The structure of bovine F1-ATPase complexed with the peptide antibiotic efrapeptin.
ABSTRACT: In the previously determined structure of mitochondrial F1-ATPase determined with crystals grown in the presence of adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) and ADP, the three catalytic beta-subunits have different conformations and nucleotide occupancies. AMP-PNP and ADP are bound to subunits beta TP and beta DP, respectively, and the third beta-subunit (beta E) has no bound nucleotide. The efrapeptins are a closely related family of modified linear peptides containing 15 amino acids that inhibit both ATP synthesis and hydrolysis by binding to the F1 catalytic domain of F1F0-ATP synthase. In crystals of F1-ATPase grown in the presence of both nucleotides and inhibitor, efrapeptin is bound to a unique site in the central cavity of the enzyme. Its binding is associated with small structural changes in side chains of F1-ATPase around the binding pocket. Efrapeptin makes hydrophobic contacts with the alpha-helical structure in the gamma-subunit, which traverses the cavity, and with subunit beta E and the two adjacent alpha-subunits. Two intermolecular hydrogen bonds could also form. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds probably help to stabilize efrapeptin's two domains (residues 1-6 and 9-15, respectively), which are connected by a flexible region (beta Ala-7 and Gly-8). Efrapeptin appears to inhibit F1-ATPase by blocking the conversion of subunit beta E to a nucleotide binding conformation, as would be required by an enzyme mechanism involving cyclic interconversion of catalytic sites.
Project description:Properties of purified F1-ATPase from Escherichia coli mutant strain AN484 (uncD412) have been studied in an attempt to understand why the amino acid substitution in the beta-subunit of this enzyme causes a tenfold reduction from normal MgATP hydrolysis rate. In most properties that were studied, uncD412 F1-ATPase resembled normal E. coli F1-ATPase. Both enzymes were found to contain a total of six adenine-nucleotide-binding sites, of which three were found to be non-exchangeable and three were exchangeable (catalytic) sites. Binding of the non-hydrolysable substrate analogue adenosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppA) to the three exchangeable sites showed apparent negative co-operativity. The binding affinities for p[NH]ppA, and also ADP, at the exchangeable sites were similar in the two enzymes. Both enzymes were inhibited by efrapeptin, aurovertin and p[NH]ppA, and were inactivated by dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide, 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan and p-fluorosulphonyl-benzoyl-5'-adenosine. Km values for CaATP and MgATP were similar in the two enzymes. uncD412 F1-ATPase was abnormally unstable at high pH, and dissociated into subunits readily with consequent loss of activity. The reason for the impairment of catalysis in uncD412 F1-ATPase cannot be stated with certainty from these studies. However we discuss the possibility that the mutation interrupts subunit interaction, thereby causing a partial impairment in the site-site co-operativity which is required for 'promotion' of catalysis in this enzyme.
Project description:The structure of bovine F1-ATPase inhibited with ADP and beryllium fluoride at 2.0 angstroms resolution contains two ADP.BeF3- complexes mimicking ATP, bound in the catalytic sites of the beta(TP) and beta(DP) subunits. Except for a 1 angstrom shift in the guanidinium of alphaArg373, the conformations of catalytic side chains are very similar in both sites. However, the ordered water molecule that carries out nucleophilic attack on the gamma-phosphate of ATP during hydrolysis is 2.6 angstroms from the beryllium in the beta(DP) subunit and 3.8 angstroms away in the beta(TP) subunit, strongly indicating that the beta(DP) subunit is the catalytically active conformation. In the structure of F1-ATPase with five bound ADP molecules (three in alpha-subunits, one each in the beta(TP) and beta(DP) subunits), which has also been determined, the conformation of alphaArg373 suggests that it senses the presence (or absence) of the gamma-phosphate of ATP. Two catalytic schemes are discussed concerning the various structures of bovine F1-ATPase.
Project description:The structures of F-ATPases have predominantly been determined from mitochondrial enzymes, and those of the enzymes in eubacteria have been less studied. Paracoccus denitrificans is a member of the α-proteobacteria and is related to the extinct protomitochondrion that became engulfed by the ancestor of eukaryotic cells. The P. denitrificans F-ATPase is an example of a eubacterial F-ATPase that can carry out ATP synthesis only, whereas many others can catalyse both the synthesis and the hydrolysis of ATP. Inhibition of the ATP hydrolytic activity of the P. denitrificans F-ATPase involves the ζ inhibitor protein, an α-helical protein that binds to the catalytic F1 domain of the enzyme. This domain is a complex of three α-subunits and three β-subunits, and one copy of each of the γ-, δ- and ℇ-subunits. Attempts to crystallize the F1-ζ inhibitor complex yielded crystals of a subcomplex of the catalytic domain containing the α- and β-subunits only. Its structure was determined to 2.3 Å resolution and consists of a heterodimer of one α-subunit and one β-subunit. It has no bound nucleotides, and it corresponds to the `open' or `empty' catalytic interface found in other F-ATPases. The main significance of this structure is that it aids in the determination of the structure of the intact membrane-bound F-ATPase, which has been crystallized.
