Phase I trial of bortezomib and dacarbazine in melanoma and soft tissue sarcoma.
ABSTRACT: Preclinical studies in human melanoma cell lines and murine xenograft tumor models suggest that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib enhances the activity of the cytotoxic agent dacarbazine. We performed a phase I trial of bortezomib and dacarbazine in melanoma, soft tissue sarcoma, and amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation tumors. The primary objective was to identify recommended phase II doses for the combination.Bortezomib and dacarbazine were both administered intravenously once weekly. All patients received prophylactic antiemetics. Dose escalation proceeded using a standard 3 + 3 design. Response was assessed according to NCI RECIST v1.0.Twenty eight patients were enrolled to six dose levels. Bortezomib 1.6 mg/m(2) and dacarbazine 580 mg/m(2) are the recommended phase II weekly doses. The combination was generally well tolerated. Among 15 patients with melanoma there was one durable complete response in a patient with an exon-11 cKIT mutation, and one partial response. Among 12 patients with soft tissue sarcoma there was one partial response.Bortezomib 1.6 mg/m(2) and dacarbazine 580 mg/m(2) administered intravenously once weekly is well tolerated and has at least minimal activity in melanoma and soft tissue sarcoma.
Project description:The possibility that cytokine administration could enhance the antitumor effects of proteasome inhibition was explored. It was found that coadministration of bortezomib and interferon-? (IFN-?) induced synergistic apoptosis in human melanoma cell lines and prolonged survival in a murine model of melanoma. A phase I study was conducted to determine the tolerability and the maximum tolerated dose of bortezomib when administered in combination with IFN-?-2b to patients with metastatic melanoma. Patients were treated on a 5-week cycle. In week 1 of cycle 1, patients received 5 million U/m(2) IFN-? subcutaneously thrice weekly. During weeks 2-4 of cycle 1, bortezomib was administered intravenously weekly along with IFN-? thrice weekly. There was a treatment break during week 5. After cycle 1, bortezomib was administered in combination with IFN-?. Bortezomib was administered in escalating doses (1.0, 1.3, or 1.6 mg/m) to cohorts of 3 patients. Sixteen patients were treated (8 women, 8 men; median age 59 y). Common grade 3 toxicities included fatigue (5), vomiting (3), and diarrhea (3). Grade 4 toxicities included fatigue (3) and lymphopenia (1). The maximum tolerated dose for bortezomib was 1.3 mg/m(2). One patient had a partial response, and 7 had stable disease. Progression-free survival was 2.5 months, and overall survival was 10.3 months. Bortezomib administration did not augment the ability of IFN-? to induce phosphorylation of STAT1 in circulating immune cells; however, it did lead to reduced plasma levels of proangiogenic cytokines. The combination of bortezomib and IFN-? can be safely administered to melanoma patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sorafenib and dacarbazine have low single-agent response rates in metastatic sarcomas. As angiogenesis inhibitors can enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy, we investigated the combination of sorafenib and dacarbazine in select sarcoma subtypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Patients with leiomyosarcoma (LMS), synovial sarcoma (SS), or malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) with up to two previous lines of therapy and adequate hepatic, renal, and marrow function received 3-week cycles of sorafenib at 400 mg oral twice daily and dacarbazine 1,000 mg/m2 intravenously (later reduced to 850 mg/m2). Patients were evaluated for response every 6 weeks. The primary objective was to determine the disease control rate (DCR) of sorafenib plus dacarbazine in the selected sarcoma subtypes. RESULTS:The study included 37 patients (19 female); median age was 55 years (range 26-87); and histologies included LMS (22), SS (11), and MPNST (4). The DCR was 46% (17/37). Median progression-free survival was 13.4 weeks. The RECIST response rate was 14% (5/37). The Choi response rate was 51% (19/37). Median overall survival was 13.2 months. Of the first 25 patients, 15 (60%) required dacarbazine dose reductions for hematologic toxicity, with one episode of grade 5 neutropenic fever. After reducing the starting dose of dacarbazine to 850 mg/m2, only 3 of the final 12 (25%) patients required dose reduction. CONCLUSION:This phase II study met its primary endpoint with an 18-week DCR of 46%. The clinical activity of dacarbazine plus sorafenib in patients with these diagnoses is modest. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Metastatic soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of relatively rare malignancies. Most patients are treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy or targeted therapy in the form of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Response rates are relatively low, and there is a need for better therapies. This clinical trial demonstrates that combining a cytotoxic therapy (dacarbazine) with an antiangiogenic small molecule (sorafenib) is feasible and associated with favorable disease-control rates; however, it also increases the potential for significant toxicity.
