triple-mixtures were H/G/D (60.0%, 3/5). The increase in the number of genotypes correlated positively with age (Spearman’s Rho = 0.53, p = 0.0069) and negatively with platelet levels (Spearman’s Rho = ? 0.416, p = 0.039). HBV viral load was higher in triply-infected than dually infected (31623.0 IU/mL vs. 1479.0 IU/mL, p = 0.029) patients. Triple-mixed infection was associated with significant liver fibrosis (OR = 15.0 95%CI = 1.29 – 174.38, p = 0.027). In conclusion, infection with mixtures of HBV genotypes is frequent in HIV patients causing significant hepatic fibrosis related to high viral load, especially in triple genotype mixtures.
Project description:The high frequency of mutation during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has resulted in 8 genotypes (A-H) with varying effects on disease severity and treatment efficacy. However, analysis of intrapatient HBV diversity is limited, especially during HIV co-infection. Therefore, a preliminary study was performed to analyze HBV X gene diversity in 17 HBV/HIV co-infected individuals. Phylogenetic analysis revealed HBV genotype A in 13 individuals (76.5%) or genotype E in 1 individual (5.9%). Additionally, 3 individuals were dually infected with HBV genotypes A and G (17.6%). Overall, higher genetic distance and entropy were observed in the X region and overlapping polymerase (Pol(X)) regions when compared to the PreS, S, and overlapping polymerase (Pol(PS) and Pol(S)) regions analyzed in the same patients as part of a previous study. In addition, multiple viral variants from 2 individuals with dual HBV infection did not group with either genotype A or G by phylogenetic analysis, indicating possible recombination. SimPlot bootscan analysis confirmed recombination breakpoints within the X gene in both individuals. Recombination between HBV genotypes may represent an important evolutionary strategy that enhances overall pathogenic potential and/or alters the downstream effects of the HBV X protein.
Project description:Objective:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is not uncommon among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Severity of HBV infection and treatment outcome are associated with specific HBV genotypes. No study has reported the types of HBV genotypes circulating among HIV-infected subjects in Nigeria. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of HBV, as well as its genotypic distribution among HIV-infected subjects in Benin City, Nigeria. Methods:Whole blood was collected from a total of 564 HIV-infected and 250 apparently healthy HIV-negative subjects. Serodiagnosis of HBV infection was done using an immunochromatographic kit. Detection of HBV-DNA and sequencing of amplicons were done using standard molecular techniques. Results:HIV status was not significantly associated with HBV seroinfection (HIV vs. non-HIV: 4.6% vs. 4.0%; odds ratio = 1.168, 95% confidence interval = 0.550, 2.444, and P = 0.854). HIV-infected subjects were observed to have an insignificantly (P = 0.645) higher prevalence of true HBV infection than their non-HIV-infected counterparts (HIV positive vs. HIV negative: 23.1% vs. 10.0%). All patients with true HBV infection were found to harbor HBV genotype E, which did not cluster around other HBV genotype E. Conclusion:This study reports novel strains of HBV genotype E circulating in Nigeria.
Project description:HIV infection has a significant impact on the natural progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) related liver disease. In HIV-HBV co-infected patients, little is known about mutations in the HBV genome, which can influence severity of liver disease. The aim of this study was to characterize and to determine the frequency of known clinically significant mutations in the HBV genomes from HIV-HBV co-infected patients and from HBV mono-infected patients. To accomplish this, genomic length HBV sequencing was performed in highly-active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-naïve HIV-HBV co-infected patients (n=74) and in anti-HBV therapy-naïve HBV mono-infected patients (n=55). The frequency of HBV mutations differed between the co-infected and mono-infected patients when comparing patients with the same genotype. BCP mutations A1762T and G1764A were significantly more frequent in HBV genotype C mono-infection and the -1G frameshift was significantly more frequent in co-infection and was only observed in HBV genotype A co-infection. PreS2 deletions were observed more frequently in the setting of co-infection. Further work is needed to determine if these mutational patterns influence the differences in liver disease progression in HIV-HBV co-infected and HBV mono-infected patients.