Project description:ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation in Escherichia coli occurs in catalytic sites on the beta-subunits of F1-ATPase. Random mutagenesis of the beta-subunit combined with phenotypic screening is potentially important for studies of the catalytic mechanism. However, when applied to haploid strains, this approach is hampered by a preponderance of mutants in which assembly of F1-ATPase in vivo is defective, precluding enzyme purification. Here we mutagenized plasmids carrying the uncD (beta-subunit) gene with hydroxylamine or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and isolated, by phenotypic screening and complementation tests, six plasmids carrying mutant uncD alleles. When the mutant plasmids were used to transform a suitable uncD- strain, assembly of F1-ATPase in vivo occurred in each case. Moreover, in one case (beta Gly-223----Asp) F1-ATPase assembly proceeded although it had previously been reported that this mutation, when present on the chromosome of a haploid strain, prevented assembly of the enzyme in vivo. Therefore, this work demonstrates an improved approach for random mutagenesis of the F1-beta-subunit. Six new mutant uncD alleles were identified: beta Cys-137----Tyr; beta Gly-142----Asp; beta Gly-146----Ser; beta Gly-207----Asp; beta-Gly-223----Asp; and a double mutant beta Pro-403----Ser,Gly-415----Asp which we could not separate. The first five of these lie within or very close to the predicted catalytic nucleotide-binding domain of the beta-subunit. The double mutant lies outside this domain; we speculate that the region around residues beta 403-415 is part of an alpha-beta intersubunit contact surface. Membrane ATPase and ATP-driven proton pumping activities were impaired by all six mutations. Purified F1-ATPase was obtained from each mutant and shown to have impaired specific ATPase activity.
Project description:The shape and subunit arrangement of the Escherichia coli F1 ATPase (ECF1 ATPase) was investigated by synchrotron radiation x-ray solution scattering. The radius of gyration and the maximum dimension of the enzyme complex are 4.61 +/- 0.03 nm and 15.5 +/- 0.05 nm, respectively. The shape of the complex was determined ab initio from the scattering data at a resolution of 3 nm, which allowed unequivocal identification of the volume occupied by the alpha3beta3 subassembly and further positioning of the atomic models of the smaller subunits. The delta subunit was positioned near the bottom of the alpha3beta3 hexamer in a location consistent with a beta-delta disulfide formation in the mutant ECF1 ATPase, betaY331W:betaY381C:epsilonS108C, when MgADP is bound to the enzyme. The position and orientation of the epsilon subunit were found by interactively fitting the solution scattering data to maintain connection of the two-helix hairpin with the alpha3beta3 complex and binding of the beta-sandwich domain to the gamma subunit. Nucleotide-dependent changes of the delta subunit were investigated by stopped-flow fluorescence technique at 12 degrees C using N-[4-[7-(dimethylamino)-4-methyl]coumarin-3-yl]maleimide (CM) as a label. Fluorescence quenching monitored after addition of MgATP was rapid [k = 6.6 s-1] and then remained constant. Binding of MgADP and the noncleavable nucleotide analog AMP . PNP caused an initial fluorescent quenching followed by a slower decay back to the original level. This suggests that the delta subunit undergoes conformational changes and/or rearrangements in the ECF1 ATPase during ATP hydrolysis.
Project description:To facilitate study of the role of the beta-subunit in the membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPase of Escherichia coli, we identified mutant strains from which an F1-ATPase containing abnormal beta-subunits can be purified. Seventeen strains of E. coli, characterized by genetic complementation tests as carrying mutations in the uncD gene (which codes for the beta-subunit), were studied. The majority of these strains (11) were judged to be not useful, as their membranes lacked ATPase activity, and were either proton-permeable as prepared or remained proton-impermeable after washing with buffer of low ionic strength. A further two strains were of a type not hitherto reported, in that their membranes had ATPase activity, were proton-impermeable as prepared, and were not rendered proton-permeable by washing in buffer of low ionic strength. Presumably in these two strains F1-ATPase is not released in soluble form by this procedure. F1-ATPase of normal molecular size were purified from strains AN1340 (uncD478), AN937 (uncD430), AN938 (uncD431) and AN1543 (uncD484). F1-ATPase from strain AN1340 (uncD478) had 15% of normal specific Mg-dependent ATPase activity and 22% of normal ATP-synthesis activity. The F1-ATPase preparations from strains AN937, AN938 and AN1543 had respectively 1.7%, 1.8% and 0.2% of normal specific Mg-dependent ATPase activity, and each of these preparations had very low ATP-synthesis activity. The yield of F1-ATPase from the four strains described was almost twice that obtained from a normal haploid strain. The kinetics of Ca-dependent ATPase activity were unusual in each of the four F1-ATPase preparations. It is likely that these four mutant uncD F1-ATPase preparations will prove valuable for further experimental study of the F1-ATPase catalytic mechanism.