Project description:Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials of the BRAF kinase inhibitor vemurafenib (PLX4032) have shown response rates of more than 50% in patients with metastatic melanoma with the BRAF V600E mutation.We conducted a phase 3 randomized clinical trial comparing vemurafenib with dacarbazine in 675 patients with previously untreated, metastatic melanoma with the BRAF V600E mutation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either vemurafenib (960 mg orally twice daily) or dacarbazine (1000 mg per square meter of body-surface area intravenously every 3 weeks). Coprimary end points were rates of overall and progression-free survival. Secondary end points included the response rate, response duration, and safety. A final analysis was planned after 196 deaths and an interim analysis after 98 deaths.At 6 months, overall survival was 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78 to 89) in the vemurafenib group and 64% (95% CI, 56 to 73) in the dacarbazine group. In the interim analysis for overall survival and final analysis for progression-free survival, vemurafenib was associated with a relative reduction of 63% in the risk of death and of 74% in the risk of either death or disease progression, as compared with dacarbazine (P<0.001 for both comparisons). After review of the interim analysis by an independent data and safety monitoring board, crossover from dacarbazine to vemurafenib was recommended. Response rates were 48% for vemurafenib and 5% for dacarbazine. Common adverse events associated with vemurafenib were arthralgia, rash, fatigue, alopecia, keratoacanthoma or squamous-cell carcinoma, photosensitivity, nausea, and diarrhea; 38% of patients required dose modification because of toxic effects.Vemurafenib produced improved rates of overall and progression-free survival in patients with previously untreated melanoma with the BRAF V600E mutation. (Funded by Hoffmann-La Roche; BRIM-3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01006980.).
Project description:We describe a randomized three-arm phase I study of ipilimumab administered alone (I group) or in combination with dacarbazine (D group) or carboplatin/paclitaxel (CP group) in patients with previously untreated advanced melanoma. The primary objective was to estimate the effect of ipilimumab on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of dacarbazine and paclitaxel and, conversely, to estimate the effects of dacarbazine and carboplatin/paclitaxel on the PK of ipilimumab. Secondary objectives included evaluation of the safety and anti-tumor activity of ipilimumab when administered alone or with either dacarbazine or carboplatin/paclitaxel, and assessment of pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of ipilimumab on the immune system when administered alone or with either of the two chemotherapies. Ipilimumab was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg intravenously (IV) every 3 weeks for up to 4 doses. Patients in the D group received dacarbazine 850 mg/m(2) IV every 3 weeks. Patients in the CP group received paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) IV and carboplatin [AUC=6] IV every 3 weeks. Starting at week 24, patients without dose-limiting toxicities were eligible to receive maintenance ipilimumab at 10 mg/kg every 12 weeks until disease progressed or toxicity required discontinuation. Of 59 randomized patients, 18 (30.5%) discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Response rates by modified WHO criteria were 29.4% (I group), 27.8% (D group), and 11.1% (CP group). No major PK or PD interactions were observed when ipilimumab was administered with dacarbazine or with the carboplatin/paclitaxel combination. This study demonstrated that ipilimumab can be combined safely with two chemotherapy regimens commonly used in advanced melanoma.