Project description:Human pegivirus (HPgV) is a positive single-stranded RNA virus in the Flaviviridae family. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the presence of multiple HPgV genotypes with distinct geographic locations. HPgV is of interest because of its potential beneficial impact on HIV disease progression. Despite this, the effects of HPgV in the context of other viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), are poorly understood, and data from resource-limited settings are scarce. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of HPgV in HIV/HBV co-infected patients in Ghana. Sera from 100 HIV/HBV co-infected individuals were evaluated for HPgV RNA, and the genotype determined by sequencing the 5' untranslated region. HPgV RNA was detected in 27 samples (27%). Of these, 26 were genotyped successfully with 23 belonging to HPgV genotype 1 and 3 belonging to HPgV genotype 2. The presence of HPgV RNA had no statistically significant impact on CD4 cell count or HBV DNA titers in the HIV/HBV co-infected patients. However, there was a trend towards decreased HBV DNA levels in HPgV RNA-positive patients with CD4 cell count?<?200 (p?=?0.0626). HPgV co-infection is common in Ghana. The effect of HPgV on HIV or HBV disease among HIV/HBV co-infected patients was minimal. However, decreased HBV DNA levels in HPgV RNA-positive patients with low CD4 cell counts highlight the need for prospective studies of HPgV in HIV and hepatitis co-infected patients, especially in those with advanced HIV disease, to study further the effects of HPgV on liver disease.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. HIV-positive patients are commonly co-infected with HBV due to shared routes of transmission. OBJECTIVES:Our aim was to determine the risk factors, prevalence, genotypes, and mutations of the Surface S gene of HBV, and occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) among patients infected with HIV in a northeastern Colombian city. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted with 275 HIV-positive patients attending an outpatient clinic in Bucaramanga, Colombia during 2009-2010. Blood samples were collected and screened for serological markers of HBV (anti-HBs, anti-HBc and HBsAg) through ELISA assay. Regardless of their serological profile, all samples were tested for the HBV S gene by nested-PCR and HBV genotypes were determined by phylogenetic inference. Clinical records were used to examine demographic, clinical, virological, immunological and antiretroviral therapy (ART) variables of HIV infection. RESULTS:Participants were on average 37±11 years old and 65.1% male. The prevalence of HIV-HBV coinfection was 12% (95%CI 8.4-16.4) of which 3.3% had active HBV infection and 8.7% OBI. The prevalence of HIV-HBV coinfection was associated with AIDS stage and ART treatment. Sequence analysis identified genotype F, subgenotype F3 in 93.8% of patients and genotype A in 6.2% of patients. A C149R mutation, which may have resulted from failure in HBsAg detection, was found in one patient with OBI. CONCLUSIONS:The present study found a high prevalence of HIV-HBV coinfection with an incidence of OBI 2.6-fold higher compared to active HBV infection. These findings suggest including HBV DNA testing to detect OBI in addition to screening for HBV serological markers in HIV patients.