Project description:The exposure to trypsinolysis of subunits of F1F0-ATPase and of its F0 domain have been compared in everted inner membrane vesicles (submitochondrial particles) made from bovine mitochondria. Treatment of submitochondrial particles with guanidine hydrochloride removed the subunits of F1-ATPase and the oligomycin-sensitivity conferral protein (OSCP), and exposed sites that were occluded in the intact F1F0-ATPase complex. These sites were identified by purifying the subunits from the isolated F0 and F1F0-ATPase complexes before and after proteolysis of the vesicles, and by characterizing them by N-terminal sequencing and electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. In the stripped vesicles, subunit F6 was completely digested away by either trypsin or chymotrypsin. Trypsin also cleaved subunit b, first at the bond arginine-166-glutamine-167, and then at the consecutive linkages, lysine-120-arginine-121 and arginine-121-histidine-122. Chymotrypsin-sensitive sites were observed after the adjacent methionines 164 and 165. Trypsin also removed amino acids 1-3 of subunit d, and minor cleavage sites were observed in subunit d between amino acids 24 and 25, in subunit g between amino acids 5 and 6, and after amino acid 40 in subunit e. The other subunits remained protected from proteolysis. In membrane-bound F1F0-ATPase, the N-terminus of subunit d was also accessible to trypsin, and subunit e was more susceptible to proteolysis than in F0. Otherwise the F0 subunits and the OSCP were protected. Subunits alpha and beta were cleaved by trypsin at the same sites in their N-terminal regions as in purified F1-ATPase. The trypsinized F0 was incapable of binding F1-ATPase in the presence of the OSCP. These experiments and in vitro re-assembly experiments described elsewehere, that were guided by the results of the proteolysis experiments, have helped to establish a central role for subunit b in the formation of the stalk connecting the F1 and F0 domains of the F1F0-ATPase complex.
Project description:During mitochondrial ATP synthesis, F1-ATPase-the portion of the ATP synthase that contains the catalytic and regulatory nucleotide binding sites-undergoes a series of concerted conformational changes that couple proton translocation to the synthesis of the high levels of ATP required for cellular function. In the structure of the rat liver F1-ATPase, determined to 2.8-A resolution in the presence of physiological concentrations of nucleotides, all three beta subunits contain bound nucleotide and adopt similar conformations. This structure provides the missing configuration of F1 necessary to define all intermediates in the reaction pathway. Incorporation of this structure suggests a mechanism of ATP synthesis/hydrolysis in which configurations of the enzyme with three bound nucleotides play an essential role.
Project description:High-resolution crystallographic studies of a number of inhibited forms of bovine F1-ATPase have identified four independent types of inhibitory site: the catalytic site, the aurovertin B-binding site, the efrapeptin-binding site and the site to which the natural inhibitor protein IF1 binds. Hitherto, the binding sites for other inhibitors, such as polyphenolic phytochemicals, non-peptidyl lipophilic cations and amphiphilic peptides, have remained undefined. By employing multiple inhibition analysis, we have identified the binding sites for these compounds. Several of them bind to the known inhibitory sites. The amphiphilic peptides melittin and synthetic analogues of the mitochondrial import pre-sequence of yeast cytochrome oxidase subunit IV appear to mimic the natural inhibitor protein, and the polyphenolic phytochemical inhibitors resveratrol and piceatannol compete for the aurovertin B-binding site (or sites). The non-peptidyl lipophilic cation rhodamine 6G acts at a separate unidentified site, indicating that there are at least five inhibitory sites in the F1-ATPase. Each of the above inhibitors has significantly different activity against the bacterial Bacillus PS3 alpha3beta3gamma subcomplex compared with that observed with bovine F1-ATPase. IF1 does not inhibit the bacterial enzyme, even in the absence of the epsilon-subunit. An understanding of these inhibitors may enable rational development of therapeutic agents to act as novel antibiotics against bacterial ATP synthases or for the treatment of several disorders linked to the regulation of the ATP synthase, including ischaemia-reperfusion injury and some cancers.
Project description:Five uncoupled mutant strains of Escherichia coli carrying mutations in the uncD gene have been studied. In each of these mutant strains the beta-subunit of the F1 portion of the membrane-bound adenosine triphosphatase is abnormal. In one of the mutant strains (carrying the uncD12 allele) in F1-ATPase aggregate was formed which was purified and found to have low ATPase activity. ATPase activity was absent in the other four strains and the abnormal beta-subunits were tightly bound to the membranes. However, membranes from these strains exhibited various proton permeabilities as indicated by NADH-dependent atebrin-fluorescence quenching and bound different amounts of normal F1-ATPase. The amounts of reconstitution of energy-linked reactions after the addition of normal F1-ATPase also varied depending on the mutant allele. It is apparent that considerable phenotypic variations can occur between strains carrying mutations in the same unc gene.