Project description:The combined inhibition of insulin-growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has shown activity in preclinical models of pediatric sarcoma and in adult sarcoma patients. We evaluated the activity of the anti-IGF-1R antibody cixutumumab with the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus in patients with relapsed or refractory Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and other soft tissue sarcoma, using the recommended dosages from a pediatric phase I trial.Cixutumumab 6?mg/kg and temsirolimus 8?mg/m(2) were administered intravenously once weekly in 4-week cycles to patients <30 years. Temsirolimus was escalated to 10?mg/m(2) for subsequent cycles in patients who did not experience unacceptable first-cycle toxicity. A two-stage design was used to identify a response rate <10 or >35% for each tumor-specific cohort. Tumor tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry for potential biomarkers of response.Forty-three evaluable patients received a median of 2 cycles (range 1-7). No objective responses were observed, and 16% of patients were progression-free at 12 weeks. Dose-limiting toxicity was observed in 15 (16%) of 92 cycles. The most common toxicities were mucositis, electrolyte disturbances, and myelosuppression. The majority of patients receiving a second cycle were not eligible for temsirolimus escalation due to first-cycle toxicity. The lack of objective responses precluded correlation with tissue biomarkers.Despite encouraging preclinical data, the combination of cixutumumab and temsirolimus did not result in objective responses in this phase II trial of pediatric and young adults with recurrent or refractory sarcoma.
Project description:This study is a rare example of effective doses of both targeted agents being both administered and tolerated.This combination should not be used in melanoma.Sorafenib and bortezomib affect BCL family member expression. We previously demonstrated that bortezomib augmented sorafenib-mediated cytotoxicity in melanoma cell lines in vitro. We aimed to combine sorafenib 400 mg b.i.d. with increasing doses of weekly bortezomib.Patients with metastatic melanoma were enrolled in dose-escalation cohorts to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of sorafenib (twice daily) in combination with bortezomib (weekly for 3 of 4 weeks). The MTD was defined as the highest dose level at which less than 33% of patients exhibited a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). Efficacy, as measured by 6-month progression-free survival and response rate per RECIST, was documented.Eleven patients were enrolled at three dose levels. DLTs (fatigue and rash) were seen in two of three patients at the highest dose level. Five patients were enrolled for sorafenib 400 mg b.i.d. and bortezomib 1.0 mg/m(2) weekly for 3 of every 4 weeks; none had DLTs, and this dose level was defined as the MTD. Of 10 evaluable patients, no responses were seen. Two of 11 patients (18%) remained progression free for longer than 6 months.The combination of sorafenib and bortezomib is safe but not active in patients with melanoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This subgroup analysis of a phase 3 study compares outcomes for eribulin versus dacarbazine in patients with leiomyosarcoma. METHODS:Patients ≥18 years old with advanced liposarcoma or leiomyosarcoma, ECOG PS ≤2, and ≥2 prior treatment regimens were randomly assigned (1:1) to eribulin mesylate (1.4 mg/m² intravenously on day 1 and day 8) or dacarbazine (either 850, 1000, or 1200 mg/m² intravenously) every 21 days until disease progression. The primary end point was OS; additional end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR). RESULTS:309 Patients with leiomyosarcoma were included (eribulin, n = 157; dacarbazine, n = 152). Median age was 57 years; 42% of patients had uterine disease and 57% had nonuterine disease. Median OS was 12.7 versus 13.0 months for eribulin versus dacarbazine, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.93 [95% CI 0.71-1.20]; P = 0.57). Median PFS (2.2 vs 2.6 months, HR = 1.07 [95% CI 0.84-1.38]; P = 0.58) and ORR (5% vs 7%) were similar between eribulin- and dacarbazine-treated patients. Grade ≥3 TEAEs occurred in 69% of patients receiving eribulin and 59% of patients receiving dacarbazine. CONCLUSIONS:Efficacy of eribulin in patients with leiomyosarcoma was comparable to that of dacarbazine. Both agents had manageable safety profiles.