Project description:HBV and HIV share similar transmission routes. Concurrent infection with the two viruses usually results in more severe and progressive liver disease, and a higher incidence of cirrhosis, liver cancer and mortality. Further, this co-infection may lead to cross-resistance between HIV and HBV drugs and increased liver injury, either due to direct hepatotoxicity or drug-related immune-reconstitution hepatitis. These challenges necessitate continuous surveillance for HBV among HIV infected individuals to guide patient management. We conducted this study to understand the serologic and genotypic characteristics of HBV among HIV/HBV infected patients in South West and Littoral Regions of Cameroon.Plasma samples were screened for HBsAg, HBeAg, Anti-HBs and anti-HBc using ELISA followed by DNA extraction from all HBsAg positive samples. A 366 bp region covering the overlapping surface/polymerase gene was amplified by a nested PCR and the product sequenced using Big Dye sequencing chemistry. The resulting sequences were then analyzed for genotypes and both escape and drug resistance mutations.Of the 455 samples in this study, 25.5 % (n = 116) were HBsAg positive and 46 of these had their DNA successfully amplified. Genotype E was found in 32 samples (69.6 %) and genotype A in the rest of the samples. Escape mutations associated with failure of diagnosis (Y100C, R122K and Q129H) and with vaccine escape (Q129R and T131N) were detected in varying frequencies in the population. Polymerase mutations implicated in resistance to lamivudine and other ʟ-nucleoside analogues were detected in seven patients (15.2 %), while all the samples lacked mutations associated with resistance to adefovir and tenofovir.These findings suggest the endemicity of HBV and the predominance of genotypes A and E in the study population. Also, drug resistance findings support the use of tenofovir based ART regimens among HIV/HBV co-infected persons. There is need for continuous HBV screening and monitoring in HIV infected individuals in these regions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Within HIV/HBV infected patients, an increase in HDV infection has been observed; there is inadequate information on HDV prevalence as well as virologic profile in Ghana. This study sought to determine the presence of HDV in HIV/HBV co-infected patients in Ghana.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a longitudinal purposive study which enrolled 113 HIV/HBV co-infected patients attending clinic at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) in Accra, Ghana. After consenting, 5 mL whole blood was collected at two-time points (baseline and 4-6 months afterwards). The sera obtained were tested to confirm the presence of HIV, HBV antibodies and/or antigens, and HBV DNA. Antibodies and viral RNA were also determined for HDV. Amplified HBV DNA and HDV RNA were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis carried out with reference sequences from the GenBank to establish the genotypes.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 113 samples tested 63 (55.7%) were females and 50 (44.25%) were males with a median age of 45 years. A total of 100 (88.5%) samples had detectable HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), and 32 out of the 113 had detectable HBV DNA. Nucleotide sequences were obtained for 15 and 2 samples of HBV and HDV, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis was predominantly genotype E for the HBVs and genotype 1 for the HDVs. Of the 13 samples that were HBsAg unreactive, 4 (30.8%) had detectable HBV DNA suggesting the incidence of occult HBV infections. The percentage occurrence of HDV in this study was observed to be 3.54.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our data suggest the presence and circulation of HDV and incidence of occult HBV infection in HIV/HBV co-infected patients in Ghana. This informs health staff and makes it imperative to look out for the presence of HDV and occult HBV in HIV/HBV co-infected patients presenting with potential risk of liver cancers and HBV transmission through haemodialysis and blood transfusions.
Project description:Background:Combined HIV infection can accelerate HBV-induced liver disease. It is known that HBV Pre-S deletion is closely related to HBV-associated terminal liver disease in HBV mono-infection. Currently, data on HBV Pre-S quasispecies feature deletion in HIV/HBV co-infected patients are lacking. Methods:The characteristics and blood samples of patients with chronic HBV infection were collected and classified into an HIV/HBV co-infection group and an HBV mono-infection group according to HIV antibody results before treatment. HBV DNA in serum was extracted. The HBV Pre-S region was amplified by nested-PCR and was further T-A cloned. Using the standard sequence of the matched genotype HBV as a reference, BioEdit 7.0 software was employed for sequence alignment. Results:HBV Pre-S regions were successfully amplified from 147 patients, including 71 cases in the HIV/HBV co-infected group and 76 cases in the HBV mono-infected group. The proportion of the HIV/HBV co-infected group with Pre-S quasispecies deletion was lower than that of the HBV mono-infected group. By analyzing the frequency of Pre-S quasispecies in the two groups, the frequency of Pre-S quasispecies in HIV/HBV co-infected patients with Pre-S quasispecies was higher than HBV mono-infected patients. The frequency of Pre-S quasispecies deletion of the S protein promoter region in the HIV/HBV co-infected group was significantly higher than that in the HBV mono-infected group. Conclusion:High-frequency Pre-S quasispecies deletions are predominant in HIV/HBV co-infected patients; however, low-frequency Pre-S deletions are predominant in HBV mono-infected patients, providing a reference for the pathogenesis of the accelerated progression of liver disease in HIV/HBV co-infection.