Project description:Sorafenib (a VEGFR and multi-targeted kinase inhibitor) and Bortezomib (a proteasome inhibitor) have clinical antineoplastic activities as single agents, and combine synergistically in preclinical models.This Phase I study was undertaken to define the toxicity and the maximum tolerated doses (MTD) of the combination in patients with advanced solid tumors. Patients with cytologic or histologic proof of unresectable solid tumors were treated with escalating doses of sorafenib (twice daily) and bortezomib (days 1, 4, 8 and 11 intravenously) with 21-day cycles.Fourteen patients (7 males, median age 65, range 24-74), with renal (3), lung (3), pancreas (2), and breast, adrenal gland, melanoma, spindle cell tumor, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma (1 each) were enrolled. All patients are off treatment, 10 due to disease progression. DLT was seen in two patients (one grade 3 abdominal pain and grade 4 lipase elevation; one with grade 3 vomiting) at sorafenib 200 mg twice daily and bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2), establishing the MTD. No grade 4 hematologic or grade 5 toxicities were seen. One patient with renal cell cancer had a partial response and 5 patients attained stable disease.The combination of sorafenib and bortezomib was tolerated well. The recommended phase 2 doses are sorafenib 200 mg twice daily continuously with bortezomib 1 mg/m(2) on days 1, 4, 8, 11 (21 day cycles). The combination shows preliminary signs of efficacy, supporting phase 2 studies.
Project description:METHOD: The safety of oral sorafenib up to a maximum protocol-specified dose combined with dacarbazine in patients with metastatic, histologically confirmed melanoma was investigated in a phase I dose-escalation study and the activity of the combination was explored in an open-label phase II study. RESULTS: In the phase I study, three patients were treated with sorafenib 200 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) plus 1000 mg m(-2) dacarbazine on day 1 of a 21-day cycle and 15 patients had the sorafenib dose escalated to 400 mg b.i.d. without reaching the maximum tolerated dose of the combination. In the phase II study (n=83), the overall response rate was 12% (95% CI: 6, 21): one complete and nine partial, with median response duration of 46.7 weeks. Stable disease was the best response in 37%; median duration was 13.3 weeks. Median overall survival (OS) was 37.0 weeks (95% CI: 33.9, 46.0). CONCLUSION: Oral sorafenib combined with dacarbazine had acceptable toxicity and some antineoplastic activity against metastatic melanoma.
Project description:Src inhibitors sensitise melanoma cells to chemotherapy in preclinical models. The combination of dasatinib and dacarbazine was tested in a phase I trial in melanoma.Patients had ECOG performance status 0-2 and normal organ function. Dacarbazine was administered on day 1 and dasatinib on day 2 through 19 of each 21-day cycle. Both were escalated from 50 mg b.i.d. of dasatinib and 800 mg m(-2) of dacarbazine. Available pre-treatment biopsies were sequenced for BRAF, NRAS, and C-Kit mutations.Dose-limiting toxicity was reached at dasatinib 70 mg b.i.d./dacarbazine 1000 mg m(-2), and was predominantly haematological. In 29 patients receiving dasatinib 70 mg b.i.d., the objective response rate (ORR) was 13.8%, the clinical benefit rate (ORR+SD) was 72.4%, the 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) was 20.7%, and the 12-month overall survival (OS) was 34.5%. Two out of three patients who were wild type for BRAF, NRAS, and c-KIT mutations had confirmed partial responses, and one had a minor response.The recommended phase II dose is dasatinib 70 mg b.i.d with dacarbazine 800 mg m(-2). PFS and OS data for dasatinib at 70 mg b.i.d. with dacarbazine compared favourably with historical controls. Preliminary data support evaluating tumour mutation status further as a biomarker of response.